BIOJIHADBy A. J. Weberman
This article will give you an idea of the United States germ warfare capability ending in the 1970s when Nixon put an end to this vile science. That was 40 years ago if the jihadists, who will now have access to university laboratories in countries like Egypt even get one tenth of this antiquated germ warfare technology countless human lives will end in death and tragedy. William Capers Patrick was one of the last surviving remnants of the period when the CIA and scientists working at Fort Detricks Special Operations Division were into conducting biological warfare vulnerability tests on different segments of the American infrastructure such as airports, subways, bus stations etc. He was also an important part of the CIAs PROJECT MKULTRA that tested various substances on unwitting subjects. Most importantly of all he had worked on projects that involved
assassination and like his associate Dr. Sydney Gottlieb, may have himself carried out assassination plots involving the covert transmission of biological substances. William Capers Patrick III was born July 24, 1926, the only child of a southern couple from Furman, South Carolina whose families were of Scotch-Irish descent. His middle name was taken from a relation who was a Methodist bishop despite the fact he pulled off numerous capers in his time. Patrick described the inception of American biowarfare, In 1942, the United States initiated its biological warfare program with a commission headed up by a Dr. George W. Merck. Intelligence indicated that both the Japanese and the Germans were investigating biological warfare. Dr. Merck reported back to President Roosevelt that biological warfare seemed feasible, but the only way to demonstrate that feasibility was to actually get in the production of agents. Then, the research and development center, Camp Detrick, came on stream in 1943.1 Dr. Merck would eventually label Patrick and his associates at Fort Detrick as un-American because what they created could wipe humanity off the face of the earth. Patrick considered germ warfare humane: I can make a very good case for biological warfare as a more humane way of fighting war than with the atom bomb and chemical warfare. We can incapacitate a population with less than one percent of the people becoming ill and dying. And then we take over facilities that are intact. When you bomb a country, you not only kill people but you destroy the very facilities that are needed to treat them -- the electricity, water, all the infrastructure is gone when you bomb. What if Patrick miscalculated and 99% became ill and died? What would he say then? Well back to the drawing board? In April 1951 after a background check that took more than half a year, Patrick won a top-secret clearance and permission to work at Camp Detrick. Workers there had already erected Building 470, a windowless prototype factory for making anthrax. It was eight stories high. Patrick, who had been attracted to medicine not due to his interest in making anthrax but due to his interest in penicillin, became part of a group of people who would be in charge of vast quantities of the worlds deadliest bacteria and viruss.
Before Patrick arrived, in 1950, the CIA and the Army had already turned all the residents of San Francisco in human guinea pigs. That year, government officials believed that the bacteria agent Serratia Marcescens did not cause disease. Now we know it is a human pathogen that is intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobials and occurs predominantly in hospitalized patients. The Army used serratia to test whether enemy agents could launch a biological warfare attack on a port city such as San Francisco from a location several miles offshore. For six days in late September 1950, a small military vessel near San Francisco sprayed a huge cloud of serratia particles into the air while the weather favored dispersal. Then the Army went looking to find out where it landed. Serratia is known for forming bright red colonies when a soil or water sample is streaked on a culture medium -- a property that made it ideal for the biowarfare experiment. Army tests showed that the bacterial cloud had exposed hundreds of thousands of people in a broad swath of Bay Area communities including Sausalito, Albany, Berkeley, Oakland, San Leandro, and San Francisco. Soon after the spraying, 11 people came down with hard-to-treat infections at the old Stanford University Hospital in San Francisco. By November, one man had died. Edward Nevin, 75, a retired Pacific Gas and Electric Co. worker recovering from a prostate operation, had succumbed to an infection with Serratia marcescens that attacked his heart valves. The outbreak was so unusual that the Stanford doctors wrote it up for a medical journal. The government later denied any responsibility for the death or the other infections, producing evidence in court that its germs were not to blame. As the news of this surfaced in 1976, doctors started wondering whether the Army experiment that seeded the Bay Area with serratia two decades earlier might be responsible for heart valve infections then cropping up as well as serious infections seen among intravenous drug users in the '60s and '70s. Before the 1950 experiment, serratia was not a common environmental bacterium in the Bay Area nor did it frequently cause hospital infections.
At Camp Detrick Patrick evaluated viral agents that the scientists were developing and did experiments to see if the microbes could be produced easily in bulk and still maintain their virulence. He was a production engineer, though at this time, in the early 1950s, he was also working toward a doctorate in microbiology at the University of Maryland after which he went into research and development. Among the viruses that Patrick and his colleagues developed as weapons were those that give rise to encephalitis, a brain disease of fevers, seizures, comas, and in some cases death. Another was the yellow fever virus, which causes chills, stomach bleeding, and yellow skin due to liver failure and bile accumulation. The scientists also investigated rickettsiae, which range in size between viruses and bacteria. Like viruses, most burrow into cells to reproduce. Unlike viruses, antibiotics slow some. One rickettsia that Patrick studied was the Q-fever microbe, an extremely hardy germ that causes fevers, chills, and a throbbing headache, usually behind the eyes. Patrick had the slurries of Q-fever germs carefully transported to his test sites. The first was Detrick's own eight-story high anthrax machine. There, starting in early 1955, the Seventh Day Adventists gathered around the ball's periphery to don face masks and breathe deeply, inhaling mists of germs through rubber hoses connected to the ball's interior. Army experimenters administered a range of doses and droplet sizes to the men. Patrick himself came down with Q fever. In 1956, at the age of thirty, Patrick won a promotion and soon became responsible for designing a distant plant where the production methods perfected at Detrick would be reproduced on a large scale so that viruses could be made not by the ounce but also by the gallon and the drum. The site was the Pine Bluff Arsenal, an army base that had been carved out of the woods of central Arkansas. In May 1949 Fort Detricks Special Operations Division opened for dirty business scientists that studied biowarfare assassination and incapacitation customizing germs for use in the Cold War. SOD figured ways to kill an individual, disable a roomful of people or even touch off an epidemic. Special Operations Division personnel -- about 75 at the unit's peak -- didn't get the usual parking stickers. They had metal tags that could be removed from their cars when they traveled undercover. Fanning out across the country, Special Operations Division officers also played the role of bio-terrorists in an era before the word had even been coined. Doctor John Schwab headed SOD. His work included developing bacteria that were resistant to antibiotics and the aeration of liquid cultures of microorganisms. For assassination the CIA/SOD partnership preferred
botulinum. With an incubation period of eight to twelve hours it allowed the assassin to disappear. When the SOD conducted what it termed defensive tests their usual mock weapons were two forms of bacteria, Bacillus globigii (BG - Bacillus globigii is a safe, non-pathogenic microorganism which is used in a harmless way by the researchers to simulate the movement of clouds of sporulated bacteria) and Serratia Marcescens (SM). The existence of the Special Operations Division was revealed six years after it shut down, in a 1975 Senate Church Committee investigation into CIA abuses. Senators wanted to know why the CIA had retained a lethal stock of shellfish toxin and cobra venom after President Richard M. Nixon's 1969 order to destroy all biological weapons stocks. They found that the poisons had come from the Special Operations Division under a CIA-Army project code-named MKNAOMI. The Special Operations Division did some pretty bizarre research for CIA on Materials that will produce the signs and symptoms of recognized diseases in a reversible way so they can be used for malingering etc. SIDNEY GOTTLIEB In 1952, the CIA and the SOD embarked on Project MKNAOMI, the purpose of which was to stockpile lethal materials for the Technical Services Division of the CIA and to provide for testing, upgrading, and evaluation of these materials to insure complete predictability of results under operational conditions. The Technical Services Division developed darts coated with biological agents that were so tiny the victim could feel nothing as one penetrated clothing and skin. Furthermore, no trace of the dart or the poison would be found in later medical examination of the cadaver. The Technical Services Division also developed pills that cont