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What do we mean by “poverty”? poverty...These handouts excerpted from Understanding and Engaging...

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1 Copyright © 2009 by aha! Process, Inc. All rights reserved. These handouts excerpted from Understanding and Engaging Under-Resourced College Students and may not be additionally used, posted online, or reproduced for any purpose. © 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com 1 The mission of aha! Process, Inc. is to positively impact the education and lives of © 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com education and lives of individuals in poverty around the world. 2 What do we mean by poverty? © 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com by poverty ? 5
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Page 1: What do we mean by “poverty”? poverty...These handouts excerpted from Understanding and Engaging Under-Resourced College Students and may not be additionally used, posted online,

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Copyright © 2009 by aha! Process, Inc. All rights reserved.These handouts excerpted from Understanding and Engaging Under-Resourced CollegeStudents and may not be additionally used, posted online, or reproduced for any purpose.

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com 1

The mission of aha! Process, Inc. is to

positively impact the education and lives of

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com

education and lives of individuals in poverty

around the world.

2

What do we mean by “poverty”?

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com

by poverty ?

5

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Copyright © 2009 by aha! Process, Inc. All rights reserved.These handouts excerpted from Understanding and Engaging Under-Resourced CollegeStudents and may not be additionally used, posted online, or reproduced for any purpose.

What It’s Like Now

Mental Model of Poverty

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com Research done by Philip DeVol in 2004 with adults in poverty—welfare

to work transition program.7

Mental Model for Middle ClassMental Model of Middle Class

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Mental Model of Wealth

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Copyright © 2009 by aha! Process, Inc. All rights reserved.These handouts excerpted from Understanding and Engaging Under-Resourced CollegeStudents and may not be additionally used, posted online, or reproduced for any purpose.

FinancialEmotionalMentalLanguageSpiritual

Resources

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PhysicalSupport systemsRelationship/role modelsMotivation and persistenceKnowledge of hidden rules

Integrity and trust

12

United States Official Poverty Guidelines: 2009

Family Size Annual Income

Four $ 22,050

Th $ 18 310

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Source: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (January 2009)

Three $ 18,310

Two $ 14,570

One $ 10,830

18

First-generation collegestudents often lack

intergenerational transfer of knowledgek l d f hidd l f

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knowledge of hidden rules of collegefuture storiessocial or bridging capital

20

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© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com 23

Research on poverty can be clustered into four major areas:

Behaviors of the IndividualHuman and Social Capital in the CommunityE l it ti

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ExploitationPolitical/Economic Structures

25

DependencyDependency

Single parenthoodSingle parenthood

Bad behavior of the individualBad behavior of the individual

Values and work ethicValues and work ethic

Breakup of familiesBreakup of families

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Breakup of familiesBreakup of families

Addiction, Mental IllnessAddiction, Mental Illness

Language experienceLanguage experience

27

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Lack of career ladder between service and knowledge sectors

Lack of career ladder between service and knowledge sectors

Lack of employmentLack of employment

Lack of educationLack of education

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Middle-class flightMiddle-class flight

Declining neighborhoodsDeclining neighborhoods

Inadequate skill setsInadequate skill sets

30

Exploitation of dominated groups for profit

Exploitation of dominated groups for profit

Exploitation of dominated groups for k

Exploitation of dominated groups for k

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marketsmarkets

Exploitation of regions for resources and raw materials

Exploitation of regions for resources and raw materials

33

DeindustrializationDeindustrialization

Shrinking middle classShrinking middle class

Economic disparityEconomic disparity

The “race to the bottom”The “race to the bottom”

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GlobalizationGlobalization

Corporate influence on legislators

Corporate influence on legislators

36

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Race and

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Gender

41

Race mattersMore than black/white dichotomyInteraction with other oppressions

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ppIdentity formation/Racialization

42

Risk Factors

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Effects of Income on Educational AchievementNeed for RemediationThe Double Whammy

43

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Part-time attendanceWorking full timeHaving dependent childrenBeing a single parentB i fi i ll i d d

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Being financially independentDelaying enrollment after high schoolHaving a GED (general educational

development) diploma

44

EnrollmentType of school selectedPerformance on ACT SAT and other tests

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Performance on ACT, SAT and other tests

45

Reading, Reading Writing MathWriting,or Math

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All institutions 28% 11% 14% 22%Public two-year 42% 20% 23% 35%Private two-year 24% 9% 17% 18%Public four-year 20% 6% 9% 16%Private four-year 12% 5% 7% 8%

Note. From Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000 (p. 18), by B. Parsad and L. Lewis, 2003, Washington, DC:

U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Copyright 2003 by U.S. Department of Education. 46

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Public Two-Year Public Four-Year Private Four-Year For-Profit

Low-income andfirst-generation 32% 12% 26% 26%

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first generation 32% 12% 26% 26%

Not low-income orfirst-generation 15% 4% 7% 18%

Note. From “Double Whammy of Disadvantage,” by D. Lederman, June 16, 2008. Copyright 2009 by Inside Higher Ed. Reprinted with permission.

47

Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change.Miller, William R., & Rollnick, Stephen. (2002). New York,

NY: Guilford Press

Beyond Advice: Becoming a Motivational Practitioner.Botelho, Richard J. (2002). Rochester, NY: Motivate

Healthy Habits

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Healthy Habits

NLP: The New Technology of Achievement.Andreas, Steve, & Faulkner, Charles. (Eds.). (1994). New

York, NY: Quill

49

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com 50

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Survival

R l ti hi

Work Political, financial, social connections

Driving Forces

Middle Income

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Relationships

Entertainment

Achievement

Material security

51

An individual’s resources are unique personal qualities gained from family, friends, communities, experiences, and the environment in general.

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com

Poverty can be defined as                 

“the extent to which an individualdoes without resources.”

52

Resources

Internal Resources External ResourcesKnowledge of Hidden Rules LanguageMental/Cognitive Relationships/Role Models

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com

Mental/Cognitive Relationships/Role ModelsEmotional Support SystemsMotivation/Persistence FinancialIntegrity/TrustPhysicalSpiritual

53

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Internal Resources

1.   Knowledge ofHidden Rules

h k

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Knowing the unspoken    cues and habits of a group

55

POVERTY MIDDLE CLASS WEALTH

POSSESSIONS People. Things. One-of-a-kind objects, legacies, pedigrees.

MONEY To be used, spent. To be managed. To be conserved, invested.

PERSONALITY Is for entertainment.Sense of humor is highly valued.

Is for acquisition and stability. Achievement is highly valued.

Is for connections. Financial, political, social connections are highly valued.

SOCIAL EMPHASIS

Social inclusion of the people they like

Emphasis is on self-governance and self

Emphasis is on social exclusion

Hidden Rules of Economic Class

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EMPHASIS people they like. governance and self-sufficiency.

exclusion.

FOOD Key question: Did you have enough? Quantity important.

Key question: Did you like it? Quality important.

Key question: Was it presented well? Presentation important.

CLOTHING Clothing valued for individual style and expression of personality.

Clothing valued for its quality and acceptance into the norms of middle class. Label important.

Clothing valued for its artistic sense and expression.Designer important.

TIME Present most important. Decisions made for moment based on feelings or survival.

Future most important. Decisions made against future ramifications.

Traditions and past history most important. Decisions made partially on basis of tradition decorum. 56

POVERTY MIDDLE CLASS WEALTH

EDUCATION Valued and revered as abstract but not as reality.Education is about facts.

Crucial for climbing success ladder and making money.

Necessary tradition for making and maintaining connections.

DESTINY Believes in fate. Cannot do much to mitigate chance.

Believes in choice. Can change future with good choices now.

Noblesse oblige.

LANGUAGE Casual register. Language is about survival.

Formal register. Language is about negotiation.

Formal register.Language is about connection.

Hidden Rules of Economic Class

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FAMILY STRUCTURE

Tends to be matriarchal. Tends to be patriarchal. Depends on who has/controls money.

WORLD VIEW Sees world in terms of local setting.

Sees world in terms of national setting.

Sees world in terms of an international view.

LOVE Love and acceptance conditional, based on whether individual is liked.

Love and acceptance conditional, based largely on achievement.

Love and acceptance conditional, related to social standing and connections.

DRIVING FORCES Survival, relationships, entertainment.

Work and achievement. Financial, political, social connections.

57

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Tends to be matriarchal

POVERTY

FAMILY STRUCTURE

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Depends on who has the money

Tends to be patriarchalMIDDLE CLASS

WEALTH

73

Family Structure

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Jane

Family Structure

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JaneBob

Jill June

Steve

Bob Jr.

Family Structure

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Steve

79

Is able to adapt to social situations outside one’s comfort zoneCan identify at school or work what will actually get you into trouble versus what the rules say will get you into troubleCan identify and avoid “pet peeves” of persons in charge—that is, boss, teacher, adviser, etc.

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com

that is, boss, teacher, adviser, etc.Is successful with different teachers, students, bossesKnows who the “real authority” is in a given situation versus the “stated authority”Can work/learn from others, even if he/she does not like themCan appropriately use humor or avoid using humor as is appropriate to the situation

Adapted from Payne, Under‐Resourced Learners, 2008, pp. 13–14, and DeVol, Getting Ahead in a Just‐Gettin’‐by World

81

Hidden rules of campus and classroomContent driven to pedagogy driven 

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Organizing knowledge – unpacking instructional design

84

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Does this individual know the hidden rules of work and school?

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How important are achievement and work?

Will this individual give up achievement and work for relationships?

86

1.   Knowledge of Hidden Rules

2. Mental/Cognitive Resources

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gHaving the mental abilities and acquired skills (reading, writing, computing) to deal with daily life.

87

To survive in poverty, one must rely upon non-verbal, sensory, and reactive skills.

T i i h l t

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To survive in school, one must use verbal, abstract, and proactive skills.

88

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MEDIATION

Identification

of the stimulus

Assignment of meaning

Identification of a strategy

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stimulus

WHAT

WHY

HOW

89

Cognitive Strategies

INPUT: Quantity and quality of data gathered

ELABORATION: Efficient use of data

1. Use planning behaviors.2. Focus perception on specific

stimulus.3. Control impulsivity.4. Explore data systematically.5. Use appropriate and accurate labels.6. Organize space using stable systems

f f

1. Identify and define the problem.2. Select relevant cues.3. Compare data.4. Select appropriate categories of time.5. Summarize data.6. Project relationship of data.7. Use logical data.8. Test hypothesis.9. Build inferences.10. Make a plan using the data.

© 2009 aha! Process, Inc. www.ahaprocess.com

Adapted from work of Reuven Feuerstein

OUTPUT: Communication of elaboration and input

of reference.7. Orient data in time.8. Identify constancies across

variations.9. Gather precise and accurate data.10. Consider two sources of information

at once.11. Organize data (parts of a whole).12. Visually transport data.

11. Use appropriate labels.12. Use data systematically.

1. Communicate clearly the labels and processes.2. Visually transport data correctly.3. Use precise and accurate language.4. Control impulsive behavior.

90

Note takingPlanning Skills

Pl i B k d

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Planning BackwardTime ManagementOrganization Skills

Controlling Impulsivity

93

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Cornell Note‐Taking System

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Cartoon Chapter

Sorting by Criteria and Patterns

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Steps

Topic: Length: Numbers of sources:

Primary Secondary

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Estimated time

Target date

Date assigned

Deadline

96

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Step Sheet

STEPS AMOUNT OF TIME

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

97

Organizational skills:Drilling Down

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If an individual depends upon a random episodic story structure for memory patterns, lives in an unpredictable environment, and HAS NOT DEVELOPED THE ABILITY TO PLAN, then ...

If an individual cannot plan, he/she CANNOT PREDICT.

If an individual cannot predict, he/she CANNOT IDENTIFY CAUSE AND EFFECT.

If an individual cannot identify cause and effect, he/sheCANNOT IDENTIFY CONSEQUENCE

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CANNOT IDENTIFY CONSEQUENCE.

If an individual cannot identify consequence, he/sheCANNOT CONTROL IMPULSIVITY.

If an individual cannot control impulsivity, he/she HAS AN INCLINATION TOWARD CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR.

99

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ABSTRACT ITEM REPRESENTS

Grades The ticket to get into college, a better job, more money

House deed The physical property

Address

S i l S it

The Paper World of Middle Class

For each of the items listed, what does the paper represent in the sensory world? Two examples are given.

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Social Security numberDaily to-do list

Clock or calendar

State assessment

Homework

Insurance papers

100

1. Embed the strategies into daily instruction and content.

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2. Direct‐teach strategies that have not been developed.

101

Can the individual read, write, and compute?Can the individual plan?

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Can the individual plan?Can the individual problem‐solve?Can the individual understand cause and effect, then identify consequence?

102

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1.        Knowledge of Hidden Rules2.        Mental/Cognitive Resources

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3. EmotionalBeing able to choose and control emotional responses, particularly to negative situations, without engaging in self-destructive behavior. This internal resource shows itself through stamina, perseverance, and choices.

103

Learning is double‐coded

Emotional– Tied to who we are and what we need to survive

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Cognitive– Tied to our mediated experiences and structures for learning

104

Instability (frequent moves)Fewer household routinesGreater incidence of family disruptions, violence, and separations

h hild i

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Harsher child‐rearing patternsLess emphasis on self‐directednessGreater exposure to aggressive peers and devianceLess interpersonal trustLess of a sense of belonging (connectedness) to school. 

(Evans, 2004, pp. 77–92; Greenspan and Benderly, 1977, p. 103 )

105

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Is there evidence that the individual has persistence?Can the individual be alone, or does he/she always need people around him/her?

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always need people around him/her?Does the individual act on feelings, i.e., hit when he/she is angry?Does the individual have coping strategies for adverse situations that are not destructive to self or others?

106

1.        Knowledge of Hidden Rules2.        Mental/Cognitive Resources3.  Emotional

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4.   Motivation and PersistenceHaving the energy and drive to undertake, prepare for, plan, and complete projects, jobs, and personal changes.

107

• Will be in control• Will be smarter• Will win more often• Won’t be cheated

You need to learn this, or do this, so that you:

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• Will be safe when you are oldAlso:• Life is like a card game—you get bad

hands• The mind is a tool or weapon that no

one can take away108

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1.        Knowledge of Hidden Rules2.        Mental/Cognitive Resources3.  Emotional

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4.   Motivation and Persistence

5. Integrity/TrustFirm adherence to a code of high moral values;  faithfulness. 

109

“Integrity and trust merit their owncategory due to the issues many people in poverty have with authority figures, aswell as issues many authority figures have

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with people from poverty—even the idea of their receiving an education.”

Understanding and Engaging Under‐Resourced College Students, p. 54

110

1.        Knowledge of Hidden Rules2.        Mental/Cognitive Resources3.  Emotional4 I i /T

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4.  Integrity/Trust5.   Motivation and Persistence

6. PhysicalHaving physical health and mobility.

111

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The richer you are, the healthier you are.

The poorer you are the sicker you are

What is the relationship between health and poverty?

Health IssuesThe SES Gradient

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The poorer you are, the sicker you are.

Living in poverty is a risk factor for stress-related illnesses.

It is NOT entirely due to lack of access.Source: Robert Sapolsky. Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers. (1998). 

112

Can the individual take care of himself/herself without help?

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p

Does the physical body allow the person to work and to learn?

114

1.        Knowledge of Hidden Rules2.        Mental/Cognitive Resources3.  Emotional4 Integrity/Trust

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4.  Integrity/Trust5.   Motivation and Persistence6.  Physical

7. SpiritualBelieving in (divine) purpose and guidance.

115

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Spirituality generally is a source of optimism and hope and may be a basis for one’s value system.

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Does the individual believe in divine guidance and assistance?Does the individual have religious

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Does the individual have religious affiliation—e.g., church, mosque, synagogue?

117

External Resources

1. Language

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g gBeing able to speak and use formal register in writing and in speech.

119

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Registers of languageDiscourse patternsStory structure

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VocabularyVoice

120

REGISTER EXPLANATIONFROZEN Language that is always the same.

For example: Lord’s Prayer, wedding vows, etc.FORMAL The standard sentence syntax and word choice of

work and school. Has complete sentences and specific word choice.

CONSULTATIVE Formal register when used in conversation.

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gDiscourse pattern not quite as direct as formal register.

CASUAL Language between friends, characterized by a 400- to 800-word vocabulary. Word choice general and not specific. Conversation dependent upon nonverbal assists. Sentence syntax often incomplete.

INTIMATE Language between lovers or twins. Language of sexual harassment.

Adapted from Martin Joos

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PATTERNS OF DISCOURSE

FORMAL CASUAL

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STORY STRUCTURES

CASUAL

FORMAL

B                                                                        E

PLOT

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CASUAL

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Voices Quit picking on me. You made me do it.You don't love me. You made me mad.You want me to leave. She, he ______ did it.Nobody likes (loves) me. Don't blame me.I hate you. It's your fault.You're ugly. You make me sick.

CHILD

You (shouldn't) should do that.It's wrong (right) to do ______.That's stupid, immature, out of line, ridiculous.Life's not fair. Get busy.You are good, bad, worthless, beautiful (any judgmental, evaluative comment).You do as I say.f

PAREN

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In what ways could this be resolved?What factors will be used to determine the effectiveness/quality of ______?I would like to recommend ______.What are choices in this situation?I am comfortable (uncomfortable) with ______.Options that could be considered are ______.For me to be comfortable, I need the following things to occur: ______.These are the consequences of that choice/action: ______.We agree to disagree.

ADULT

If you weren't so ______, this wouldn't happen to you.Why can’t you be like ______?

T

Adapted from work of Eric Berne.131

External Resources

1. Language

2 Relationships/Role Models

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2.Relationships/Role ModelsHaving frequent access to adult(s) who are appropriate, who are nurturing to the child, and who do not engage in self‐destructive behavior.

132

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"No significantlearning occurs

without a

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without asignificant

relationship."

–Dr. James Comer

133

Who in the household cares about this person? Whom does this person care about in the household?

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Is there someone who cares about this individual who is not destructive to self or to others?

139

External Resources

1. Language2. Relationships/Role Models

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3.Support SystemsHaving friends, family, and backup resources available to access in times of need. 

140

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Who is available to help this individual with time, money, know‐how, and advice?

Is this person the main support system for the household?

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What connections are available for this person?

What coping strategies are available in this household?

How much time is available to this person to devote to school and learning?

141

External Resources

1. Language2. Relationships/Role Models

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3. Support Systems

4.FinancialHaving the money to purchase goods and services.

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59% of poor renters spend more than 50% of their income on shelter

Housing Trends

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on shelter

Source: “Why America’s Workers Can’t Pay the Rent” (Summer 2000) by Peter Dreier in Dissent

144

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United States Official Poverty Guidelines: 2009

Family Size Annual Income

Four $ 22,050

Three $ 18 310

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Source: U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (January 2009)

Three $ 18,310

Two $ 14,570

One $ 10,830

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Is there $340 per month per person available?Is the issue the use of the finances versus the amount of finances?

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Is the approach “You owe me because I am poor”? Or is the approach “I am proud; you will never know that I am in financial need”?

150

Income# of

Households(in millions)

% of All Households

<$10k 8,455 7.23%$10k–$14.9k 7,051 6.03%$15k–$24.9k 13,528 11.59%$25k–$34.9k 12,532 10.73%$35k–$49.9k 16,521 14.15%

Breakdown of U.S. Households, by Total Money Income: 2007

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$35k $49.9k 16,521 14.15%$50k–$74.9k 21,268 18.22%$75k–$99.9k 13,841 11.85%$100k–$149.9k 14,214 12.17%$150k–$199.9k 5,115 4.38%$200k + 4,257 3.65%

Estimated median household income: $50,740Source: U. S. Census Bureau, 2007 American Community Survey

Source: U.S. Census Bureau and Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2007 Current Population Survey

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1. Analyze a student’s resources. Make interventions based on the resources that are present.

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p

2. Understand that failure is often related to missing resources. Is there a way to provide missing resources?

For example: a nurturing adult.

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Composed of 36 national associations

For purposes of developing and promulgating 

Getting Ahead at College and educating under‐resourced learners aligned w/ CAS’s assertion:

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p g gprofessional standards to guide those who administer student support programs and services

154

“Theory without practice is empty, and practice 

without theory is blind.”

(Dean, 2006, p. 8)

154

Realistically linking the student to the institution

Affirming and teaching about diversity and multiculturalism so that students can become change agents for themselves and their community

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Promoting change for individuals and their society in truly “benevolent environments” conducive to student learning and development

Creating mentoring relationships between students and “those who facilitate their learning and development” (p. 9) that are founded on humane, ethical practices

155

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1. Intellectual growth: Produces personal and educational goal statements; exercises critical thinking in problem solving; applies previously understood information

2. Effective communication: Writes and speaks coherently and effectively, after reflection; effectively articulates abstract ideas; uses appropriate syntax

3. Enhanced self‐esteem: Shows self‐respect and respect for others; takes reasonable risks; engages in assertive behavior as appropriate

4. Realistic self‐appraisal: Acknowledges strengths and weaknesses; seeks feedback; learns from past experiences

5. Clarified values: Makes decisions that reflect personal values; explains how values influence 

The 16 examples of outcome achievement, adapted from CAS (2006), are:

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decision making

6. Career choices: Articulates career choices based on assessment of interests, skills, values, and abilities; makes connection between classroom and out‐of‐classroom learning; can articulate preferred work environment

7. Leadership development: Serves as leader; understands group dynamics; can visualize group purpose and desired outcomes

8. Healthy behavior: Chooses behaviors that promote health and reduce risk, and advance a healthy community

9. Meaningful interpersonal relationships: Develops and maintains satisfying interpersonal relationships, establishes mutually rewarding relationships with friends and colleagues; listens to others’ points of view; treats others with respect

162

10. Independence: Exhibits self‐reliant behavior; functions autonomously; accepts supervision; manages time effectively

11. Collaboration: Works cooperatively with others; seeks involvement and feedback; works toward group goal(s)

12. Social responsibility: Understands and participates  in governance systems; challenges unjust behavior; participates in service/volunteer activities, as well as takes part in orderly change of community, social, and legal standards or norms

13. Satisfying and productive lifestyle: Achieves balance among education, work, and leisure; meets goals; overcomes obstacles; functions on the basis of personal identity and ethical, spiritual, and 

The 16 examples of outcome achievement, adapted from CAS (2006), are:

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g ; ; p y , p ,moral values

14. Appreciating diversity: Understands own identity and culture; seeks involvement with people different from self and with diverse interests; challenges stereotypes; understands impact of diversity on society

15. Spiritual awareness: Develops and articulates personal belief system; understands roles of spirituality in personal and group values and behaviors

16. Personal and educational goals: Sets, articulates, and pursues individual goals; uses personal and educational goals to guide decisions; understands effect of one’s personal and educational goals on others (pp. 23–24)

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Resources Outcome:SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Knowledge of hidden rules

Able to adapt to social situations outside of his/her comfort zone *

Knows who the “real authority” is in a given situation vs. the “stated authority” *

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Resources Outcome:REALISTIC SELF-APPRAISAL

Mental/cognitive

Is aware of his/her own strengths and weaknesses

Has procedural self-talk *

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Resources Outcome:SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

Financial Manages credit card use for minimal to no debt *

Has stable place to live *;If owns a car, has insurance*Has health insurance *Understands and maintains a “credit report”

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Understands and maintains a credit reportPuts a portion of money away for the future *

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ResourcesOutcome:

MEANINGFUL INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS

Motivation/persistence

Seeks to do the right thing for self, others, and organizations *

Is flexible and adaptable as situations warrant *

Enjoys learning new things for the sake of

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Enjoys learning new things for the sake of learning *

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The traditional expectation that students will mold themselves to the institution’s expectations and norms is simply too big a leap for too many

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students, especially those in the under-resourced demographic.

Understanding and Engaging Under-resourced College Students, p. 161

172

The convergence of low literacy levels, poverty, an aging population, immigration, and the globalization of business means that working with the growing and significant segment of the population that comes from

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generational poverty is no longer only a moral obligation. It also has become an economic imperative.

America’s Perfect StormKirsch, Braun, Yamamoto, & Sum, 2007

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Paradigm shifts call for changes to

classroomsstudent servicesaccreditation standardsinstitution’s partnerships

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This is not to say that traditional higher education is obsolete or misguided, but rather that the typical college/university perspective needs rethinking.

174

REFORMULATING THE PREMISES OF HIGHEREDUCATION: StudentsStudentsTraditional Assumptions New Paradigms

Under-resourced students with multiple learning barriers, less-than-ideal background preparation, and

i d d b h

Students prepared with internal and external

f d

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Under-resourced students seen as problem solvers and creators

Unprepared students seen as remedial, high-risk

competing demands brought on as a result of highly complex life conditions

resources, focused on educational priority

Note. From Helping Under-Resourced Learners Succeed at the College and University Level: What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why (p. 3), by K. Krodel, K. Becker, H. Ingle, and S. Jakes, 2008. Copyright 2008 by aha! Process. Adapted with permission.

175

REFORMULATING THE PREMISES OF HIGHEREDUCATION: Learning EnvironmentLearning EnvironmentTraditional Assumptions New Paradigms

Faculty as learning facilitators using discipline specific expertise to engage students in supported,Faculty as discipline-specific

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Contextualized and situated learning connects students to each other and to the community in the learning tasks

Students isolated from each other and the community in the learning tasks

engage students in supported,relational, cooperative learning environments

experts

Note. From Helping Under-Resourced Learners Succeed at the College and University Level: What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why (p. 3), by K. Krodel, K. Becker, H. Ingle, and S. Jakes, 2008. Copyright 2008 by aha! Process. Adapted with permission.

176

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REFORMULATING THE PREMISES OF HIGHEREDUCATION: InstitutionsInstitutionsTraditional Assumptions New Paradigms

Student retention, persistence, achievement, andcompletion as top priorities

Enrollment-driven

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Intentional structured development of human and social capital for achievement, sustainability, andprosperity

Development of human and social capital secondary to scholarship and research

completion as top priorities

Note. From Helping Under-Resourced Learners Succeed at the College and University Level: What Works, What Doesn’t, and Why (p. 3), by K. Krodel, K. Becker, H. Ingle, and S. Jakes, 2008. Copyright 2008 by aha! Process. Adapted with permission.

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… from the personal to the external,

… from small problems to big ones,

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… from concrete to abstract and back again.

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What life is like nowCauses of poverty

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p yCommunity sustainability grid

185

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Individual Agency Community Policy

Behavior of the Individual

Human and Social Capital

H E l it ti

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Human Exploitation

Political/ Economic Structures

186

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3. Understanding Present Circumstances:Assessments

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Financial

EmotionalMental Spiritual

Physical

Bridging

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Hidden rules (Choice: two sets)

BondingSupport systems

Role models

1 2 3 4 5 - ?

190

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4. Gaining powerby building resources

193

Adult Learning Theories

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Practices and Assumptions in Higher Education

Relational Learning

196

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Future orientation, h i

TOOLS

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choice, and power

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