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Water governance in South Africa - bvsde.paho. · PDF fileDepartment of Water Affairs and...

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  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Water governance in South Water governance in South AfricaAfrica

    Barbara SchreinerBarbara SchreinerDeputy Director GeneralDeputy Director General

    Department of Water Affairs and ForestryDepartment of Water Affairs and ForestrySouth AfricaSouth Africa

    44thth World Water Forum, Mexico, 2006World Water Forum, Mexico, 2006

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    ContentsContents

    BackgroundBackground Legal reformLegal reform Institutional ReformInstitutional Reform Allocation reformAllocation reform ConclusionsConclusions

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    BackgroundBackground

    Apartheid South AfricaApartheid South Africa country ruled by white minoritycountry ruled by white minority black majority largely poorblack majority largely poor country racially segregatedcountry racially segregated access to water was racially determinedaccess to water was racially determined water legislation based on that of water rich water legislation based on that of water rich

    European countriesEuropean countries water scarce countrywater scarce country

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Legal reformLegal reform 1994: the miracle of the end of apartheid1994: the miracle of the end of apartheid 1996 1996 new Constitution adoptednew Constitution adopted

    right of access to waterright of access to water right to environment not harmful to health or wellbeingright to environment not harmful to health or wellbeing justifiable and sustainable economic development justifiable and sustainable economic development

    1996 1996 White Paper on Water ServicesWhite Paper on Water Services 1997 1997 White Paper on a National Water PolicyWhite Paper on a National Water Policy 1996 1996 -- Water Services ActWater Services Act 1998 1998 -- National Water ActNational Water Act 2003 2003 Strategic Framework on Water ServicesStrategic Framework on Water Services 2004 2004 National Water Resources StrategyNational Water Resources Strategy

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    National Water Act (1998)National Water Act (1998)

    Developed through consultation Developed through consultation Key elements:Key elements:

    Water for basic human needs and ecosystem Water for basic human needs and ecosystem functioning as a rightfunctioning as a right

    Next priority to water for international purposesNext priority to water for international purposes Redress of past imbalances in access to waterRedress of past imbalances in access to water Riparian rights replaced by time bound water use Riparian rights replaced by time bound water use

    authorisationsauthorisations Consultation with stakeholdersConsultation with stakeholders Water use Water use authorisationsauthorisations not tied to landnot tied to land Balance between use and protectionBalance between use and protection Establishment of Establishment of CatchmentCatchment management agenciesmanagement agencies

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Institutional reformInstitutional reform

    Separation of regulatory functions from Separation of regulatory functions from implementation functionsimplementation functions

    Establishment of Establishment of CatchmentCatchment Management Management Agencies (19)Agencies (19) Stakeholder involvement: Stakeholder involvement:

    Consultation in establishment processConsultation in establishment process Representatives on Governing BoardRepresentatives on Governing Board Governing Board to have race and gender balanceGoverning Board to have race and gender balance Consultation on Consultation on CatchmentCatchment Management Strategy etcManagement Strategy etc

    Wide divergence of stakeholdersWide divergence of stakeholders Rural/urban; female/male; rich/poor; well Rural/urban; female/male; rich/poor; well

    resourced/disadvantagedresourced/disadvantaged Proactive mechanisms to reach disadvantaged groupsProactive mechanisms to reach disadvantaged groups

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Institutional reformInstitutional reform

    First CMA established (First CMA established (NkomatiNkomati)) Governing board appointedGoverning board appointed CEO appointedCEO appointed

    Several more in the pipelineSeveral more in the pipeline Next steps:Next steps:

    transfer of staff and filling of poststransfer of staff and filling of posts development of a development of a catchmentcatchment management strategymanagement strategy

    Links to national water resources strategy and local Links to national water resources strategy and local government integrated development plansgovernment integrated development plans

    CMAs are funded from water resource CMAs are funded from water resource management charge on raw water usersmanagement charge on raw water users

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Institutional reformInstitutional reform

    Setting up National Water Resources Setting up National Water Resources Infrastructure AgencyInfrastructure Agency Will develop, operate, manage and maintain Will develop, operate, manage and maintain

    national water resources infrastructure national water resources infrastructure New projects to be funded onNew projects to be funded on--budget for social budget for social

    schemes and offschemes and off--budget for economic schemesbudget for economic schemes New projects to be decided on by DepartmentNew projects to be decided on by Department Users benefiting from infrastructure pay an Users benefiting from infrastructure pay an

    infrastructure charge related to the volume of infrastructure charge related to the volume of water they use and the cost of the infrastructurewater they use and the cost of the infrastructure

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Institutional reformInstitutional reform

    Local government:Local government: Constitutional responsibility for water supply and Constitutional responsibility for water supply and

    sanitation provisionsanitation provision Transfer of water services schemes to local governmentTransfer of water services schemes to local government Serious capacity constraintsSerious capacity constraints Significant implications for management of water Significant implications for management of water

    resourcesresources Project Consolidate Project Consolidate to build capacity of local to build capacity of local

    governmentgovernment Need to link water services development plans with Need to link water services development plans with

    catchmentcatchment management strategies and the national management strategies and the national water resource strategywater resource strategy

  • Department of Water Affairs and ForestryWRM WS

    National

    Provincial

    WMA

    Local

    Department of Water Affairsand Forestry

    Water UserAssociations

    WaterBoards

    WaterServices

    Authorities

    CatchmentManagement

    Agencies

    NationalWater

    ResourcesInfrastructure

    Agency

    Integrated Development Plans and Water

    Services Development Plans

    Catchment management strategies

    National Water Resources Strategy

    Provincial Growth and Development Strategies

    Institutional and planning matrixInstitutional and planning matrix

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Challenges in institutional Challenges in institutional reformreform

    CapacityCapacity shortage of skilled and experienced personnel shortage of skilled and experienced personnel

    especially engineers, hydrologists, techniciansespecially engineers, hydrologists, technicians particular challenges particular challenges w.r.tw.r.t race and gender race and gender additional costs associated with new institutionsadditional costs associated with new institutions relationships between existing and new relationships between existing and new

    institutions particularly during transitioninstitutions particularly during transition ImplementatingImplementating planning matrix effectivelyplanning matrix effectively

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    Water allocation reformWater allocation reform Majority of productive water is in hands of white Majority of productive water is in hands of white

    minorityminority 40% of population are poor 40% of population are poor mainly blackmainly black Rural women are particularly disadvantagedRural women are particularly disadvantaged OverOver--allocation in some catchmentsallocation in some catchments Significant water quality problems in some Significant water quality problems in some

    catchmentscatchments National Water Act allows for the redistribution of National Water Act allows for the redistribution of

    water to address inequity, water to address inequity, overallocationoverallocation and and water quality problemswater quality problems

    Currently implementing Water Allocation Reform Currently implementing Water Allocation Reform programmeprogramme (WAR)(WAR)

  • Department of Water Affairs and Forestry

    WAR!WAR! Ensuring lawfulness of water useEnsuring lawfulness of water use

    Compliance is a huge implementation challenge Compliance is a huge implementation challenge water water theft is not uncommontheft is not uncommon

    Working with farmer Working with farmer organisationsorganisations to establish to establish lawfulness of water uselawfulness of water use

    Will use a variety of methods to free up water for Will use a variety of methods to free up water for redistribution:redistribution: Compulsory Compulsory licencinglicencing Water use efficiency Water use efficiency Trading Trading egeg s

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