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Why do people participate? How does socialization happen online? Social Computing 2009 Julita...

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  • Why do people participate? How does socialization happen online?Social Computing 2009 Julita Vassileva,

  • Overview of theories of motivationMaslows TheoryAlderferS ERG TheoryAcquired Needs TheoryCognitive Evaluation TheoryTwo Factor TheoryEquity TheoryReinforcement TheoryExpectancy Theory

  • Maslows hierarchy of needs and other related theories

    Physiological SafetyBelongingnessEsteemSelf- actualizationHome: education, religion, hobbies, personal growth Job: training, advancement, growth, creativityHome: approval of family, friends, community Job: recognition, high status, responsibilitiesHome: family, friends, clubs Job: teams, coworkers, clients, supervisors, subordinatesHome: freedom from war, poison, violence Job: work safety, job security, health insuranceHome: food water sex Job: heat, air, base salaryLower needs take priority. They must be fulfilled before the others are activated.Alderfer classifies needs into 3 categories, also ordered hierarchically: - Existence (physical well-being) - Relatedness (satisfactory relations with others) - Growth (development of competence and realization of potential)His ERG theory is more general than Maslow, he also believed that as you start satisfying higher needs, they become more intense, like an addiction.

  • One more needs theoryAcquired Needs Theory (McClellan) focuses on the upper 3 levels of Maslow. It suggests that these needs are acquired as a result of life experiences: Need for achievement, accomplish something difficult (kids are encouraged to do things themselves, e.g. tie their shoes)Need for affiliation, form close personal relationships (kids are encouraged to make friends) Need for power, to control others (kids learn that they can get what they want by crying, exerting power over their parents).

  • Cognitive Evaluation TheoryTwo motivation systems: intrinsic and extrinsicIntrinsic motivators: achievement, responsibility and competence; motivators come from actual performance on the task or jobExtrinsic motivators: marks, pay, promotion, feedback, working conditions; rewards come from the persons environment, controlled by others. Intrinsically motivated people perform for their own satisfaction. Adding extrinsic incentives actually reduces their motivation.

  • Equity TheorySuppose employee A gets a 20% raise and B gets a 10% raise. Will both be motivated as a result? Will A be twice as motivated? Will B be demotivated?It is not the actual reward that motivates, but the perception, and the perception is based on the comparison with the efforts that went into getting the reward and the reward and efforts of others. But it is hard to predict how a person will react: People do not have information about how others are rewarded (perceptions, rumours, inferences)Some people are more sensitive to equity than othersSome people are willing to ignore short-term inequalities for a long-term equity.

  • Two Factor Theory (Herzberg)Two kinds of factors that affect motivationHygiene factors their absence motivates, but their presence has no effect (people would act to get them back if they lose them) determine dissatisfactionMotivators factors whose presence motivates (people will act to gain them) determine satisfaction

  • Reinforcement TheorySkinners Operant Conditioning the effects of the consequences of a particular behaviour on the future occurrence of that behaviourFour types of Operant Conditioning:Positive reinforcementNegative reinforcementPunishmentExtinctionTo strengthen behaviourTo weaken behaviour

  • a matter of perspective

  • Reinforcement Theory

    ApplyWithholdRewardpositive reinforcement (raise above baseline)negative reinforcement (raise up to baseline)Stressorpunishment (bring down below baseline)extinction (stay at baseline)

    FixedVariableIntervalgive reward after first proper response following a specified time period (yearly raise)[short term]give reward after a certain amt of time w/ the amt changing before the next reward (unexpected bonus based on merit)[medium term]Ratiopunishment (subtract from baseline) (commissions or piecework pay)[medium term]give reward after a number of responses, w/ that no. changing before the next reward (team-based bonus)[long term]

  • Expectancy TheoryVroom: combines the perceptual aspects of equity theory with the behavioural aspects of the other theories.M=E*I*V Motivation=Expectancy*Instrumentality*ValenceM (motivation) is the amount a person will be motivated by the situation they find themselves in. It is a function of the following.E (expectancy) = The person's perception that effort will result in performance. In other words, the person's assessment of the degree to which effort actually correlates with performance.I (instrumentality) = The person's perception that performance will be rewarded/punished. I.e., the person's assessment of how well the amount of reward correlates with the quality of performance. (Note here that the model is phrased in terms of extrinsic motivation, in that it asks 'what are the chances I'm going to get rewarded if I do good job?'. But for intrinsic situations, we can think of this as asking 'how good will I feel if I can pull this off?').V(valence) = The perceived strength of the reward or punishment that will result from the performance. If the reward is small, the motivation will be small, even if expectancy and instrumentality are both perfect (high).

  • Overview of theories of motivationMaslows TheoryAlderferS ERG TheoryAcquired Needs TheoryCognitive Evaluation TheoryTwo Factor TheoryEquity TheoryReinforcement TheoryExpectancy Theory

    Based on a hierarchy of needs (internal for the individual)Based on factors influencing motivation: internal, external, socialDevelopment of needsFocusing on extrinsic motivation only based on rewards/punishments

  • Two more theoriesMore general theories in Social Psychology, which have implications to motivation Attitude change, Relationships change, An individuals wellbeing in a group

  • Cognitive Coherence TheoryPeople try to keep their mental models consistent (less effort). Inconsistency evokes uncomfortable emotions (uncertainty, embarrassment, confusion)Cognitive dissonance: self-explanations to reconsileKeeping commitmentsBalance theory (Haider) Symmetry theory (Newcomb)-+++--+

  • Social ComparisonFestinger, 1954: People tend to compare themselves with others who they perceive as similar to them in order to evaluate or enhance some aspects of the selfWhether social comparison serves a self-enhancement function depends on whether the comparer assimilates or contrasts his or her self relative to superior or inferior others.Complications:Measure of similarity depends on the questionUpward and downward comparison?Assimilation and contrast in social comparisonAssimilation facilitated by the belief that one can obtain the same status as the targetContrast facilitated by the personal relevance of the attributes that one has in common with the other person, by ones extremity on those attributes and by the salience of the individual self (I)

  • The Collective Effort Model (Karau & Williams 1982)

  • The Collective Effort Model(Karau & Williams 1982)

  • Common Identity and Common Bond TheoriesAn individual would be motivated to contribute if she identifies with the community as a whole

    Or if she feels connected with other members of the community

  • Persuasion May appeal to reason with rhetoric May appeal to emotions (perceived scarcity, etc.) May appeal to the collective / social (liking, authority, etc.) May manipulate (bait & switch; get you to commit)

    Is there theory in the creative strategies of advertising?

  • Example: The classic AVIS campaign

  • TheoriesIt seems that all of these are descriptive theories pick particular features from a complex reality and paint a picture that makes sensebut predicting the future is hard

    **According to the Maslows theory, if you are hungry and have inadequate shelter, you won't go to church. Can't do the higher things until you have the lower things. But the poor tend to be more religious than the rich. Both within a given culture, and across nations.So the theory makes the wrong prediction here.Or take education: how often do you hear "I can't go to class today, I haven't had sex in three days!"?

    Alderfers theory is similar, but more general, with just 3 levels of needs. He also suggests that higher-level needs can gain importance (are addictive).

    Finally, the Acquired Needs Theory by McClellan focuses on the upper 3 levels of Maslow. It suggests that these needs are acquired as a result of life experiences: Need for achievement, accomplish something difficult (kids are encouraged to do things themselves, e.g. tie their shoes)Need for affiliation, form close personal relationships (kids are encouraged to make friends) Need for power, to control others (kids learn that they can get what they want by crying, exerting power over their parents).

    ****Positive reinforcement. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of getting goodies as a consequence of a behavior. You make a sale, you get a commission. You do a good job, you get a bonus & a promotion. Negative reinforcement. Strengthening a behavior. This is the process of having a stressor taken away as a consequence of a behavior. Long-term sanctions are removed from countries when their human rights records improve. (you see how successful that is!). Low status as geek at Salomon Brothers is removed when you make first big sale. Extinction. Weakening a behavior. This is the process of getting no goodies when do a behavior. So if person does extra effort, but gets no thanks fo

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