THE COURT (18 x 9 m.)
The playing area includes the
playing court and the free zone.
The attack line is 3 meters from
the center line (net line). It is
important as it is the divider
between the front row and back
row players and restrictions are
applied to the back row players
during game play.
The net height varies depending
on gender and age groups of
players involved in the game. (2,43
m. for men and 2,24 m. for
In 1895, William G. Morgan, an instructor at the Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) in
Holyoke, Massachusetts (USA) created a new game named Mintonette, to be played indoors, taking
characteristics of tennis, handball, badminton, and basketball (invented only 4 years before by James
Naismith in a nearby town).
He was aiming to develop a game which would
involve less physical contact and less intense than
basketball because he needed a competitive but
recreational game that could be used to enjoy and
do physical activity at the same time with the
minimum risk of injuries, more adaptable for his
sport classes for adults.
Morgan used a net from tennis and raised it just
above the average man's head. He used an inflated
basketball bladder for a ball in the game. Rules at
the time stated that the ball had to be hit from
one player to another and catching, holding or
throwing was not permitted.
In its initial format, Mintonette required 9 players to play and they were placed in three rows of
three. Team rotation was necessary in order to ensure that all players took turns playing the various
positions on the court.
In 1896 at a YMCA Conference, the name of this game was changed to "Volleyball", the net height
was raised to make play more challenging and the teams were reduced to six players. Volleyball was
first played as an official Olympic sport in the 1964 Olympics in Tokyo.
Volleyball is a sport played by two teams on a playing court divided by a net.
To score more points than the other team by:
- Hitting and sending the ball over the net and within the boundaries of the opponent's
court, using a maximum of 3 hits so that the opponents cannot return the ball.
- Preventing the ball from hitting the ground in their court.
The playing court is a rectangle measuring 18 x 9 m., surrounded by a free zone which is a
minimum of 3 m. wide on all sides and which the players may enter and play within after
the service of the ball. A ball touching the line is considered to be in.
The ball shall be spherical, made of a flexible leather or synthetic leather case with a
bladder inside, made of rubber or a similar material. Its colour may be a uniform light
colour or a combination of colours. Its circumference is 65-67 cm and its weight is 260-
There is no time limit for a volleyball match. There are two-minute breaks between each
set. After each set, the teams change courts, with the exception of the 5th set. In the
deciding set, once the leading team reaches 8 points, the teams change courts.
A team has 12 players; there must always be 6 players per team in play, 3 front-row players and 3 back-row players.
In the case of a 2-2 tie, the deciding 5th set is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of
A volleyball match is led by two referees, a scorekeeper and 2-4 line judges. The 1st referee stands at one end of the net, his view must be above the net. The 2nd referee is
on the opposite side and facing the 1st referee.
A team scores a point when the ball contacts the floor on the opponent’s
court or a fault is made by the other
A set (except the deciding 5th set) is won by the team which first scores 25
points with a minimum lead of two
points. In the case of a 24-24 tie, play
is continued until a two-point lead is
achieved (26-24; 27-25).
The match is won by the team that wins three out of five sets.
HOW TO PLAY
A rally is the sequence of playing actions from the moment of the service hit by the
server until the ball is out of play. A completed rally is the sequence of playing
actions which results in the award of a point.
The ball is put in play with a service hit by the server from behind the backline of the court over the net to the opponent´s court.
The receiving team has 3 hits, using any part of their bodies, for returning the ball (in addition to the block contact).
Typically, the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to
direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to
prevent it from being grounded in their court.
The rally continues until the ball is grounded on the playing court, goes “out” or a
team fails to return it properly.
If the serving team wins a rally, it scores a point and continues to serve.
If the receiving team wins a rally, it scores a point, it wins the serve and its players rotate one position clockwise.
(only one serve is allowed)
• To step on the end line during the serve.
• The ball does not pass over the net in the serve. (It can touch the net).
• The ball touches a teammate when serving.
• The serve cannot be blocked by the receiving players.
• A player is not in the correct position at the moment of serve or serves out
• Screening: At the moment of serve, one or more players of the serving team jump, raise their arms or stand together at the net in an attempt to block
the sight of the ball from the opponent.
In playing the
• Four hits: a team hits the ball four times before returning it. Block does not count as a hit.
• Assisted hit: a player takes support from a team-mate or any structure/object in order to hit the ball within the playing area.
• Catching, carrying, throwing and palming the ball: the ball is caught and/or thrown; it does not rebound from the hit.
• Double contact: a player contacts the ball twice consecutively, except on a block.
• To spike from the attack zone when you are a player of the back row unless he or she jumped from behind the attack line
• Blocking: A back-row player or a Libero completes a block or participates in a completed block. Only front-row players can block.
In the net
• A player may not touch the net but an incidental contact with the net by a
player is not a fault, unless it interferes with the play.
• Reaching under or over the net.
• Unsporting or incorrect conduct by a team member towards officials,
opponents, team-mates, coaches or spectators.
• According to the judgment of the 1st referee and depending on the
seriousness of the offence, the sanctions to be applied are: Warning, penalty,
expulsion or disqualification.
Back-row Players (1, 5 & 6)
Play in the backcourt behind the attack
They are responsible for passing the ball
towards teammates who then “set” the ball
to the spikers.
Back-row players also “dig” the ball on
Front-line Players (2, 3 & 4)
Positioned in the frontcourt between
the attack line and the net.
These players mostly hit “spikes” into
the opposite court and jump to
“block” shots hit by the opposite
A volleyball teams rotates in clockwise manner each time it gets the serve. The player in the position to the back and the right (#1) serves. If the serving team wins the point, the person who served the ball continues to do so until his team loses the point. The player
rotates out of the serving position when the team gets the ball back.
If a player is out of its alignment during the serve, he/she commits a rotation fault and the serve and a point goes to the other team.
Any time a player is in the back row, he or she cannot “attack” the ball in front of the attack
line on the court. Attacks are also known as “hits” or “spikes”. This rule is in effect to make
sure that the strong hitters aren’t always able to dominate the game. When the strong
hitters are in the back row, they can still attack the ball, but they cannot jump in front of
the 3 meters line (attack line).
PLAYERS POSITIONS AND ROTATIONS
BASKETBALL BASIC SKILLS
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