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WatSan LAC Brochure

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  • 8/4/2019 WatSan LAC Brochure


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    Ensuring access to water and adequate sanitationservices is one o the most efcient ways to break thepoverty cycle. The Millennium Development Goals,adopted by 189 countries in 2000, included the targeto halving by 2015 the number o people without

    access to water suitable or human consumption andadequate sanitation services. In order to comply withthe goal o halving the proportion o people withoutdrinking water supply services in the LAC Region,access would have to be provided to over 120 millionpersons.

    Despite the eorts, the Latin American and Caribbeanregion still shows a high level exclusion rom

    services. The rate o overcoming coverage problemshas diminished while the numbers o the sociallyexcluded have been growing in many countries.There are serious defciencies in access to services,which disproportionately aect low-income groups,improvements in access to sanitation is clearly behindwater, where most o the sector eorts and undshave been ocused during last years. The insufcient

    coverage and poor quality o the sanitation and wastewater treatment services not only have negativeimpacts on the health o the population but also aectthe environment, the economy and the availability owater or other uses.

    UN-HABITAT launched the Water and Sanitation TrustFund (WSTF) in October 2002 to help governmentsmeet their commitment to the water target o the

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). That targetseeks to reduce by hal the proportion o people

    without sustainable access to sae drinking water andsanitation by the year 2015. The Trust Funds missionis to create a hospitable environment or pro-poorinvestment in water and sanitation in urban areaso all sizes in the developing world and thus provide

    the means to improve signifcantly the volume andeectiveness o the Ofcial Development Aid andlocal fnancial ows into the water and sanitationsector. The Trust Funds activities are targeted to createsmarter water policies and increase investment inwater and sanitation or the urban poor.

    The Water or Cities Programme in Latin Americaand the Caribbean (WatSan-LAC) is a regional

    operative initiative o the WSTF created in responseto the regional consultations undertaken during theAmericas Regional Preparatory Process and duringthe working sessions at the 4th World Water Forum,held in Mexico City, in March 2006. The Programmehas been conceived as a collaborative eort amongthe countries o the region, the Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank (IDB) and UN-HABITAT. The

    Programme has been conceived along the lines oother UN-HABITAT supported water and sanitationProgrammes, supported by the Water and SanitationTrust Fund; ollowing examples o the Water or AsianCities Programme and the Water or Arican CitiesProgramme.

    Since 2008, UN-HABITAT has made eorts todevelop and manage a collaborative network or the

    Water and Sanitation or Cities Programme in LatinAmerica and the Caribbean with the participation o

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    dierent stakeholders, including intergovernmentalorganizations, fnancial institutions, nationalgovernments, local authorities, organizations o civilsociety, universities, research centers and communitybased organizations. The Programme aims to

    support developing countries in Latin America andthe Caribbean to achieve sustainable access to saedrinking water and basic sanitation or the poor,particularly in the urban and peri-urban areas. TheProgramme combines policy dialogue and normativework with on-the-ground pilot and demonstrationwater and sanitation projects ocusing on pro-poorwater and sanitation service delivery. A strategic

    partnership has been orged with the Inter-AmericanDevelopment Bank (IADB) to achieve greater leveragein the ow o resources and concerted actions inselected countries across the region. This strategicpartnership with the IADB or the Latin Americaand the Caribbean (WatSan-LAC) Programmewas ormalized in 2008 with the signing o theMemorandum o Understanding (MoU) between bothinstitutions. Dierent orms o cooperation between

    both institutions are being ormalized in Bolivia,Colombia, El Salvador, Mexico and Peru.

    The Programme also aims to increase the ow oinvestments to the water and sanitation sector inLatin America and the Caribbean through strategicpartnerships amongst dierent agents, including theIADB, donor countries, central governments, localauthorities, the private sector, non-governmental

    organizations and local communities.

    This brochure has been prepared to describe theresults achieved in the implementation o the UN-HABITAT WatSan-LAC work Programme since 2008,ocus has been on supporting policy dialogue andnormative work combined with community-based

    demonstration projects, including the constructiono decentralized water and wastewater systems(small bore sewerage networks), community-basedenvironmental sanitation, including demonstrationtoilets and solid waste management, human values-based water, sanitation and hygiene educationin schools coupled with awareness creation.This brochure also aims to share the challenges

    encountered thus ar in implementing the Programme.We would like to continue these eorts to improve theliving environment in urban areas through improvingbasic urban services in an environmentally riendlymanner and to contribute to the global eorts toadapt to the eect o climate change. The ocus othis brochure is on the current and planned activities inthe ollowing areas: i) Overall global normative work;ii) Water and Sanitation or Latin America and the

    Caribbean Cities Programme (WatSan-LAC); iii) SolidWaste Management Programme.

    Cecilia MartinezDirector o the UN-HABITAT Regional Ofce

    or Latin America and the Caribbean

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    Lan amera andarbbean Senaro

    In recent years a big eort has been made in the LatinAmerica and Caribbean Region to achieve the MDGTarget 7C: To halve the population without access towater and basic sanitation. This has led to importantadvances in water and sanitation service provision.

    The region has a population o approximately 593

    million and is one o the most urbanized areas in theworld. Urban dwellers surmounted 471 millions in2010. Urban population increased rom 71% in 1990to 79.4% in 2010. Currently, megacities are home tomost o the population, but the megacities rate ogrowth is now decreasing while small cities (rangingrom 100,000 to 500,000 inhabitants) are expandingrapidly. In the developing world, urban expansionis oten characterized by inormality, illegality and

    unplanned settlements. Urban growth has beenstrongly associated with poverty and slum growth.In the Latin America and the Caribbean region, theproportion o urban population lIving in slums hasbeen reduced rom 33.7% in 1990 to 23.5% in 2010.Proportions are declining, but numbers are growing:rom 105 million slum dwellers in 1990, the regioncounts now with 110 million people leaving in slums.(Source: State o the Worlds Cities 2010/2011, UN-


    According to data rom 2008, 93% o the populationin the region had access to water service while 79%had access to basic sanitation services (JMP MonitoringReport 2010). Targets or the region in 2015 are 92%or water service provision and 84% or sanitation.One can thereore conclude that the water target hasbeen achieved, while sanitation is lagging behind.

    But there are many dierences in services coveragebetween countries and regions, between urban andrural areas, and most importantly o all, betweenincome groups.

    Urban coverage or water and sanitation is very high inpercentages (97% and 86% respectively or water andsanitation, 2008, JMP Report) compared to coverage

    in rural areas, these high percentages bring orwardstill 13 million urban dwellers do not have access to animproved water source while 62 million lack access tosome kind o improved sanitation acility; compared tothe 24 million and 55 million rural population withoutwater and sanitation access respectively in the region.

    Most countries have achieved target or water servicein urban areas, except Haiti, Nicaragua, Peru and

    Republica Dominicana. Still, headline statistics donot reect the quality o the provided services. Many

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    problems in the region are related to water quality andthe continuity o service, as well as water losses in anenvironment where there is increasing competitionor water and the resource is not being managed in a

    sustainable manner. The sanitation access is extremelylow in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Haiti. But wastewatertreatment is nearly invisible in the whole region,causing contamination o water bodies. Climatechange is imposing new challenges and demandingnew solutions or increasing service coverage.

    Thus, the Latin American and the Caribbean Regionurban scenario aces a set o complex problems that

    need complex solutions. The population urban growthin an unplanned manner increases the need or waterand sanitation service provision in areas o difcultaccess, increasing at the same time problems causedby over-exploitation o resources and its contaminationdue in part to the lack o wastewater systems.

    13 million urban dwellers do

    not have access to an improved

    water source while 62 million lack

    access to some kind of improved

    sanitation facility, compared to the

    24 and 55 million rural population

    without water and sanitationaccess respectively

    in the region.

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    waer and Sanaon For

    Lan amera and hearbbean eS Programme

    UN-HABITAT WAT ANSANITATIN TUST FUNUN-HABITAT launched the Water and SanitationTrust Fund in October 2002 to help governmentsmeet their commitment to the water target o the

    Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). That targetseeks to reduce by hal the proportion o peoplewithout sustainable access to sae drinking water andsanitation by the year 2015. The Trust Funds activitiesare directed at creating smarter water policies andincreased investment in water and sanitation or theurban poor.

    The establishment o a Water and Sanitation Trust

    Fund in UN-HABITAT is aimed at enhancing theagencys eectiveness around the world by givingdonors the chance to contribute unds to a acilitydedicated to a well-defned goal and a clear set oobjectives ully compatible with the donors ownunding priorities.

    The Trust Funds vision thereore is to achieveexpanded access to environmentally sound basic

    urban inrastructure services with a special ocus onthe unserved and underserved populations.

    The Trust Funds mission is to create a hospitableenvironment or pro-poor investment in water andsanitation in urban areas o all sizes in the developingworld and thus provide the means to improvesignifcantly the volume and eectiveness o theOfcial Development Aid and local fnancial ows intothe water and sanitation sector.

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    AICA AN THCAIBBAN AThe Trust Fund supports three regional Programmes,namely; Water or Arican Cities, Water or AsianCities and Water or Cities in Latin America andthe Caribbean. The objective o the regionalProgrammes is to support partner countries to

    improve management o urban water supply andsanitation. These Programmes combine policy dialogueand normative work with on-the-ground pilot anddemonstration water and sanitation projects ocusingon pro-poor water and sanitation service delivery.

    The Water or Cities Programme in Latin America andthe Caribbean (WatSan-LAC) is a regional operativeinitiative o WSTF created in response to the regional

    consultations undertaken during the AmericasRegional Preparatory Process and during the workingsessions at the 4th World Water Forum, held in MexicoCity, in March 2006. It is mainly unded by the SpanishGovernment.

    A strategic partnership has been orged with theInter-American Development Bank (IADB) to achievegreater leverage in the ow o resources and

    concerted actions in selected countries across theregion. This strategic partnership with the IADB orthe Latin America and the Caribbean Programmewas ormalized in 2008 with the signing o thememorandum o understanding (MoU) between bothinstitutions. Dierent orms o cooperation betweenboth institutions are being ormalized in Bolivia,Colombia Mexico, Peru and El Salvador.

    The Programme supports the ollowing areas:

    Support central and local authorities in the pursuito the water related MDGs;

    Support institutional development; Strengthening o water education and water

    culture, with special emphasis on themes relatedto public health, hygiene and water resourcesconservation;

    Support the institutionalization o a moreparticipatory, transparent, and accountablewater governance;

    Support the mainstreaming o water adaptationto climate change; and,

    Strengthening o water and sanitation operators.

    The rogrammes main objective is

    to increase the ow of investments

    to the water and sanitation

    sector in Latin America and the

    Caribbean through strategic

    partnerships amongst different

    agents, including the IAB, donorcountries, central governments,

    local authorities, the private sector,

    non-governmental organizations

    and local communities.

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    WatSan-LAC started activities in Mexico and Bolivia.During this period, it has improved its activities inNicaragua, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Peru,Ecuador and Colombia. Dierent partnerships with

    governments, civil organizations and NGOs havebeen created in several countries. Besides, there areregional projects related to cross cutting issues asgender and water as a human right. The Programmeis complemented by the global normative work o theAgency.

    UN-HABITATs normative activities ocus on thedevelopment and dissemination o water and

    sanitation management publications, toolkits,sourcebooks and guidelines that set standardso practice or work in the sector. As memberso the UN-Water Wastewater Management TaskForce , UN-HABITAT and UNEP launched a RapidAssessment Report entitled Sick Water: The CentralRole o Wastewater Management in SustainableDevelopment during the global celebrations o the2010 World Water Day in Nairobi, Kenya. UN-HABITATalso produces a triennial global report on the State oWater and Sanitation in the Worlds Cities.

    The third report - Solid Waste in the Worlds Cities:Understanding Global Trends and Practices wassimultaneously launched during the fth session o theWorld Urban Forum held in Rio and during the globalcelebrations o the 2010 World Water Day in Nairobi.UN-HABITAT also contributes to the World WaterDevelopment Report.

    UN-HABITAT recognizes the need of translation of normative products

    to the Spanish language so that they can be disseminated in the egion.

    For this reason a selection of the most important publications will be

    translated in the coming years. In 2010 the Handbook Constructed

    Wetlands anual was translated printed and disseminated.

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    THATIC LINSIn addition to projects specifc to national contexts, theProgrammes include themes and activities that recuracross the region and serve to integrate initiatives intoa cohesive whole. These themes and activities help tobuild connections across borders between water and

    sanitation projects that share common characteristicsand challenges. By creating opportunities orpractitioners to meet and discuss experiences, theyalso ensure that lessons can be shared and bestpractice can be honed.

    The thematic areas in which UN-HABITAT has beenworking in the region are:


    In 2009 UN-HABITAT started collaboration with theGender Water Alliance (GWA), which has the objectiveo providing tools or the use o UN-HABITAT andits partners in mainstreaming gender in water and

    sanitation projects and developing a monitoringmechanism or the integration o gender-related issues

    in ongoing projects. Under this collaboration, tenworkshops have been proposed including a Trainingo Trainers, eight workshops in Nicaragua, Ecuador,Mexico and Bolivia, and one regional workshop toshare experiences within this project. In addition itwill support the development o a Gender ResourceBook in Spanish.


    UN-HABITAT has promoted through the HVBWSHEmethodology the integration o a new ethics andbehavior change amongst service providers and

    users to ensure more equitable and sustainableservice provision related to water and sanitation.There is a growing recognition that improvementsin water management cannot be accomplishedonly by technical or regulatory measures; thesemust be complemented with advocacy, awareness-raising and education activities. A values-basedapproach can bring about positive attitude changesand create a new water use and hygiene ethic in

    society. The methodology has been integrated indierent projects within the WatSan-LAC Programme

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    through collaboration with Project Wet, to developcountry-specifc educational materials and resourcesor WatSan-LAC Programmes; conduct training otrainers and school teachers in each o the countries,

    and; implement small demonstration projects whichillustrate the objectives o water conservation andreduced use o resources. The Programme will act infve countries: Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and ElSalvador and may later be extended to other countriesin the region.



    UN-HABITAT is supporting knowledge nodes orsustainable sanitation in Central America (Honduras,Guatemala, El Salvador and Nicaragua) and Bolivia.The knowledge nodes are group o entities andorganizations o the water and sanitation sector,including private companies, service providers,

    international and national NGOS, government entities,universities and other. They work on strengtheningcapacity o key actors and stakeholders o the waterand sanitation sector in all aspects o sustainablesanitation; advocating or including sustainablesanitation approaches in national policies, standarddesigns and in the ormal education curricula; andvalidating the concept o sustainable sanitation in localcontext. UN-HABITAT is collaborating with StockholmEnvironment Institute (SEI), SNV, RRASCA (CentralAmerica Network or Water and Sanitation), Wateror People, and others, to support the work o theknowledge nodes.


    UN-HABITAT has supported the FOCARD-APS (ForoCentroamericano y Repblica Dominicana de Agua

    Potable y Saneamiento) in the organization o thepre-LATINOSAN meeting in Costa Rica to prepare aregional common view to be presented in LATINOSANconerence in 2010. In Montevideo a Capacity

    Development Workshop or Water Journalists in theLAC region has been organized in partnership withUNW-DPC and UNESCO International HydrologicalProgramme (IHP), ocused on adaptation to climatechange in the water resources management and watersupply sectors. The workshop brought together waterjournalists and media proessionals rom LAC countriesrepresenting dierent print and electronic media(radio, television, newspapers, Internet, etc.) to discussand exchange experiences and lessons learnt aboutwater issues and better strategies o communication.

    W A 2011/2012

    The regional ocus will continue with a urtherdevelopment o the previously mentionedinitiatives and initiate new main lines ointervention on:

    Promotion o the human rights-based ap-

    proach in the water and sanitation sector.

    Support to service providers or adaptation

    to the impact o climate change.

    Technical assistance and capacity building

    or small water operators.

    Sustainable sanitation: rom knowledge

    sharing on new sustainable technologies to

    sanitation as a business models.

    Monitoring systems or specifc aspects o

    water and sanitation in the region.

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    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitation

    facilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Coverage indicators in Mexico are high when setagainst the MDG Goals, but there is considerableroom or improvement in the quality o services andalso in the equality o access or the whole population.

    Water availability is also a major challenge in thecountry, and principles o IWRM in urban settingsand the development o new water culture in orderto step-up awareness in society on water demandmanagement principles.


    TH AThe Programme started in 2008 when Mexicobecame one o the frst countries where UN-HABITATintervened in the water policy sector. The main eortscentred in strengthening water governance andprotection o water resources in urban settings.

    More recently a Memorandum o Understanding has

    been signed with the Ministry o Social Development(SEDESOL) to agree upon a ramework o collaborationat country level to integrate the use o appropriateWATSAN technologies in inrastructure developmentprojects. Technical advice on this topic has also beenprovided to the Ministry o Education and the IADBin the design and implementation o a nation-wideWatSan schools inrastructure upgrading and watereducation project.

    Some o the key challenges o the Mexican waterpolicy sector are: improving sustainable water andsanitation services in small towns and growingperi-urban areas, deepening transparency andaccountability o water and sanitation services

    provision and increasing water treatment services andbuilding capacities or water adaptation to climatechange. So ar UN-HABITATs Country Programmehas ocused on improving governance in water andsanitation management through social auditing andmonitoring processes, development o appropriateWatSan technologies in schools, capacity-buildingor water operators and institutional strengtheningor water adaptation to climate change, especially

    through participatory vulnerability assessments.

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    Several advocacy and institutional activities areongoing in the country with the support o UN-HABITAT. The Programme in Mexico orms part odierent sector groups along with the main sectors

    actors in the country. As part o these activities twomain workshops were organized in 2009: the WaterJournalist Capacity-Building Initiative Workshop incollaboration with the Water Advisory Council, theIWA, and the Mexican Environmental Educationand Communication Fund; and the Water DemandManagement Workshop in partnership with UN-DPC and the National Association o Water Utilities(ANEAS).

    Main pilot projects on going are:


    The main objective is enabling social monitoring and

    the evaluation o water operators perormance.The WATSAN Citizen Observatories are new socialinstitutions in the Mexican water policy sector.Currently there is one Observatory established in themunicipality o Ecatepec de Morelos (state o Mexico)and two more are being created in the municipalitieso Xalapa and Tuxtla Gutierrez. Key partners thatcollaborate on these projects include the WaterAdvisory Council and other UN-Agencies. More

    recently a project or supporting the launching o aNetwork o WATSAN Citizen Observatories has beenlaunched.

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    The main objective is upgrading the water andsanitation inrastructure o schools in marginal urbanand peri-urban areas with the use o appropriatelow-cost and sustainable technologies. Public hygiene,water use and environmental conservation educationare components integrated into the project. Currently,projects are ongoing in the municipality o Ecatepecde Morelos (State o Mexico). Two other projects areabout to start in the municipalities o Xalapa (stateo Veracruz) and Tuxtla Gutierrez (state o Chiapas),supported by the Spanish MDG-F.


    A distance learning capacity building course or topand mid level managers on several relevant topics

    o water and sanitation policy and management isbeing designed to be launched in November 2010 incollaboration with the National Association o WaterUtilities (ANEAS) and the Post-graduate Division othe Engineering Faculty o the National AutonomousUniversity o Mexico (UNAM) .


    CLIAT CHANThe main objective is to assist local authoritieso urban municipalities in the development ovulnerability assessments and the production opolicy recommendations or building capacities orwater adaptation to climate change at the locallevel. Currently there are two Water Adaptation to

    W A 2011/2012

    Lines o intervention o the Programme in themidterm uture are likely to be:

    Replication and up scaling o Citizen WatSan

    Observatories and support to the Networko Citizen Water & Sanitation Observatories.

    Replication o Human Value-based Water,Sanitation and Hygiene Education.

    Mainstreaming Adoption o AppropriateWatSan Technologies.

    Support to Water Adaptation to ClimateChange in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Expert/Decision Makers Dialogue.

    Capacity-building Distance Learning Courseor Water Operators and Local Authorities.

    Support pro-poor peri-urban water andsanitation service provision initiatives andpro-poor water regulation reorms.

    Climate Change projects being implemented in themunicipalities o Xalapa and Tuxtla Gutierrez. TheWater Adaptation to Climate Change activities arecarried out in joint collaboration with local authorities

    and local experts in the feld. These projects arebeing implemented under the ramework o a JointProgramme on Establishing Eective and DemocraticWater and Sanitation Management in Mexico.UN-HABITAT is also part o the Regional Dialogueon Water Adaptation to Climate Change to supportawareness-raising on the topic towards the COP-16 tobe held in Mexico and also to support initiatives to belaunched thereater.

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    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitationfacilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    STATIC LINS FTH AThe Programme started in 2008, and combines sot

    and hard activities working with central and localauthorities, as well as with NGOs and CSOs.

    Discussions are underway with the Ministry oEnvironment and Water on a Memorandum oUnderstanding (MOU) that will set out strategicactions to support the Ministrys mandate andactivities. UN-HABITAT orms part o the InternationalCooperation Group or Water and Sanitation (GRAS),

    which intends to implement the Paris Declarationimproving the coordination between donorsand the Government o the country. In addition,collaboration with the IADB has started or supportingthe development o the master plans or the ourmain cities in the country, which will be the baseor the IADBs Water Peri Urban Project, due to beimplemented with the support o the Governmento Spain.

    In 2009, UN-HABITAT held dierent advocacyworkshops or promoting its main project ocus inthe country related to the Waste Water Treatmentand Water Saety Plans. These were an opportunityto share experiences in waste water decentralizedsystems in the country and water demandmanagement.

    Along with these sot activities, the Programme iscomplemented with demonstrative and ast track

    Bolivia is one o the countries in the region still noton course to achieve the MDG Targets in 2015. Ahigh level o inequality aects the country, sinceapproximately 10% o the population receives 40%o the national income. Water services are defcient

    because o the operators weakness, the highatomization o the sector (there are more than 28.000providers in the country), a weak regulatory system,and the low value that users attach to the services.

    Among the possible interventions, UN-HABITAT iscentering its activities in the country in piloting integralprojects in small towns and promoting new innovativelow cost solutions or sustainable sanitation and waste

    water decentralized systems.

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    initiatives to promote the HVBWSHE methodology inthe country, develop integral projects in small towns(integrating water and sanitation service provision,solid waste management, waste water decentralized

    systems and capacity building and education), andpilot technologies in the feld o sustainable sanitation.These initiatives are implemented in collaboration withlocal authorities and NGOs in the country. Currentpilot projects and collaborations ongoing are theollowing:


    CT IN ATACAAAAn integral intervention in water, sanitation andsolid waste management in the small city oPatacamaya has been initiated in collaboration withthe Municipality (15,000 inhabitants; La Paz) and PlanInternational. A positive outcome was the creation oa municipal solid waste company (ECORES) to improvesolid waste management and encourage best practices

    in solid waste disposal by the project clients.


    F SAN INACI VLASCThis project is an integral intervention with the goalso expanding Water and sanitation service provision,improving waste water treatment, capacity buildingor the water operators and stakeholders, HVWSHEin local schools, and support or a solid wastemanagement system.


    In partnership with Water or People, the projectsmain goal is to improve access to sanitation and watersupply or 20.000 poor people living in the peri-urbanareas o Cochabamba. Other main objectives are todemonstrate innovative and costeective community

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    based approaches or improving access to servicesin a sustainable manner and to support HVWSHEimplementation in at least two public schools.


    The goal o this project is to improve access toimproved sanitation and water supply or the poorliving in District 9 in peri-urban areas o Cochabamba.It entails supporting the Municipal Ofce o District

    9 to strengthen their water and sanitation planning,monitoring, and supervision capacities, conductinga hydrological study o the area o intervention,promoting technological innovations, micro-credit,sanitation as a business concept, water qualitymonitoring and designing messaging about water,sanitation, and hygiene or dierent groups (migrants,women, young people).

    W A 2011/2012

    Lines o intervention o the Programme in themidterm uture are likely to be:

    Promotion o sustainable sanitation throughthe Eco- sanitation Node o knowledge,

    Replication o Integral Programmes in periurban areas,

    Continuation o activities in peri urban areaso Cochabamba, integrating Water ResourceManagement and Community SustainableSanitation,

    Creation o Water and Health Observatories

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    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitation

    facilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    STATIC LINS FTH AUN-HABITAT has recently started its Programme in

    the country. Ater several assessments o the currentwater and sanitation situation and the interventionso relevant actors in the Peruvian water and sanitationsector, UN-HABITAT has selected two strategic lineso intervention in which the expertise o our agencycan result in valuable projects or the country:support to small and medium water service providersor adaptation to climate change; and support orwastewater management and new alternatives or

    decentralized eco-sanitation acilities.


    With this ocus, UN-HABITAT entered into anagreement with the international NGO CARE to carryout a project aimed at improving climate changeadaptation in the region o Junn, which integratesscientifc inormation management and promotionor its use or water resources, management andawareness raising (both among decision makers andthe population) to implement IWRM policies andstrategies in a context o climate change.

    The Regional Government o Junin is one o themost active in combating climate change, as one othe most aected regions in the country due to itsdependence on the glaciers o the Andean Mountains.The collaboration with CARE will be the starting

    Peru is set to be at the leading edge o eorts to adaptto the impact o climate change on water resources.Climate change is already threatening to reduce theavailability o water, as is the contamination o suracesources. The country has made big eorts to meet

    MDG targets, according to the last ofcial data, andit is expected urban areas will achieve the neededpercentages.

    Still service coverage in urban and peri-urban areasremains poor: still only 90% o the urban populationhas access through a piped system in their homes and19% o the urban population does not have access toan improved sanitation system. Wastewater treatment

    acilities are also scarce in the country.

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    point or a complete intervention in Junin o technicalsupport or adapting water service provision to thealready complicated water resource managementsituation in the region. Negotiations with the water

    and sanitation service provider o Huancayo, thecapital o the Region, are ongoing or supporting theoperator or its adaptation to climate change impact.

    W A 2011/2012

    Three main strategic lines are oreseen in the Programme in the country: :

    Complementary activities related to climate change adaptation in Huancayo, with the possibility oscaling-up the results to other regions in the country.

    Support or Waste Water Treatment sector with the piloting o decentralized systems and other innova-tive technologies.

    Promotion o eco-sanitation technologies and dierent sanitation models in peri urban areas.

    UN-HABITAT is in the fnal steps o discussion with theMinistry o Civil Works or assisting the governmentin doing a waste water treatment baseline at anational level, inormation that will be the basis or the

    development o the national strategy in this aspect.




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    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitation

    facilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    In this context, UN-HABITAT is working closely withthe dierent public institutions seeking to reinorcecapacities at the national and local levels and tomake use o existing opportunities or improvemento the sector, aiming at meeting the Millennium

    Development Goal 7, Target 10: to cut by hal theproportion o people that do not have access tosustainable water and sanitation services, mainly withthe support o the Spanish MDG-F.



    The Programme will contribute to developingdemocratic governance in W&S services with aperspective on integrated management o waterresources, social, territorial and gender equity, andsupport to the overall government-driven reormprocess within the ramework o the NationalDevelopment Plan.

    Expected results include: increased access to saewater and sanitation or the poorest populations o 4provinces; contributing to the achievement o target10 o MDG 7 and having an impact on MDGs 1, 2, 3,

    The water and sanitation sector in Ecuador is highlydefcient despite the avorable conditions in terms oeconomic and natural resources. Statistics indicatethat 60% o served water is not potable, 55% osystems provide an intermittent service and only 8%

    o used water is treated beore it is disposed back tonature, among other defciencies. In order to improvethis situation, Ecuadors 2008 Constitution establishesaccess to water as a undamental human right as wellas a set o priorities relating to water use that makedrinking water the most important one. In additionto that, Ecuadors National Development Plan has setsustainability in the water and sanitation services as apriority.

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    4, 5, 6 and 8; the implementation o a new regulatoryand institutional ramework or the W&S sector; thedesign and implementation o consensual publicpolicies or eective services management; improving

    the technical, administrative and fnancial capacities oservice providers in the areas o intervention; and theempowerment o women, social organizations andcommunities that participate in the sustainable andtransparent management o the sector.

    The Programme is being implemented by threeministries with the support o fve UN agencies. In2009 UN-HABITAT was responsible or providing

    support and technical assistance or the legal reormprocess that the sector is going through in Ecuador,by building capacities o water and sanitation serviceproviders in small towns and villages and to developphysical interventions in the sanitary inrastructure oschools, as well as to initiate the interventions withinrural communities.


    The Cities in Climate Change Initiative (CCCI) willbe working on the issues o strengthening theperormance o both national and city level actorsthrough participatory approaches and targetedinstruments. On the premise that global warmingover the next decades is inevitable, CCCI will support

    the city o Esmeraldas, in a coordinated manner withEcuadors national government, to adapt eectively toclimate change through reducing the severity o manyo the impacts i adverse conditions prevail.

    Since 2009, the CCCI in Esmeraldas will be supportingthe local government in getting to know itsvulnerabilities in a better and more systematic manner,with strong emphasis on those related to water and

    sanitation. The CCCI will also be promoting sanitation

    technologies that can work in the event o waterscarcity due to drought or ood-led inrastructuredamage, particularly eco-sanitation (dry toilets). Oneo the main outputs will be the design o a local

    strategy to adapt to global warning at local level.

    W A 2011/2012

    Current projects will be continued during theollowing years.

    overnance in the water andsanitation sector in cuador withinthe framework of the illenniumevelopment oals

    In 2010 and 2011 UN-HABITAT will continuethe activities o 2009, seeking to make themsel-sustainable and leading the investmentsthat the Programme has planned in water andsanitation inrastructure. These investments willinclude participatory design and constructiono water and sanitation inrastructure usingenvironmentally riendly, gender-sensitivetechnology, and building local capacities oroperating and maintaining such inrastructure.

    Cities and climate change

    initiative smeraldasIn the second phase o the CCCI, theProgramme will strengthen the governmento Esmeraldas and the most vulnerablepopulations in increasing their resilience tosevere climate events, including their access tosecure water and prevention o water-relateddiseases

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    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitationfacilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Another challenge specifc to Colombia is the needto provide services to the large numbers o peopledisplaced by conict who are living in temporaryaccommodation in peri urban and urban areas.

    STATIC LINS FTH AAs a pilot experience, UN-HABITAT has begun itsactivities recently in collaboration with Accin ContraEl Hambre, a Spanish NGO with a strong presencein the country, in the Municipality o Tumaco in

    the Narino region in the South o Colombia. TheProjects main goal is to improve the living conditionso vulnerable people in urban and semi-urban areasin a sustainable manner by reducing environmentalhealth risks. The components o the Programmeare water and sanitation service provision, which iscomplemented with support or a Sustainable SolidWaste Management System. Education in hygiene isincluded or the population o the areas.

    In Colombia stark dierences are evident in theprovision o water and sanitation services. At anational level the country has high service coverageby global standards, but variation within the countryis considerable and some municipalities are not

    able to supply the service to more than 50% o thepopulation.

    The poverty rate in Colombia is 42,6%, implying thatnearly 17 million people still live in poverty in thecountry. The regions with the highest levels o povertyinclude the Pacifc coastal districts o Narino andChoco and they also suer rom some o the lowestlevels o water service coverage.

    W A 2011/2012

    The last phase o negotiation is underway ora joint initiative with the IADB, the Ministry oEnvironment, Housing and Urban Development,the National Department o Planning, theMunicipality o Quibd and Empresas Publicas

    de Medellin (the local water utility).

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    eL SaLvador


    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitation

    facilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    El Salvador is one o the poorest countries in theregion. Although urban coverage is reported to behigh in the country, many dierent bodies or watermanagement exist due to the lack o proper waterand sanitation policies: most o the bodies are small

    and lack management skills. This aects mainly smalltowns and rural areas. The improvement o thecurrent systems and the capacity building needed bythese providers are key to increasing access to servicesin a sustainable manner. Small towns and peri urbanareas need the rehabilitation or expansion o systemsto cover the most deprived areas, while their providersmanagers need skills to coordinate related activities,and the provider needs mechanisms to access the

    unds to cover the costs or these improvements.

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    UN-HABITAT has joined the work o dierent waterand sanitation stakeholders in the country to promoteinnovative fnancial mechanisms or water andsanitation service providers with a twoold approach:

    supporting the creation o a new fnancial mechanismor the service providers, and providing technicalassistance to these providers or improving theirmanagerial and technical skills.

    While the initiative is being studied by the IADB tobe implemented at national level, UN-HABITAT hascoordinated collaboration with CARE or developingpreliminary studies and implementing a pilot

    experience so that dierent mechanisms can betested and honed. Analysis o lessons learned, anddissemination o results nationwide are included in thelast period o the project.

    W A 2011/2012

    UN-HABITAT will continue to be involved inpromoting the scaling-up o the results, with

    other stakeholders, mainly the IADB. In the

    national Programme, it is expected to be a big

    component o technical assistance to water

    operators, which is one o the main ocal areas

    o the WatSan-LAC Programme.

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    % Urban population(World Urbanization Prospects, Revision 2009)


    % slum dwellers(UN-HABITAT, 2007)


    % urban access to improved water source(2008, JMP Report 2010) 94.0

    % urban access to improved sanitation facility(2008, JMP Report 2010)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved watersource (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Urban dwellers without acces to improved sanitationfacilities (2008, JMP Report 2010) (thousands)


    Nicaragua has one o the lowest MDG set o indicatorsin the region. Despite signifcant eorts to increasewater and sanitation coverage at national level, ahuge challenge remains to meet the MillenniumDevelopment Goals.

    Roughly one fth o the population o Nicaragualives in its capital, Managua and an estimated 45% othe population live in slums.

    One o the biggest dump sites in Central America isin Managua, and is known as La Chureca. It receivesan estimated 90% o the waste rom the city and ishome to many poor people whose survival dependson recovering waste or recycling or other uses.

    The Government o Spain through the IntegratedDevelopment o the Acahualinca NeighbourhoodProject committed unds to support the rehabilitationo the La Chureca dumpsite, to promote more efcientwaste recovery and provide amilies living on and near

    the site with housing and employment alternatives.Dierent mechanisms have been used to und theproposed project actions including a contribution tothe UN-HABITAT Water and Sanitation und in whichthe current project intervention is ramed.



    The aim o the UN-HABITAT project, Building Capacity

    or Solid Waste Management (SWM) in Managua is tointegrate the activities undertaken in the rameworko the La Chureca intervention into the wider SWMsystem.

    The project seeks to develop models and tools orthe improvement o solid waste management inthe capital o Managua and, in a second phase, toextend the Programme, providing inormation on and

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    replicating the use o these models and tools in othermunicipalities in Nicaragua and the rest o CentralAmerica.

    The project has our main components: (1) Support toIntegrated Acahualinca Neighbourhood DevelopmentProject (2) Support to Municipal Government, (3)Support to Waste Recovery and Recycling Sector and(4) Support to Regional Solid Waste Management.

    The main ocus o the project in 2009 was on theComponents 2 and 3.

    UN-HABITAT undertook a detailed analysis o solid

    waste collection, transer and disposal in the city andused this inormation as the basis or the developmento an Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan orManagua (2010-2020.) This planning process is beingundertaken using a participatory learning by doingmethodology which builds municipal capacity orstrategic SWM planning as well as generating a plandeveloped and agreed in coordination with a widerange o involved stakeholders.

    UN-HABITAT also designed SWM pilot projectsincluding a small transer station (STS) to be built inDistrict VI o Managua. The STS is based on a modeldeveloped by UN-HABITAT consultant Manus Coey.A study tour or representatives o the municipalgovernment o Managua was undertaken in October2009 to review the operation and maintenance o STSin Egypt. UN-HABITAT also signed an agreement withUNOPS to support procurement and implementationo these pilot projects in 2010.

    Under Component 3, UN-HABITAT undertook amapping o sector activities in Managua as well asstudying public perception o these activities anddetermining the willingness o key stakeholders to

    support the development o this sector.

    UN-HABITAT also supported the First NationalRecycling Forum held in August 2010, an eventwhich brought state, municipal, private sector andcommunity actors together to discuss and defnelines o action or the development o the sector atnational level.

    In addition, to these activities, UN-HABITAT hasundertaken several workshops designed to increaseknowledge and build capacity or local stakeholdersin key water and sanitation issues including: CleanerDevelopment Mechanism in SWM Projects (CDM);Hazardous Waste Management; Integrated Sanitation;and Correct Solid Waste Management and Recyclingin Schools in Managua;

    Finally, UN-HABITAT signed new agreements withproject partners to support the implementation othe work plan or 2010 including an agreement withACEPESA to undertake regional SWM study anddesign o SWM Technical and Institutional AssistanceInitiative and Pre-investment Studies.

    W A 2011/2012

    The continuation o the SWM initiative in the

    Central American Region is the main ocus o

    the Programme or the period 2011/2012.

    Other identifed lines or the WatSan-LAC

    intervention in the country will be to support

    water and sanitation service provision through

    capacity building or small municipal operators.

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    Strategic partnerships have been developed withnational and regional level stakeholders, developmentbanks and other multi-lateral agencies to scale upinnovative and successul approaches supported by theprogramme. Implementation partnerships have alsobeen established with national and local governments,development partners, as well as international andlocal NGOs, universities, water utilities and traininginstitutions.

    XICMinistry o Social Development o Mexico (SEDESOL)

    Ministry o Education o Mexico

    Chjiapas state Government

    Veracruz State GovernmentTabasco State Government

    Municipality o Ecatepec de Morelos (state o Mexico)

    Municipality o Xalapa

    Municipality o Tuxtla Gutierrez

    Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologa del Agua (IMTA)

    International Water Association, Mexican Chapter(IWA)

    Mexican Environmental Education andCommunication Fund

    National Association o Water Utilities (ANEAS)

    National Water Commission (CONAGUA)

    SARAR Transormacin

    Centro del Agua de America Ltina y el Caribe(CAALCA)

    Femsa Foundation

    Engineering Faculty o the National AutonomousUniversity o Mexico (UNAM)

    Tecnolgico de Monterrey


    Water Advisory Council (CCA)

    UNDP/Spain Millennium Development Goals

    Achievement FundECLAC



    WHO / PAHO




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    BLIVIAMinistry o the Environment and Water

    Ministry o Health

    SENASBA ( Water and Sanitation Sustainability Service)Regional Government o Cochabamba

    Regional Government o Santa Cruz

    Municipality o La Paz, Bolivia

    Municipality o San Ignacio de Velasco, Bolivia

    Municipality o Cochabamba, Bolivia

    Municipality o Patacamaya, Bolivia

    GRAS ( Group o Donors and InternationalCooperation Agencies in Water and Sanitation)



    GTZ ( German Technical Cooperation Agency)

    JICA ( Japanese Cooperation Agency)

    SNV( The Netherlands Cooperation Agency)

    Plan InternationalWater or People

    NGO Yaku

    ABIS ( Engineering Bolivian Association)

    FEDECAAS ( Water Providers Asociation in Santa Cruz)

    DINESVBI( Sectoral Spaces or Water and Sanitation)

    Water Research Center(CASA) University o SanSimon, Cochabamba

    CODESAB ( Water and Sanitation Regional Council),Cochabamba

    COED (Disaster and Emergency Operation Center),Santa Cruz

    UMinistry o Housing and Civil Works, Peru

    Regional Government o Junin, Peru

    UNDPCARE International


    Water For People

    CUANational Secretariat o Development and Planning(SENPLADES)

    National Secretariat o International Cooperation(SETECI)

    Ministry o Urban Development and Housing (MIDUVI)

    National Secretariat or Water (SENAGUA)

    Ministry o Public Health (MSP)

    Ministry o Education (ME)

    Spanish Agency o International DevelopmentCooperation (AECID)

    Municipality o Esmeraldas, Ecuador

    Gender and Water Alliance - GWA

    UNDP/Spain Millennium Development GoalsAchievement Fund




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    CLBIAPlanning National Department (DNP) o Colombia

    High Comission or Social Development and

    International Cooperation (Alta Consejera para laAccin Social y la Cooperacin Internacional)

    Municipality o Tumaco

    Municipality o Quibdo

    Accion Contra el Hambre Espanya

    Empresas Pblicas de Medelln ESP - EPM

    Water and Sanitation Service Provider (AQUASEO)S.A.E.S.P

    Environment Centre Costa Pacifca (Centro AmbientalCosta Pacifca)

    L SALVACare International

    ANDA (National Water Company)

    NICAAUAMunicipality o Managua (ALMA)

    Spanish Agency o International DevelopmentCooperation (AECID)

    Ministry o Environment and Natural Resources(MARENA)

    Asociation o Municiaplities o Nicaragua (AMUNIC)Nicaragua National Recycling Forum (FONARE)

    National University o Engineering Centro deInvestigacin y Estudios en Medio Ambiente (UNI-CIEMA)

    Politechnic University o Nicaragua (UPOLI)



    Central American Association or the Economy,

    Health and Environment (ACEPESA)

    Studies and Promotion Center or the Habitat(HABITAR)

    INALInter-American Development Bank

    Gender Water Alliance (GWA)

    Project Wet

    Spanish Agency o International DevelopmentCooperation (AECID)

    Stockholm Environment Institute (SEI)

    Water or People.

    Red Regional de Agua y Saneamiento deCentroAmerica (RRAS-CA)

    Red de Agua y Saneamiento de Honduras (RAS-HON)

    Red de Agua y Saneamiento de Nicaragua (RAS-NIC)

    Red de Agua y Saneamiento de El Salvador (RAS-ES)

    Red de Agua y Saneamiento de Gautemala (RAS-GUA)

    Foro CentroAmericano y de Republica Dominicana Agua Potable y Saneamiento (FOCARD-APS)


    UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (IHP)

    Alianza por el agua.

    Americas Water Forum, Coordination Group

    WASH in Schools LAC Network (Lead by UNICEF)

    Latin America and the Caribbean Water Saety PlanNetwork WSP-LAC/Net:

    World Health Organization. (WHO)

    Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)

    Centers For Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

    US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)

    International Water Association (IWA)

    Inter-American Sanitary and Environmental Engi-

    neering Association (AIDIS)

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    SoureS oF Fundng

    A combination o traditional and innovative fnancingmechanisms has been used to capitalize the TrustFund. Since 2003, the water and sanitation trustund has received unds to the tune o USD 125.8million. From this amount, USD 95.5 million is a

    contribution rom main donors towards the GeneralWater and Sanitation Trust Fund. The Status o thesecontributions are based on signed agreements (2003-2010) as shown in the graph:

    W tS LAC t t d ti iti i 2008 f d Mill i D l t G l A hi t F d

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    UN-HABITATand partnerCONTRIBUTIONS(per country peryear)

    UN HABITAT Cost (US$)

    2008 2009 2010 TOTALS

    COUNTRY UN H Partner UN H Partner UN H Partner UN H Partner

    Grand Total

    UN H +partner

    BOLIVIA (WSTF) 647.710 783.229 450.000 637.582 239.000 304.422 1.336.710 1.725.233 3.061.943

    MEXICO (WSTF) 115.000 191.500 363.000 509.000 478.000 700.500 1.178.500

    MEXICO(MDG Fund)

    212.086 332.109 544.195 544.195


    (WSTF) 300.000 235.000 300.000 235.000 535.000


    560.000 540.000 330.000 404.726 890.000 944.726 1.834.726


    252.406 252.406 252.406 252.406 504.812

    PERU (WSTF) 300.000 255.000 300.000 255.000 555.000

    Solid Waste

    Management(Nicaragua andRegional CentralAmerica) (WSTF)

    1.962.721 500.000 2.462.721 2.462.721

    ECUADOR(MDG fund)

    69.900 1.238.608 1.308.508 1.308.508

    Total 762.710 974.729 3.554.707 1.412.582 3.555.123 1.725.554 7.872.540 4.112.865

    Grand Total 1.737.439 4.967.289 5.280.677 11.985.405

    WatSan-LAC started activities in 2008 fnancedby the General Water and Sanitation Trust Fund.WatSan-LAC sta has contribuided to the designand implementation o ROLACs water sector relatedprojects. Support has been received by the UNDPs

    Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund(Spain) in Mexico and Ecuador. The ollowing tablerepresents annual budget distribution (2008-2020) bycountry and origin o unds:

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    Victor Arroyo


    Celia Bedoya


    Claudia Vargasiana Siller

    Fernando atioane lley

    nica Quintana

    omn mez


    anuel anrique


    Frederico Vieira


    rca Color il

    2010 un-habaC


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    For further information, please contact:

    vict aChief Technical AdvisorWater Sanitation and Infrastructure BranchRegional Ofce for Latin America and the Caribbean

    li bProgramme OfcerWater Sanitation and Infrastructure BranchRegional Ofce for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Rua Rumania 20

    Rio de Janeiro

    22240-140 Brazil

    Tel: +55 21 3235-8550Fax: +55 21 3235-8566

    [email protected]