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Vegetarian, Vegan and Raw Food Diets will begin at 3:00 p

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Vegetarian, Vegan and Raw Food Diets will begin at 3:00 p.m. EDT
Our Team
Seminole County FCS & Food Systems Extension Agent
[email protected]
Wendy Dahl, Ph.D., R.D. Associate Professor and Extension Specialist
UF/IFAS Food Science & Human Nutrition Depart. [email protected]
Julie Garden-Robinson, Ph.D., R.D., L.R.D., F.A.N.D., Professor and Food and Nutrition Specialist,
Department of Health, Nutrition and Exercise Sciences, North Dakota State University
[email protected]
Regional Specialized FCS Agent [email protected]
Carlin Rafie, Ph.D., R.D. Assistant Professor/Extension Specialist Depart. of Human Nutrition, Foods, and Exercise, Virginia Polytechnic Institute
and State University [email protected]
Session Four: Diet Dilemmas: Fads, Facts and Fundamentals Webinar Series
Overview
chronic disease prevention • Nutrition basics and FAQs • Reliable resources
TYPES AND PREVALENCE
Type of diet Nature of diet (all devoid of flesh foods)
Vegetarian May or may not include egg or dairy products.
Lacto-ovo- vegetarian
Lacto- vegetarian
Ovo- vegetarian
Includes eggs and egg products but not dairy products.
Table adapted from the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Cont’d …
Type of diet Nature of diet (all devoid of flesh foods)
Vegan Excludes eggs and dairy products, may exclude honey.
Raw vegan Uncooked vegan foods (varies from 75% to 100%)
Table adapted from the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Type of diet Nature of diet (includes flesh foods)
Pescatarian Mainly vegetarian; occasionally adds seafood.
Flexitarian Mainly vegetarian; occasionally adds meat, poultry, fish.
How many?
• The Vegetarian Resource Group (VRG) has commissioned national polling since 1994.
• 2019 data reflects responses from over 2,000 U.S. adults.
• Available: www.vrg.org/nutshell/faq.htm#poll
Which of the following, if any, best describes your eating behavior?
– I never eat meat, fish, seafood, poultry, dairy, or eggs.
– I never eat meat, fish, seafood, or poultry.
VRG 2019 poll questions, cont’d
Vegetarian and vegan meals when eating out or getting takeout.
Demographics, region, income, education, household characteristics, and marital status.
VRG 2019 poll results • 4% Vegetarian (including vegan) (never eats
meat, fish, seafood, or poultry) • 2% Vegan (never eats meat, fish, poultry, dairy,
or eggs) • 20% Sometimes or always eats vegan meals
when eating out • 46% Sometimes or always eats vegetarian
meals when eating out
Demographics, region, income, education, household characteristics, and marital status. • No overwhelming differences.
VRG 2019 poll results, cont’d Responses to “sometimes or always eats vegetarian meals when eating out” differed by: • Region. Higher in the West (52%) and North East (50%)
compared to Midwest (40%) and South (44%).
• Age. Higher among younger adults (18-34, 60%) compared to adults 35+ (40%).
Raw vegan diets
• Can be full time or enjoyed occasionally.
Raw vegan diets
• Foods are not heated higher than 108ºF (48ºC).
• Usually based on fruits, vegetables, nuts, sprouted grains and legumes. – May include cold-pressed oils, dried fruits, pickled or
fermented vegetables.
Raw vegan diets Studies have not been large or consistent enough to provide evidence for recommendations.
– Health claims: weight loss, heart health, diabetes prevention
– Nutrition adequacy concerns: can be very low in protein, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12, iron, and zinc
Raw vegan diet resources
Becoming Raw: The Essential Guide to Raw Vegan Diets, Davis & Melina, 2010
www.vegan.com/raw-food https://veganhealth.org/raw-food-vegan-diets
“ … appropriately planned vegetarian, including vegan, diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. These diets are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, adolescence, older adulthood, and for athletes. Plant-based diets are more environmentally sustainable than diets rich in animal products because they use fewer natural resources and are associated with much less environmental damage.”
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Major prospective studies
Adventist Health Studies began in 2001. • Long-term prospective studies exploring the links
between lifestyle, diet, and disease among Seventh-day Adventists.
• More than 96,000 church members from the U.S. and Canada.
• By Loma Linda University School of Public Health.
EPIC-Oxford began in 1993. • The Oxford component of the European Prospective
Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
• A cohort of 65,000 men and women living in the UK, many of whom are vegetarian.
• The main objective is to examine how diet influences the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases.
• The largest study of vegetarians in the world with linkage to comprehensive health records.
• Vegetarian diets improve risk factors: – Abdominal obesity, blood pressure, serum lipid
profile, blood glucose
Type 2 diabetes
Adventist Healthy Study-2, +60,000 participants between 2002-2006. Tonstad et al, Diabetes Care 2009
• Greatest protection from the vegan diet.
What’s the secret?
Eat more … • Fruits, vegetables,
• Phytochemicals
• Fiber
(nitrates/nitrites)
Healthy Vegetarian Pattern
– Vegan if dairy choices are fortified soy beverages (soymilk) or other plant-based dairy substitutes.
• Adapted from the Healthy U.S. Style Pattern. – Soy products (tofu and other processed soy
products), legumes, nuts and seeds, and whole grains were increased.
– Meat, poultry, and seafood were eliminated.
Protein
• Legumes and soy products ensures adequate protein intake, as well as the other key nutrients from the “Protein” group.
• Meet or exceed recommendations when caloric intakes are adequate.
• Variety is key; the terms “complete” and incomplete” are misleading.
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Vary your protein routine
– Rice and beans
– Hummus (chickpea spread)
• Beans, peas, or soy products as a main dish or part of a meal.
Nuts: ½ ounce, ¼ cup
Walnuts, almonds
Sunflower, pumpkin
½ cup
Tofu: ¼ cup
inch
• Alpha-linolinic acid (ALA) intakes similar to non- vegetarian diets.
• Lower or absent intakes of long-chain n-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
EPA and DHA importance • Development and maintenance of the brain,
retina, and cell membranes. • Favorable pregnancy outcomes. • Cardiovascular disease risk reduction. • Vegetarian and vegan:
– Children show no impairment.
– Adults show reduced risk for CVD.
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
EPA and DHA supplementation
• EPA and DHA originate in algae. • Eaten by fish and concentrated in
flesh. • Vegan supplements extract EPA
and DHA directly from algae. • Caution and consult before
supplementing!
• Vegetarians may benefit from slightly higher intakes.
• Concentrated sources of ALA: – Seeds: flax, chia, canola, hemp
– Walnuts From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Iron • Vegetarian diets contain similar
amounts or more iron than omnivorous diets.
• Iron stores are lower; yet, iron deficiency anemia rates are similar.
• Elevated serum ferritin levels are associated with risk of metabolic syndrome.
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Iron absorption variables • Nonheme iron absorption depends
on physiological need. – Can be ten times greater in iron-
deficient individuals.
• Vitamin C, citric acid, and other organic acids enhance absorption.
• Phytates and polyphenolics inhibit absorption.
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Recommendation: 2.4 micrograms (mcg) daily
Function: • Neurological • Red blood cells
Sources: • Animal products: meat, dairy, eggs • Fortified cereals, soymilk, multivitamins
Vitamin B12: take a supplement!
Vitamin B12: take a supplement!
• Not reliably found in plant foods.
• Active form is NOT present in fermented foods, nori, spirulina, or unfortified nutritional yeast.
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Vitamin B12: take a supplement!
– Methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin forms are not more effective.
– Hydroxycobalamin form is used for injections.
• High-dose B12 supplements are generally safe.
– Absorbed through passive diffusion (rate of 1%).
• 1,000 micrograms 2 times a week, cyanocobalamin form
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
• Baccala, bonito flakes, fish sauce, Caesar dressing, Worcestershire sauce
• Fish meal or fish oil added to bread
• Gelatin (marshmallows, yogurts, candies, desserts, beer/wine clarification, medications and dietary supplements)
• Collagen, retinol
Reference list from PETA www.peta.org/living/food/animal-ingredients-list/
animal products? • Shared knife, cutting board, or serving spoon?
RELIABLE RESOURCES
Figure from the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Diet Dilemmas: Final Thoughts
Vegetarian, Vegan and Raw Food Dietswill begin at 3:00 p.m. EDT
Our Team
Assorted Information
VRG 2019 poll results
Raw vegan diets
Raw vegan diets
Raw vegan diets
Health Promotion& Chronic Disease Prevention
From the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Major prospective studies
Major prospective studies
Overweight and obesity
Ingredient pitfalls
Ingredient pitfalls
Preparation pitfalls
Reliable Resources
Figure from the Position of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics: Vegetarian Diets, 2016
Diet Dilemmas: Final Thoughts

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