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USE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS (RAP) IN AIRFIELDS HMA PAVEMENTS

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USE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS (RAP) IN AIRFIELDS HMA PAVEMENTS

AIRFIELD ASPHALT PAVEMENT TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM Auburn University, 277 Technology Parkway Auburn, AL, 36830

AAPTP Project No. 05-06 July, 2008FINAL REPORT

UNIVERSITY OF NEVADA RENOPavements/Materials Program Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering College of Engineering University of Nevada Reno, Nevada 89557

ACKNOWLEDGMENT OF SPONSORSHIP This report has been prepared for Auburn University under the Airport Asphalt Pavement Technology Program (AAPTP). Funding is provided by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) under Cooperative Agreement Number 04-G-038. Dr. David Brill is the Technical Manager of the FAA Airport Technology R & D Branch and the Technical Manager of the Cooperative Agreement. Mr. Monte Symons served as the Project Director for this project. The AAPTP and the FAA thank the Project Technical Panel that willingly gave of their expertise and time for the development of this report. They were responsible for the oversight and the technical direction. The names of those individuals on the Project Technical Panel follow. 1. Oscar Rodriguez 2. Robert Flynn 3. Jon Epps 4. Steve Seeds DISCLAIMER The contents of this report reflect the views of the authors, who are responsible for the facts and the accuracy of the data presented within. The contents do not necessarily reflect the official views and polices of the Federal Aviation Administration. The report does not constitute a standard, specification or regulation.

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USE OF RECLAIMED ASPHALT PAVEMENTS (RAP) IN AIRFIELDS HMA PAVEMENTSFinal Report

for

AAPTP Project 05-06Submitted to Airfield Asphalt Pavement Technology Program By Elie Y. Hajj, Ph.D. Research Assistant Professor (Co-Principal Investigator) University of Nevada Reno 1664 N. Virginia Street M.S. 257 Reno, Nevada 89557 Peter E. Sebaaly, P.E., Ph.D. Professor (Principal Investigator) University of Nevada Reno 1664 N. Virginia Street M.S. 257 Reno, Nevada 89557 Pratheepan Kandiah Graduate Research Assistant University of Nevada Reno 1664 N. Virginia Street M.S. 257 Reno, Nevada 89557

July 2008 iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................................... iv LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ vii AKNOWLEDGEMENT .............................................................................................................. viii ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................... ix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ......................................................................................................... 2 RESEARCH OBJECTIVE ......................................................................................................... 3 CHAPTER 2 BENEFITS OF RAP USAGE .................................................................................. 5 BENEFITS OF RECYCLING .................................................................................................... 5 Economic Aspects.................................................................................................................. 6 Potential Energy Savings...................................................................................................... 9 CHAPTER 3 LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................... 10 REVIEW OF RESEARCH EFFORTS ..................................................................................... 10 Minnesota Department of Transportation ....................................................................... 10 National Cooperative Highway Research Program......................................................... 12 North Central Superpave Center ...................................................................................... 17 Saskatchewan Highways and Transportation, Canada .................................................. 19 Western Regional Superpave Center (WRSC) ................................................................ 19 Other Research Studies ...................................................................................................... 24 Summary of the Reviewed Research Studies ................................................................... 28 PERFORMANCE OF RAP CONTAINING MIXES IN HIGHWAY PAVEMENTS ............ 32 Performance of Pavements Containing RAP in California ............................................ 32 Performance of Pavements Containing RAP in Louisiana ............................................. 34 Performance of Pavements Containing RAP in Georgia ................................................ 35 Performance of RAP Containing SPS-9A Sections in Connecticut................................ 37 Summary of Performance of Pavements containing RAP in Highway ......................... 38 PERFORMANCE OF RAP CONTAINING MIXES IN AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS ............. 40 US Army Research and Development Center .................................................................. 40 Massachusetts Port Authority ........................................................................................... 42 National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Japan ........................... 44 Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory, Port Hueneme, California .................................. 45 Summary of Pavements Containing RAP Performance in Airfield Pavements ........... 46 VARIABILITY OF RAP MATERIALS .................................................................................. 48 RAP Processing and Storing (5) ........................................................................................ 66 RAP Stockpiling (5) ............................................................................................................ 67 RAP Fractionating (5) ........................................................................................................ 67 HIGHWAY AGENCIES SPECIFICATIONS ......................................................................... 68 CHAPTER 4 REVIEW OF IN-SERVICE AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS ....................................... 72 BOSTON-LOGAN INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS.......... 72 GRIFFIN-SPALDING COUNTY AIRPORT, GRIFFIN, GEORGIA..................................... 75 PEKIN MUNICIPAL AIRPORT, PEKIN, ILLINOIS ............................................................. 78 iv

OCEANA NAVAL AIR STATION, VIRGINIA BEACH, VIRGINIA .................................. 81 CHAPTER 5 OVERALL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS ............... 84 OVERALL SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ................................................................................ 84 Findings of the Literature Review ..................................................................................... 84 Findings of the Field Performance Review ....................................................................... 85 IMPACT OF RAP ON PERFORMANCE LIFE OF HMA PAVEMENTS ............................ 86 GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR AIRFIELD PAVEMENTS ................................. 92 CHAPTER 6 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LABORATORY TESTS ...................................... 94 RAP MATERIALS EVALUATION ........................................................................................ 94 Determining RAP Binder Properties ................................................................................ 94 Determining RAP Aggregate Properties .......................................................................... 95 MIX DESIGN ......................................................................................................................... 102 Mechanical Property Testing ........................................................................................... 104 QUALITY CONTROL/ASSURANCE .................................................................................. 108 RAP Material .................................................................................................................... 109 Final Mix ............................................................................................................................ 110 CHAPTER 7 EVALUATION OF FAA SPECIFICATION ON RAP ....................................... 111 REVIEW OF FAA P-401-3.3/P-403-3.3 SPECIFICATIONS DATED 9/29/2007 ............... 111 PROPOSED REVISION FOR THE FAA P-401-3.3/P-403-3.3 SPECIFICATIONS ........... 120 CHAPTER 8 OUTLINE FOR THE TRAINING PRESENTATION ........................................ 124 REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................... 125

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LIST OF FIGURES Title Figure 1 Mean deviations from job mix formula target gradation for sieve No. 10.... Figure 2 Mean deviations from target job mix formula asphalt content ..... Figure 3 Standard deviations for air voids as a function of RAP content in the mix... Figure 4 Standard deviations for stability values as a function of RAP content in the mix Figure 5 Sample daily penetrations.. Figure 6 Sample daily viscosities. Figure 7 Runway 4R-22L at Logan International Airport (taken on 09-18-07).. Figure 8 Transverse cracking along Runway 14-32 at Griffin-Spalding Airport Figure 9 Transverse cracking along Taxiway A at Griffin-Spalding Airport.. Figure 10 a) Transverse cracking along runway 9-27 at Pekin Municipal Airport.. Figure 10

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