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Villa of Diomedes Villa of the Papyri Villa of the Mysteries.

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Villa of Diomedes Villa of the Papyri Villa of the Mysteries
Transcript
  • Slide 1
  • Villa of Diomedes Villa of the Papyri Villa of the Mysteries
  • Slide 2
  • The Villa of Doimedes The Villa Of Diomedes was discovered in 1771-1774. It is located in suburban Pompeii, on the Via dei Sepolcri. Historians have inferred that the villa was owned by Arrius Diomedes after finding his tomb opposite the villa. The villa was of vast proportions and was spread over different levels. It had two entrances and the largest garden in the Pompeian region. It is one of the wealthiest villas in Pompeii.
  • Slide 3
  • The Villa of the Papyri Discovered by Karl Webber in 1750 1765, the villa is situated on the coastal outskirts of Herculaneum, without other buildings to obstruct the view of the sea. It was owned by the senator, Lucius Calpurnius Piso Caesoninus the father in law of Julius Caesar. The villa was built approximately 1 st Century BC. The villa was named after the library of the house, of which contained 1785 carbonized papyrus scrolls. American oil tycoon Paul Getty had a reconstruction of this Villa built in Malibu, California. It opened in 1974.
  • Slide 4
  • The Villa of Mysteries The Villa of Mysteries (Villa dei Misteri) lies approximately 800m north-west of Pompeii. It is a suburban villa, located outside the city walls. It is one of the most well preserved buildings in Pompeii, with very little damage to important artefacts. The villa contained grand rooms from dining and entertaining. The owner remains a mystery, however historians believe it may own to a L. Istacidius Zosimus, a freedman of the powerful Istacidii family.
  • Slide 5
  • Ground Plan Of The Villa Of Diomedes This ground plan of the Villa Of Diomedes clearly depicts the spacious layout of the abode. The sheer size of the complex is indicative of the high wealth and social class of the owner. The impluvium and peristyle can be clearly seen the presence and size of these features also indicating wealth The back entrance of the villa (seen top centre) is located opposite to the tomb of Arrius Diomedes : it is from the presence of this tomb that ownership was established.
  • Slide 6
  • Baths Complex In Villa Of Diomedes The presence of a private baths complex in the Villa of Diomedes provides another indicator of the owners vast wealth, as this was very rare. The bath complex was complete rivalling with the public bath complexes of Pompeii fitted with an apodyterium, a tepidarium, and a caldarium. The caldarium, like those of the public baths, had a bath basin and a semicircular niche for the labrum.
  • Slide 7
  • Longitudinal Section Of Tablinum This longitudinal section of the tablinum illustrates the presence of a second level. Although the discovery of upper storeys were rare in Pompeii due to the eruption of Vesuvius, the Villa of Diomedes followed the natural terrain and, therefore, the upper storeys need not be constructed of wood, but built of stone.
  • Slide 8
  • Bodies Found In Villa Of Diomedes A total of 20 bodies were found in the Villa of Diomedes, proof of the devastating effect of the eruption. 2 bodies were found, entangled, at the back entrance, on one of which was found a gold ring, silver key and a wad of 1356 sesterces. 18 other bodies, all of women and children, were found in the basements, suffocated by the fumes. It is believed these were the slaves of the household. The presence of the slaves in this upper class villa indicated the presence of social classes in Pompeii
  • Slide 9
  • Papyrus Recovered From the Villa of Papyri This fragment of a papyrus scroll of the villa is evidence of the existence of the papyrus library located inside the villa. The written text illustrates the recording of facts/events etc. The presence of the library cements the owner as a man of the upper class.
  • Slide 10
  • Ground Plan of the Villa Of Papyri This ground plan clearly illustrates the capacity of the Villa. The site contained a house (240m x 140m) and a large peristyle (100m x 26m) of which on centred on a pool (65m x 8m) grand dimensions even by today's standards. The sheer size of this dwelling is indicative of the wealth of the owner as well as his social standing. The ground plan also displays a kitchen and library both of which arent uncommon to the houses of the wealthy.
  • Slide 11
  • Amadeo Maiuri ...N O BUILDINGS TO OBSTRUCT ITS VIEW, AND BELOW IT WAS A LARGE GARDEN DESCENDING INTO THE LITTLE PORT THAT MUST HAVE SERVED THE OBLIGATORY LANDING PLACE FROM THE SEA ; ABOVE IT RAN THE PUBLIC COAST ROAD THAT LED TO THE CITY S DECUMAN, AND IT MUST HAVE COMMANDED ALL THE FREEDOM AND BREADTH OF VISTA THAT ITS FORTUNATE POSITION COULD OFFER... Maiuri effectively describes the grandeur of the villa, its ideal position and its features. The mention of a small port relates to wealth and the public coast road indicates the easy accessibility.
  • Slide 12
  • Reconstruction of the Villa: the Getty Villa: California In 1974, the Getty Villa was opened to the public. It is a proportional reconstruction of the Villa of Papyri. The reconstruction illustrates the original grandeur of the villa, as well as allowing one to view the villa as it would have been before the eruption in 79AD. The reconstruction is supported by the original in Pompeii as well as numerous written and archaeological sources.
  • Slide 13
  • Wine Press in the Villa Of Mysteries This restored wine press was found in the Villa of Mysteries together with numerous other pieces of wine-making apparatus. The fact that this was not uncommon in houses of the wealthy is also supported by other wealthy houses and villas. The wine press also indicates the resources of the region and available technology.
  • Slide 14
  • Ground Plan of the Villa of Mysteries This ground plan clearly displays the peristyle, wine press & cellar, kitchen, and the atrium. The wine rooms indicate wealth, as do the kitchens. The size of the villa also indicates wealth and social class of the owner - therefore suggesting that even though freedmen were once slaves, it is possible for them to accumulate wealth.
  • Slide 15
  • Photograph of Fresco in Villa Of Mysteries This fresco illustrates the religious rituals, practise and beliefs of the Cult of Dionysus a mystery cult of the region. It also illustrates an established religion as well as the Greek influences of the town.
  • Slide 16
  • Kitchens of the Villa Of Mysteries These kitchens found in the villa of mysteries is a great indicator of wealth as it was very rare to find a private kitchen. They also provide insight in to the preparation of food

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