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11/21/2014 1 1 NPWIS Tailings Dams They Need to Stay Here Forever Cecil M. Urlich, P.E., P.Eng. and Kris Fabian, PhD, P.E., P.Eng. of AECOM + URS Corporation to 54th Annual Conference Pacific Northwest International Section Air & Waste Management Association Davenport Hotel, Spokane, Washington October 28, 2014 2 Tailing Storage Facility Importance Necessary and permanent infrastructure of most mines Varying technical, operational, and closure requirements Major contributor to Capex and Sustaining Capital expenditures Significant pressure on Return on Investment A top challenge in obtaining “Social License to Operate” High contributor to Corporate risk during and after mining The risk stays forever so need continued monitoring & surveillance Incidents and failures do happen (e.g. Mount Polley, 2014) 3 Tailings Dams versus Water Dams Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote. Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities. 4 Tailings Dams versus Water Dams Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote. Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities. Liability / Asset - Tailings dams are a non profitable part of a mine operation because they store waste which is a liability instead of water which is an asset
Transcript
Page 1: Wolf XBox 360 Installation Manual - Wolf Controller

11/21/2014

1

1

NPWIS

Tailings Dams

They Need to Stay Here Forever

Cecil M. Urlich, P.E., P.Eng. and

Kris Fabian, PhD, P.E., P.Eng. of

AECOM + URS Corporation

to

54th Annual Conference

Pacific Northwest International Section

Air & Waste Management Association

Davenport Hotel, Spokane, Washington

October 28, 2014

2

Tailing Storage Facility Importance

• Necessary and permanent infrastructure of most mines

• Varying technical, operational, and closure requirements

• Major contributor to Capex and Sustaining Capital expenditures

• Significant pressure on Return on Investment

• A top challenge in obtaining “Social License to Operate”

• High contributor to Corporate risk during and after mining

• The risk stays forever so need continued monitoring & surveillance

• Incidents and failures do happen (e.g. Mount Polley, 2014)

3

Tailings Dams versus Water Dams

• Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote. Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities.

4

Tailings Dams versus Water Dams

• Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote. Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities.

• Liability / Asset - Tailings dams are a non profitable part of a mine operation because they store waste which is a liability instead of water which is an asset

Page 2: Wolf XBox 360 Installation Manual - Wolf Controller

11/21/2014

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5

Tailings Dams versus Water Dams

• Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote. Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities.

• Liability / Asset - Tailings dams are a non profitable part of a mine operation because they store waste which is a liability instead of water which is an asset

• Observational Approach - Design & construction evolve as during mining. Tailings rise. Plans, design codes, regulatory guidelines and technologies change. Lessons are learned.

6

Tailings Dams versus Water Dams

• Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote. Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities.

• Liability / Asset - Tailings dams are a non profitable part of a mine operation because they store waste which is a liability instead of water which is an asset

• Observational Approach - Design & construction evolve as during mining. Tailings rise. Plans, design codes, regulatory guidelines and technologies change. Lessons are learned.

• Tailings Use - Tailings properties and disposal methods can be optimized to influence a dam design including the use of tailings as construction materials and building on tailings.

7

Tailings Dams versus Water Dams

• Locations – Tailings dams are for mine support where ore deposits are found and are often remote . Water dams are for human convenience and mostly near communities.

• Liability / Asset - Tailings dams are a non profitable part of a mine operation because they store waste which is a liability instead of water which is an asset

• Observational Approach - Design & construction evolve as during mining. Tailings rise. Plans, design codes, regulatory guidelines and technologies change. Lessons are learned.

• Tailings Use - Tailings properties and disposal methods can be optimized to influence a dam design including the use of tailings as construction materials and building on tailings.

• Facility Life - Tailings are a waste and must be stored forever with monitoring & surveillance. Water dams can be removed when they no longer serve a useful purpose.

Tailings Reclamation Plan Approach

• Plan and develop with closure in mind

• This requires continued integration of:

• Pre-feasibility & Feasibility - years to decades

• Planning & Design – years to decades

• Construction & Operation - years to decades

• Closure - years to decades

• Post-closure - forever

• To reduce long-term liability, must consider:• All phases of facility

• How they interact

8

Page 3: Wolf XBox 360 Installation Manual - Wolf Controller

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Project # 1- Planned Tailings Pond

• Confidential project in North America

• Climate extremes with sub-zero winters

• Short construction season

• Flat terrain & shallow groundwater

• At pre-feasibility study level

• Tailings storage ring dam planned

• Tailings area estimate ~ 1485 acres

• Tailings surface dimension ~ 8000’ x 8000’

9

Conceptual Tailings Initial Cell Layout

10

Cell 1 Cell 2

Cell 3

Cell 4

Closure Options

• Option 1 - Dry Closure Out Slope

• Mound with perimeter drain water discharge

• Option 2 – Wet Closure

• Lake with spillway water discharge

• Option 3 – Dry Closure In Slope

• Depression with central decant water discharge

11

Option 1 – Dry Closure Out Slope

12

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Option 3 – Dry Closure In Slope

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Planning Level Cost Comparisons

• Option 1A $ 2,082 M

• Option 1B $ 1,435 M

• Option 2 $ 125 M + water treatment

• Option 3 $ 119 M

• All cost estimates consider CAPEX only

• Option 2 water treatment cost in perpetuity

14

Project # 2 – Lucky Friday Tailings Ponds

• My introduction to tailings dams - 1976

• TP 1 thought to be as high as could go

• TP 2 squeezed in by property boundaries

• TP 3 planned at new greenfield site

• TP 1 looked worth evaluating for expansion

• Performed geotechnical investigation

• Completed cyclic shear tests for liquefaction

• Designed & raised in three upstream lifts

• Benched raises back on tailings for stability

• TP 3 starter dam and creek diversion deferred15

Tailings Pond 1 Raise Exploration

Page 5: Wolf XBox 360 Installation Manual - Wolf Controller

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Tailings Pond 1 Raise Instrumentation Tailings Pond 1 Raise Construction

Tailings Pond 3 Construction Tailings Pond 3 Construction

Page 6: Wolf XBox 360 Installation Manual - Wolf Controller

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Project # 3 – Sunshine Tailings Ponds

• Follow up to Lucky Friday & Star pond work

• Existing ring tailings pond topped out

• New pond designed on old golf course

• New golf course built on upper terrace

• Big Creek relocated around new dam site

• New starter dam built of gravels & mine waste

• Dam later raised by upstream construction

• Mining ceased and pond shuttered

• Pond can be reactivated if mining resumes

21

Relocated Big Creek for Sunshine Tailings Pond

Sunshine Tailings Starter Dam Construction Project # 4 – Holden Mine Tailings Ponds

• Cu, Zn & Au mined - 1935 to 1957 in WA

• Remote mountain terrain, sub-zero winters

• Operated own school & rope toe ski hill

• Three tailings ponds up to 120’ high

• All built by upstream construction

• Deeded to Lutheran Bible Institute

• Now Holden Village USFS Special Use Permit

• 5,000 to 6,000 visitors/year, 70 residents

• Remediation & reclamation 2011 to date

24

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Tailings Dam Construction - 1938 Tailings Pond Development

Same View 60 Years Later Tailings Exploration Test Pit

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Tailings Sample for Testing Project # 5 – Red Dog Mine Tailings Dam

• Stage I (starter dam) built 1988

• Stage II to VI raises built 1989 to 1994

• Stage VII to IX raise built 2003 to 2013

• Stage X widening planned to start 2014

• All raises by downstream construction

• Tailings single point moving discharge

• Draft closure plan developed 2004 to 2009

• Current closure plan is wet closure (lake)

• 300’ wide tailings beach reduces seepage

• 600’ wide beach driven by closure plan 30

Current Dam Construction - 1990 Red Dog Tailings Facility

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Tailings Dam Crest & Beach Tailings Beach Widening to 600’

Tailings Beach Widening to 600’ Project # 6 – Tundra Mine Tailings Dams

• Tundra & Salmita Mines, NT, Canada

• Tailings deposited in lake 1960s & 1980s

• Dams built along low lake shores 1980s

• Tailings facility partly remediated late 1980s

• Entire mine facility abandoned in early 1990s

• Tailings dam safety inspections started 2001

• Lake received and discharged water to 2013

• Discharged water impacted by tailings contact

• Lake water treated & discharged 2010 to 2013

• Tailings facility remediation 2010 to 201536

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Tundra Tailings Upper & Lower Ponds

37

Tundra Tailings Water Management

38

URS construction

39

Project # 7 – Farley Mine Tailings Ponds

• Former Ni mine, Northern Manitoba

• 800 acres tailings ponds

• Closure issues - terrain, rainfall & freshet

• Acid generation affecting fishing grounds

• Key closure element surface runoff ditch.

• Low permeability cover placed over tailings

• Tailings sand covered with geomembrane

• Tailings fines covered with crushed rock

40

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Farley Mine Tailings Closure

Farley Mine Closure

• 3M cy soil/waste-rock/tailings moved

• 64,000 cy sediment dredged

• 450 acres geomembrane installed

• 700 million gallons of water treated

• 30,000’ dykes buttressed & armored

• 500,000 cy rock cover installed

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Project # 8 – Cerro Negro Tailings Ponds

• Two side by side contiguous tailings ponds

• Pond 1 inactive and dry with no surface pond

• Pond 2 active and wet with surface pond

• Earthquake in 2003

• Pond 1 remained intact

• Pone 2 failed

• Tailings flowed 20 km down Rio La Ligua

• Lesson – keep ponds as dry as possible

• Lesson – maintain dry ponds at closure

45

Two Ponds After Earthquake - 2003

• Earthquake – Failure & Non-Failure

Project # 9 – Castro Cove Sediment Cleanup

• Operations never considered legal liability associated with oily waste.

• Could have staged waste disposal and closed smaller cells of waste ponds.

• Used innovative approach:

• $100M liability turned out to be

• $43M construction that generated

• $130M value for the owner.

• This is an exception, not the general rule

• Shows how liability can become opportunity.

47

AOC

Castro Cove Sediment Cleanup

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March 2011August 2011

THANK YOU

QUESTIONS?

50


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