Urology CaseAningalan, ArvinAntonio, AbigaileAramburo, Jan
Case 1A 45 y/o ,male company executive presented in the emergency room with a 2 day episode of right flank pain and gross total hematuria.
History of Present IllnessHe experienced dull aching pain radiating to the right testicle but was able to work, sleep, and generally experience no disability.
2-3 weeks PTA
Physical ExaminationVital signs were stable. HEENT, heart and lungs were normal. Abdominal findings:(+) right CVA tenderness absence of peritoneal irritationbowel sounds were normal no palpable masses Genitalia and rectal examinations were essentially normal.
Laboratory findingsUrinalysis:20-30 RBC/hpf WBC 2-4hpf = normal
Salient featuresMale45 years oldright flank pain gross total hematuriadull aching pain for the past 2-3 weeks radiating to the right testicle(+) right CVA tenderness
Clinical ImpressionUpper urinary tract obstruction (kidney,ureter) It is characterised by pain in the flank, often radiating to either the abdomen or the groin.(+) CVA tendernessTotal hematuriahas its source at or above the level of the bladder (eg,stone, tumor, tuberculosis, nephritis).
How would you explain the testicular pain?
Differentiate the two types of pain which originates from the GU system.
Differentiate renal from radicular pain.
How would you explain the vomiting?
Two types of pain have their origins in the genitourinary organs: Local Referred- more common
Local pain is felt in or near the involved organ. the pain from a diseased kidney (T1012, L1) is felt in the costovertebral angle and in the flank in the region of and below the 12th rib.
Referred pain originates in a diseased organ but is felt at some distance from that organ. The ureteral colic caused by a stone in the upper ureter may be associated with severe pain in the ipsilateral testicle
Ureteral pain is typically stimulated by acute obstruction (passage of a stone or a blood clot)
The physician may be able to judge the position of a ureteral stone by the history of pain and the site of referral.
If the stone is lodged in the upper ureter, the pain radiates to the testicle, since the nerve supply of this organ is similar to that of the kidney and upper ureter (T1112).
Ureteral painWith stones in the midportion of the ureter on the right side, the pain is referred to McBurneys point and may therefore simulate appendicitis
On the left side, it may resemble diverticulitis or other diseases of the descending or sigmoid colon (T12, L1).
Typical renal pain is felt as a dull and constant ache in the costovertebral angle just lateral to the sacrospinalis muscle and just below the 12th rib. This pain often spreads along the subcostal area toward the umbilicus or lower abdominal quadrant. It may be expected in the renal diseases that cause sudden distention of the renal capsule. Acute pyelonephritis (with its sudden edema) acute ureteral obstruction (with its sudden renal back pressure) both cause this typical pain.
Kidney PainIt should be pointed out, however, that many urologic renal diseases are painless because their progression is so slow that sudden capsular distention does not occur. Such diseases include :cancerchronic pyelonephritisstaghorn calculustuberculosispolycystic kidneyhydronephrosis due to chronic ureteral obstruction.
Radicular painRadicular Pain, or Radiculitis, is pain "radiated" along the dermatome (sensory distribution) of a nerve due to inflammation or other irritation of the nerve root at its connection to the spinal column.
Radicular pain is commonly felt in the costovertebral and subcostal areas.
It may also spread along the course of the ureter and is the most common cause of so-called kidney pain.
Radicular painEvery patient who complains of flank pain should be examined for evidence of nerve root irritation. Frequent causes are:poor posture (scoliosis, kyphosis)arthritic changes in the costovertebral or costotransverse jointsimpingement of a rib spur on a subcostal nervehypertrophy of costovertebral ligaments pressing on a nerve intervertebral disk disease
Radicular painPain experienced during the preeruptive phase of herpes zoster involving any of the segments between T11 and L2 may simulate pain of renal origin.
Radiculitis usually causes hyperesthesia of the area of skin served by the irritated peripheral nerve.
This hypersensitivity can be elicited by means of the pinwheel or grasping and pinching both skin and fat of the abdomen and flanks.
Pressure exerted by the thumb over the costovertebral joints reveals local tenderness at the point of emergence of the involved nerve.
Urinary obstructionNormally, urine is formed in the kidneys, flows through the ureters to the bladder, and is released through the urethra.
A urinary obstruction blocks the normal flow of urine, causing it to back up toward the kidneys.
Urine flowing the wrong way in the urinary tract can cause infections and kidney damage.
Obstruction can occur anywhere in the urinary tract:
Urinary obstructionBecause of their damaging effect on renal function, obstruction and stasis of urinary flow are among the most important urologic disorders.
Either leads eventually to hydronephrosis, a peculiar type of atrophy of the kidney that may terminate in renal insufficiency or, if unilateral, complete destruction of the organ.
Furthermore, obstruction leads to infection, which causes additional damage to the organs involved.
A. CONGENITALThe common sites of congenital narrowing:externalmeatus in boys (meatal stenosis)external urinary meatus in girlsthe distal urethra (stenosis)posterior urethral valvesectopic uretersureteroceles ureterovesical and ureteropelvic junctions. Another congenital cause of urinary stasis is damage to sacral roots 24 as seen in spina bifida and myelomeningocele.
EtiologyB. ACQUIREDAcquired obstructions are numerous and may be primary in the urinary tract or secondary to retroperitoneal lesions that invade or compress the urinary passages. Among the common causes are: (1) urethral stricture secondary to infection or injury (2) benign prostatic hyperplasia or cancer of the prostate(3) vesical tumor involving the bladder neck or ureteral orifices(4) local extension of cancer of the prostate or cervix into the base of the bladder(5) compression of the ureters at the pelvic brim by metastatic nodes from cancer of the prostate or cervix(6) ureteral stone(7) retroperitoneal fibrosis or malignant tumor(8) pregnancy
Obstruction may be classified according to:cause (congenital or acquired) duration (acute or chronic)degree (partial or complete)level (upper or lower urinary tract)
Clinical manifestationsUpper tract (ureter and kidney)Symptoms of obstruction of the upper tract are typified by the symptoms of ureteral stricture or ureteral /renal stone.
The principal complaints are :pain in the flank radiating along the course of the uretergross total hematuria (from stone)gastrointestinal symptomschillsfever burning on urinationcloudy urine with onset of infectionNausea, vomiting, loss of weight and strength, and pallor are due to uremia secondary to bilateral hydronephrosis.
Clinical manifestationsLower urinary tract obstruction (bladder, urethra) can manifest as voiding dysfunction such as urgencyfrequencynocturiaincontinencedecreased stream hesitancypostvoid dribblingsensation of inadequate emptyingSuprapubic pain or a palpable bladder indicates urinary retention.Infection may be present, and patients may experience dysuria.Hematuria may be present with or without infection.
Clinical manifestaionsSigns of obstruction in the upper urinary tract: An enlarged kidney may be discovered by palpation or percussion. Renal tenderness may be elicited if infection is present. A large pelvic mass (tumor, pregnancy) can displace and compress the ureters.Children with advanced urinary tract obstruction may develop ascites. Rupture of the renal fornices allows leakage of urine retroperitoneally;with rupture of the bladder, urine may pass into the peritoneal cavity through a tear in the peritoneum.
PathogenesisThe hallmark of urinary tract obstruction is dilation of the collecting system of the kidney which is known as hydronephrosis. This swelling typically causes pain in the flank or upper abdomen on the affected side.
PathogenesisProgressive back pressure on the ureters and kidneys can occur and can cause hydroureter and hydronephrosis. The ureter can then become dilated and tortuous, with the inability to adequately propel urine forward.
Chronic urinary tract obstruction can lead to permanent damage to the urinary tract.
Infravesical obstruction can lead to changes in the bladder, such astrabeculation, cellule formationdiverticulabladder wall thickeningdetrusor muscle decompensation
PathogenesisHydronephrosis can cause permanent nephron damage and renal failure. Urinary stasis along any portion of the urinary tract increases the risk of stone formation and infection, and, ultimately, upper urinary tract injury. Urinary tract obstruction can cause long-lasting effects to the physiology of the kidney, including its ability to concentrate urine.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSISAbigaile Antonio
Renal infarctionKidney stonespyelonephritisRenal abscessRenal vein thrombosisNature of painsevere, colicky, or constantsudden onset; colicky, often radiating to
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