2. Air Barrier Paper
The objective of the Air Barrier Paper is to prevent air infiltration and act as a water barrier.
This is preventing water from rotting the wood sheathing on the wall.
3. Attic Ventilation
Soffit Vent An opening under the eave of a roof, used to allow air flow into the attic
4. Attic Ventilation (cont.)
Ridge Vent A long open assembly that allows air to circulate in and out of a roof at the ridge
5. Attic Ventilation (cont.)
Gable Vent An opening in a gable, used for exhausting excess heat and humidity from an attic.
6. Attic Ventilation (cont.)
Roof Turbine a ventilation system that acts as a fan, circulating air through the attic
7. Back Hoe
An excavator that consist of a bucket attached to a hinged arm on the back of the machine.
This is used to move earth,
Rubble, or other material;
Especially where more precise digging is required
This bucket was 18 wide
8. Batter Boards
Temporary wooden frames built outside the corners of an excavation, to outline the excavation to take place.
9. Brick Arches
10. Brick Arches (cont.)
Arch with Keystone
Centering - Temporary formwork used for laying brick arches
11. Brick Bonds
Stretcher bond bricks are laid in overlapping rows of stretchers.
Flemish Bond the courses alternate between headers and stretchers
12. Brick Bonds (cont)
13. Brick Bonds (cont.)
14. Brick Bonds (cont.)
15. Brick Sizes
Queen Size Brick
3 x 2 x 8
3 x 2 x 7
A large, powerful tractor with a large vertical blade used for moving amounts of earth as well as tree stumps, rocks, etc.
18. Cladding (cont.)
Wood Shingles are cut with a saw rather than split like wood shakes are
19. Code Requirements
IBC requires there to be amaximum sill height of 44 inches, and a minimum net opening size of 5.7 sq feet, or 5.0 sq feet if the opening is not more than 44 inches above or below the finish grade.Not less than 20 wide and 24 high.
Sill Height 20 inches
Width 41 inches
Height 59 inches
Net opening size 7.8 ft
Yes this window meets the egress codes
20. Code Requirements (cont.)
The IBC requires that there is a minimum 10 inch tread depth and maximum 7-3/4 inch, minimum 4 inch riser.
Tread Depth 12 inches
Riser 7 inches
Yes these meet the IBC codes for stairs
21. Concrete Joints
Control Joint A pre-weakened line carved in the concrete, so that when the concrete expands and compresses, it will not crack.
Sidewalk Isolated from CMU wall
Cracked control joint
Isolation Joint A joint between a concrete slab and another stationary item, to allow for the concretes expansion and contraction.
22. Concrete Masonry Units (CMU)
A block of hardened concrete designed to be laid in the same manner as brick or stone
Can be made with or without holes.
Typically 8 high and 16 long.
23. Decorative CMU
6 Panel Door
25. Doors (cont.)
Transom A small window directly above a door
Sidelight - A narrow window directly on the side of a door
26. Electrical Components
Power pole with transformer box -Used to bring power to a building or house and to reduce current to a usable voltage for service head
Service Head Used to bring power into a building
27. Electrical Components (cont.)
Meter - Used by the power company to obtain a readout of the amount of electricity used
28. Electrical Components (cont.)
Duplex Receptacle - Used to plug electrical appliances into current source
Service Panel - Contains breakers that regulate safe current flow and distribute power to receptacles and duplexes in the house
29. Framing Elements
1) Anchor Bolt
2) Sill Plate
30. Framing Elements (cont.)
3) Floor Joist
31. Framing Elements (cont.)
32. Framing Elements (cont.)
5) Sole Plate
7) Top Plate
8) Ceiling Joist
33. Framing Elements (cont.)
10) Roof Decking
34. Framing Elements (cont.)
35. Front End Loader
Excavators that are used mainly for uploading materials into trucks, laying pipes, clearing rubble, and digging
It cannot dig very low like a backhoe can, and cannot push with as much force as a bulldozer.
36. Gypsum Board
Gypsum Board is a wall finish, in a board form made out of 2 sheets of paper filled with gypsum.It is then nailed to studs in a building to give the wall a finished look.
37. Heat Pump
Compressor/Evaporator Moves hot or cold air from outside and moves it inside
Air Handling Unit - Internal unit that further moves and continues to heat or cool the air
Advantages: It can both heat and cool interior spaces very effectively
Disadvantages: Relatively noisy compared to other heating/cooling systems.Also, it is rather difficult to zone.
Air Handling Unit
Insulation lowers the heating and cooling costs of the house by limiting heat transfer through the walls and ceiling.
Loose Fill Insulation
39. Insulation (cont.)
Rigid Board Insulation
A beam that carries the load of a wall across a window or door opening.
Steel Angle Lintel
Used on stairs
Type S Mortar
Used on School
Type S Mortar
42. Oriented Strand Board
This is a non-veneered panel product made from strands of wood arranged in specific orientations.
The strands are compressed and glued into 3-5 layers.
1.5 Inch Pipe
3 Inch Pipe
44. Plumbing (cont)
Bathtub without gypsum Installed
45. Plumbing (cont.)
When air travels down a pipe, it displaces air.Air vents allow this air somewhere to relocate to
This is a picture of a Drop-In Sink
Plywood is a type of engineered board Made from thin sheets of wood or veneers glued together.
Veneer thin slices of wood usually thinner than 3mm
48. Radiant Barrier
Radiant Barrier- reective barriers inhibit heat transfer by thermal radiation. Thermal energy may also be transferred via conduction or convection, however, radiant barriers do not necessarily protect against heat transfer via conduction or convection.
inch #4 rebar
The grooves are formed to create friction between the bar and the concrete it is installed in.This increases the overall strength of the concrete
50. Steep Roof Drainage
A gutter is a narrow channel, or trough, forming the component of a roof system which collects and diverts rainwater shed by the roof.
51. Steep Roof Drainage (cont.)
A downspout takes the water from the gutter to the ground, running it away from the building
52. Steep Roof Drainage (cont.)
A splashblock is a concrete structure that directs water from a downspout away from the building
53. Steep Roof Materials
Underlayment provides a second layer of protection for the roofing.It is installed first and helps with the shingles to keep moisture out.It is necessary for roofing manufacturers warranties.
54. Steep Roof Materials (cont.)
Clay Tile Roof
55. Steep Roof Materials (cont.)
A shingle is a roof covering that consists of individual overlapping elements that are normally flat rectangular shapes that are laid in rows without the side edges overlapping.A single layer is used to ensure a water-resistant result.Shingles are laid from the bottom to the top.
Metal Panel Roof usually made from galvanized steel or aluminum
56. Steep Roof Materials (cont.)
Wood Shake Roof
57. Steep Roof Shapes
58. Steep Roof Shapes (cont.)
59. Steep Roof Terms
Ridge the point at the top of the roof where the sides meet
Valley part of an area that protrudes from a portion of the structure that directs rain downwards
60. Steep Roof Terms (cont.)
Eave the trim of the sloping roof
Rake the front portion of a gabled roof
61. Steep Roof Terms (cont.)
Fascia the area above the soffit that faces the viewer
Soffit area underneath the fascia
62. Steep Roof Terms
A building without a fascia lacks the area above the soffit that faces a viewer
64. Stone (cont)
65. Vapor Retarder
A vapor retarder can be specially treated paper, thin plastic sheeting, or low permeance paint that prevents condensation of water vapor inside wall or ceiling materials.The trapped moisture has the potential of damaging the wallboard and paint as well as total structural deterioration.
The vapor retarder is most commonly put in southeastern climates warm in winter side.
67. Weep Hole
A hole in the mortar joints of a brick wall that allows any water that gets behind the masonry a place to escape between the bricks or stone, keeping moisture from staying behind the masonry
68. Welded Wire Fabric
This is a 6x6 grid pattern
This is a single hung window because it has a bottom sash that can slide up and down, but a top sash that remains stationary
This is a casement window because it has a sash that rotates outward on its side from the exterior casing
70. Windows (cont.)
This is a double hung window because it has two sashes that move parallel to each other