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Vegetarian nutrition Atkins diet Vegetarian nutrition · Vegetarian nutrition Atkins diet Raw diet...

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  • Vegetarian


    and other types

    of alternative


    Vegetarian nutrition

    Atkins diet

    Raw diet

    Blood type diet

    macrobiotic diet

    Mayo clinic diet

    Beverly Hills diet

    Cabbage soup diet

    Paleo diet

    Apple cider diet

  • Vegetarian nutrition

    Atkins diet

    Raw diet

    Blood type diet

    macrobiotic diet

    Mayo clinic diet

    Beverly Hills diet

    Cabbage soup diet

    Paleo diet

    Apple cider diet

    • followers of alternative diets do not fully agree

    with the conventional healthy diet

    recommendations and do not consider them

    optimal for health.

    • they suggest alternative forms of nutrition (often

    reffered to as „diets“), that they consider to be

    healthier (paleo diet, raw diet, etc.)

    I switched to


    nutrition. Isn´t

    it great,


  • Healthy diet

    - supplies all nutrients in adequate quantity of nutrients

    required for

    - growth and maintenance of the body

    - body functions

    - eating a variety of foods – the best way how

    to get all nutrients in sufficient amounts

    - any limitation in diet increases the risk of

    insufficient intake of nutrients

  • Vegetarian diet

    • vegetarians exclude foods of animal origin from their diet:

    • their diet is based on foods of plant origin

    - about 5% of population in developed countries (Europe, USA) are vegetarians

    Do not eat - avoid

    Meat and meat products

    Inner organs (liver)

    Milk and milk products


    Fish - some



    Bee honey

    Do eat





    Algae - seaweed

    Plant oils


  • Types of vegetarian


    Do not consume Consume

    semi-vegetarians red meat white meat, fish, eggs, milk and

    dairy products, cheese

    lacto – ovo –


    all types of meat milk, dairy products, cheese, eggs

    lacto – vegetarians meat and eggs milk, dairy products, cheese

    ovo – vegetarians meat, milk, dairy products,



    vegans all foods of animal origin only foods of plant origin

    vitarians all foods of animal origin,

    cooked food

    only plant foods, raw

    - about 5% of population in developed countries (Europe, USA) are vegetarians

  • health concerns - disease prevention

    - statistical data show that vegetarians are at lower risk of

    - obesity - elevated blood cholesterol level

    - diabetes - hypertension

    - cancer - cardiovascular diseases

    they consider animal foods to be harmful, e.g.

    - milk causes adverse reaction to the body

    - meat contains harmful substances, etc.

    this is not supported by scientific evidence and serious studies

    moral and ethical beliefs

    - to protect the animals and environment

    religious reasons

    - e.g. the seventh day adventists church, buddhists

    Why do the people become vegetarians?

    Good reason

  • An example of a vegetarian menu:


    mid-morning snack: coca-cola 0,5l

    lunch: instant soup, chips with mayonnaise, tea + 4 spoons of sugar, chocolate100 g

    afternoon snack: chips + 7 UP 0,5l

    dinner: pasta, catchup, Sprite 0,5 l, crackers+ croissant with chocolate

    • is it healthy ? - no breakfast- no fruit and vegetables- white cereals- a lot of sweets- a lot of salt- a lot of soft and sweetened drinks

    • diet without animal foods is not necessarily healthy

    • in vegetarian nutrition is also necessary to keep the rules of „healthy

    vegetarian nutrition“ and to eat foods with high nutritional value

  • ...what are the positives of animal foods?

    • animal foods – are rich in some nutrients

    • meat – iron, proteins, vitamins (B12)

    • milk – calcium, protein, vitamins (B12, D)

    • eggs – proteins, vitamins, minerals

    • plant foods – do not contain some nutrients at all (vitamin D, B12)

    • absorption of minerals from plant foods is lower than from animal foods

    – organic acids present in plant food bind minerals tightly and decrease absorption

    – higer intake of dietary fibre – faster motility – lower absorption

    • plant protein - lower nutritional value

    - lower content of essential amino acids

    • not all plant foods are rich in nutrients and healthy (croissants, soft drinks)

    !!! avoidance of animal foods – increases the risk of nutrient deficiency

  • If somebody has decided for a vegetarian diet, he/she should

    step A/ to exclude/reduce animal foods

    step B/ include adequate amounts of plant sources of the nutrients that

    may be deficient

    - a healthy vegetarian diet must be well planned – the vegetarian needs to

    know which foods provide the potentially deficient nutrients

    Nutrients that may be deficient in a (imbalanced) vegetarian diet:

    ⚫ iron ⚫ calcium

    ⚫ protein ⚫ zinc

    ⚫ vitamin D ⚫ vitamin B12

    + vegetarian diets are usually lower in energy

    e.g. calcium – soy, vegetables, legumes

    iron – soy+products, vegetables, legumes

    protein – soy+products, cereals, legumes

    vitamin B12 – supplements, fortified foods, etc.

  • Imbalanced vegetarian diet can cause of health disorders:

    • anaemia – deficiency of Fe, vitamin B12 a protein

    • children – growth retardation

    • babies of vegetarian mothers – serious neurological disorders

    • menstrual cycle disorders, reproduction problems

    • infectious diseases (e.g. infectious hepatitis) – pathogenic microorganisms may be present in raw foods (e.g. sprouts)

    • risk of osteoporosis

  • My .... child..... wants to be a vegetarian.


    - Teenager

    - Granpa/grandma

    - Pregnant woman

    - Lactating mother

    - Cancer patient


    Is it a good idea?

  • The risk of inadequate nutrient intake is higher in

    – strict vegetarians, who do not consume any animal food

    (vegans, vitarians)

    – in population groups with higher nutritional requirements

    • children and adolescents

    • pregnant and lactating females

    • the elderly

    • patients

    – for these people vegetarian diet (especially strict forms)

    is not recommended

    – if they decide for vegetarian type of diet, their diet must

    be planned very carefully, so that it contains sufficient

    quantity of all nutrients and meets the dietary


  • A well balanced vegetarian diet

    • has a better nutrient composition and thus also positive health effects

    • les nutrition-related diseases has been observed in vegetarians :

    - obesity - high blood cholesterol levels

    - diabetes - hypertension

    - cancer - cardiovascular diseases

    The same positive health effect can be achieved also by a well-balanced non – vegetarian nutrition.

    Vegetarians have also generally healthier lifestyle

    - regular physical activity

    - lower consumption of alcoholic beverages

    - less smokers

    Keep in mind: Vegetarian diet has also its rules

  • Other types of alternative nutrition – „fad diets“

    - fad diets = dietary plans, that are mostly in conflict with current scientific


    - become popular because often promise dramatic, unrealistic effects (weight

    loss, good health)

    - promoted by celebrities or promoters

    Some examples of fad diets:

    The blood type diet

    • recommends to select/avoid foods according to blood type

    – type 0: protein diet (specifically a lot of meat!!!), limited carbohydrates

    – type A: vegetarian diet

    The Atkins diet („diet of Hollywood celebs“)

    • high fat+ protein / low carbohydrate diet

  • Food separation diet

    Followers of this

    diet state:

    „the human body

    cannot digest

    proteins and

    carbs at the

    same time“ (???)

    - Can this be

    true? Think of

    principles of


  • The paleo diet

  • Risks and benefits of fad diets

    • their common feature: mostly low /very low calorie diets

    • limit the food variety

    • risk of nutrient deficiencies and health disorders (anaemia, high blood

    cholesterol, osteoporosis, death etc.)

    • inefficient from a long term prospective of weight loss – yoyo effect

    • not supported by scientific evidence !!!

    • some of the recommendations may be sound

    • to follow a diet plan may be a benefit for people

    with bad dietary habits

    • may be effective from a short term prospective

    Most physicians/ experts disagree with the fad diets

    and generally do not recommend them

  • Ketogenic diet

  • Raw food diet

    • based upon uncooked, unprocessed plant-derived foods

    • staples of the diet include

    organic fruits and vegetables sprouts

    unprocessed grains, nuts,

    beans seaweed.

    • in some cases mildly heated foods are permitted

  • Main Message:

    • Raw-food diet results in weight loss on average.

    • About 30% of the women under 45 years of age had partial to

    complete amenorrhea, corresponding to the amount of raw-food

    they ate

    Raw diet

  • • Purposeful (nonrandom) sample of 17 U.S. raw foods leaders

    • On average, subjects met or exceeded recommended intakes of

    vegetables, fruits, and fats and did not meet recommendations for

    calcium-rich foods, protein-rich foods, and grains.

    • Those counseling raw foodists must understand the rationale and

    practices that characterize this eating style.

    • Further research is needed .........

  • Questions

    • Which nutrients may be contained in insufficient amounts in the vegan

    (vegetarian) diets.

    • Health risks of imbalanced vegetarian diets.

    • Risks and benefits of vegetarian/vegan diet

    • Nutritional benefits of animal foods

    • „Important“ vegetarian foods – sources of „at risk nutrients“

    • Why the vegetarian diet is not always the best option for children, the

    elederly, pregnant and lactating women?

    • What are the fad diets ?

    • What are the fad diets ?

    • General risks of fad diets

    • Pros and Cons of ketogenic diet

    • Pros and cons of raw food

    • Pros and cons of paleo diets

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