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Work and Leisure: Occupational and Lifestyle Issues in Young and Middle Adulthood Chapter Twelve.

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Work and Leisure: Occupational and Lifestyle Issues in Young and Middle Adulthood Chapter Twelve
  • Slide 1
  • Work and Leisure: Occupational and Lifestyle Issues in Young and Middle Adulthood Chapter Twelve
  • Slide 2
  • 12.1 Occupational Selection & Development Learning Objectives How do people view work? How do occupational priorities vary with age? How do people choose their occupations? What factors influence occupational development? What is the relation between job satisfaction and age?
  • Slide 3
  • The Meaning of Work Most people work to make a living but also find meaning in their work Research has found that people have four common ways in which personal fulfillment is derived from work Developing and becoming self Union with others Expressing self Serving others
  • Slide 4
  • The Meaning of Work Meaning-mission fit alignment between personal values and the corporate mission Three main categories of why people work achieve social influence, achieve personal fulfillment, economic reality
  • Slide 5
  • Hollands Theory of Occupational Choice Revisited People pursue careers that are a good fit between their abilities and interests Six personality types that combine these factors: investigative, social, realistic, artistic, conventional, and enterprising Hollands theory does not tell us much about the differences among ethnic groups or the match with personality type and occupational choices in adulthood
  • Slide 6
  • Social Cognitive Career Theory Career choice is influenced by what people think they can do Factors that influence choice of occupation- Self-efficacy Outcome expectations Interests Choice goals Supports Barriers
  • Slide 7
  • Occupation Choice Developmental process involving personal beliefs, ethnicity, gender, and economic factors
  • Slide 8
  • Occupational Development How we advance within chosen occupations depends on many factors including Professional socialization Expectations Support from coworkers Priorities Job satisfaction
  • Slide 9
  • Supers Theory People progress along a continuum of vocational maturity through five stages Implementation stage Establishment stage Maintenance stage Deceleration stage Retirement stage Five developmental occupational tasks Crystallization adolescence Specification adolescence Implementation early 20s, Try out various temporary jobs Stabilization mid 20s selecting a specific occupation
  • Slide 10
  • Supers Five Developmental Occupational Tasks cont. Consolidation mid 30s on, advancement up the career ladder Four developmental stages exploratory, establishment, maintenance, decline
  • Slide 11
  • Occupational Expectations Research by Levinson has shown that there are several major life tasks for adults Developing a goal is one of these tasks Changing interests and failure can be cause for changing the goal Leaving school and learning about the real world is often a time of reality shock for young adults
  • Slide 12
  • The Role of Mentors and Coaches More experienced workers often communicate the most critical kinds of information rather than formal training Mentors help young workers avoid trouble and explain the unwritten rules of the job Mentors often guide young workers and help to ensure that they are noticed and get credit from supervisors
  • Slide 13
  • The Role of Mentors Kram described four phases of the mentoring relationship: Initiation Cultivation Separation redefinition
  • Slide 14
  • Job Satisfaction Job satisfaction tends to increase with age Probably because with advancing age, workers tend to select and stay with jobs that satisfy them and move on from work that is less satisfying Middle-aged workers tend to be more satisfied with the intrinsic rewards of work than they are with extrinsic rewards such as pay
  • Slide 15
  • Job Satisfaction As workers get older, work may not be as much of a focus of their lives People change how they go about their work and jobs, resulting in a cyclical pattern to job satisfaction Accumulation of experience, changing context, and the stage of ones career contribute to job satisfactio9n
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  • Alienation and Burnout Alienation - the feeling that what a worker is doing is meaningless, efforts are devalued, no relationship between what they do and the end product The personality trait of cynicism is the factor most related to alienation To reduce alienation, keep workers involved in the decision-making, develop flexible work schedules, and provide employee development
  • Slide 18
  • Alienation and Burnout (Cont) Burnout a depletion of a persons energy and motivation, loss of occupational idealism, feeling of being exploited Results from stress, emotional exhaustion, and diminished personal accomplishment Can be avoided by stress-reduction techniques, lowering peoples expectations of themselves, and enhancing communication with the organization More common in the helping professions and military
  • Slide 19
  • Alienation and Burnout Obsessive passion an uncontrollable urge to engage in the activity which interferes with positive feelings and may lead to negative feelings, may interfere with a persons life Harmonious passion an individual freely accepts an activity as important for them without any contingencies attached. The activity is in harmony with other aspects of a persons life
  • Slide 20
  • Avoiding Burnout Making workers feel important to the organization, Involving them in decisions, Keeping expectations realistic, Good communication, Promoting teamwork
  • Slide 21
  • 12.2 Gender, Ethnicity, and Discrimination Issues Learning Objectives How do womens and mens occupational expectations differ? How are people viewed when they enter occupations that are not traditional for their gender? What factors are related to womens occupational development? What factors affect ethnic minority workers occupational experiences and occupational development? What types of bias and discrimination hinder the occupational development of women and ethnic minority workers?
  • Slide 22
  • Gender Differences in Occupational Selection Traditionally, boys have been trained to think about what work they will do and taught that men are known by the work that they do Boys are taught that a part of masculinity is occupational achievement, and through games, that it is important to be a good follower and team player
  • Slide 23
  • Gender Differences in Occupational Selection (Cont) Traditionally, girls have not been taught to value these factors as much as those of being supportive, quiet, and accommodating The increase in the participation of womens athletic programs has been helpful in changing this difference
  • Slide 24
  • Traditional & Nontraditional Occupations Women tend to select nontraditional occupations because of personal feelings, experiences, and expectations about the occupation Women who have both brothers and sisters and attended single-sex high schools are most likely to choose nontraditional occupations
  • Slide 25
  • Traditional & Nontraditional Occupations (Cont) Women who rate high on tests of traditional measures of femininity choose more traditional occupations but may feel unchallenged Women in nontraditional occupations are still often viewed negatively by peers of either sex
  • Slide 26
  • Traditional & Nontraditional Occupations (Cont) People often make assumptions about working conditions based on their perception of an occupation as traditionally masculine or feminine People are less likely to recognize sexual harassment of a female when she works in a nontraditional occupation
  • Slide 27
  • Women & Occupational Development Most important issues for women tend to be whether the work environment is supportive, provides development opportunities, and organizational politics Women in 21 st century are moving into non- traditional jobs and starting their own businesses Women are negotiating better salary and benefits such as flexible work options, increased personal time, child-care assistance
  • Slide 28
  • Women & Occupational Development Benefits for collaborating employers cost savings increased retention, reduced absenteeism, greater productivity
  • Slide 29
  • Women & Occupational Development Barriers to women- Pressure to work long hours Increased commute time Rising child-care costs Limited health care options Emotional stress during summer breaks and after school hours Perception she is not a team player and can be pulled away by child care needs
  • Slide 30
  • Women & Occupational Development (Cont) Women tend to leave their jobs for two reasons Women may prefer to work interdependently with peers. Corporations that do not value relationships and collaboration Women may feel disconnected from colleagues, clients, and coworkers, deriving less meaning from work leaving them feeling alienated
  • Slide 31
  • Ethnicity and Occupational Development While African American and European American women do not differ in their plans to enter nontraditional occupations, African American women seek more formal training, becoming overqualified African American and European American men have higher vocational identity when they graduate from college versus European American women and Hispanic American men
  • Slide 32
  • Bias and Discrimination Gender Bias and the Glass Ceiling Only 5% of senior managers in the Fortune 500 are women The glass ceiling is a term referring to the promotional level above which women may not go Few women rise to the top levels in professions and corporations Glass cliff-women appointed to a precarious position
  • Slide 33
  • Slide 34
  • Sexual Harassment Reports suggest that as few as 5% of victims of sexual harassment report it Studies have shown that as many as 28% of women have experience sexual harassment in the workplace Research shows that harassment results in negative emotional, mental health, physical health, and job-related outcomes
  • Slide 35
  • Age Discrimination Denying a job or promotion to an individual solely based on age is age discrimination Federal law prohibits this practice for workers over the age of 40 Age discrimination is when a part of the job requirement is a type of performance that older workers are less likely to be rated high on Retirement incentives and stereotyped beliefs affecting job performance ratings are also common
  • Slide 36
  • 12.3 Occupational Transitions Learning Objectives Why do people change occupations? Is worrying about potential job loss a major source of stress? How does job loss affect the amount of stress experienced?
  • Slide 37
  • Occupational Transitions The reasons people leave their jobs are varied Unhappy with the work Obsolete skills Economic trends Pursuing additional training or education Retraining Workers Career plateauing occurs when there is a lack of challenge or promotional opportunity, or when a person decides not to seek advancement The retraining of mid-career and older workers emphasizes the need for life-long learning
  • Slide 38
  • Occupational Insecurity Economic conditions in the U.S. have resulted in many people losing jobs Many people experience feelings of insecurity People who worry about their jobs tend to have poorer physical and mental health, and negative attitudes about their employer Negative attitudes may result even if the anxiety over the job is not based on fact
  • Slide 39
  • Coping With Unemployment Unemployment often results in declines in physical health, self-esteem, life, family, and marital satisfaction Middle-aged men are more susceptible to the negative effects of unemployment, women report more negative effects over time Unemployment rates are higher for ethnic minority groups than for European Americans. The stress involved affects all groups similarly
  • Slide 40
  • Coping With Unemployment (Cont) Recommendations Approach job loss with a healthy sense of urgency Consider next career move and what must be done to achieve it, even if there are no prospects for it at the present Acknowledge and react to change as soon as you realize it is there Be cautious of stop-gap employment Identify a realistic goal and list the steps needed to achieve it
  • Slide 41
  • 12.4 Work and Family Learning Objectives What are the issues faced by people who care for dependents? How do partners view the division of household chores? What is work-family conflict? How does it affect couples lives?
  • Slide 42
  • The Dependent Care Dilemma Employed Caregivers Revisited Many mothers have to return to work after the birth of a baby Some women struggle with the issue of returning to work, weighing financial need and the need to care for their children Some women feel the need to return to work as a result of attachment to their work
  • Slide 43
  • Employed Caregivers (Cont) Giving up work means a redefinition of ones identity 65% of women caring for a parent or partner work at least 35 hours The need to care for a parent or partner along with the lack of availability of affordable help forces many out of the workforce Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides leave for caretakers, and the right to return to work
  • Slide 44
  • Dependent Care and Effects of Workers Women experience significant negative effects of being responsible for dependent care When responsible for the care of a parent, women report more missed meetings and more absences from work. Negative consequences on career advancement.Higher levels of stress results Stress is decreased by having partners who provide support and having a job that allows for control over ones work schedule
  • Slide 45
  • Dependent Care and Employer Responses Many governments provide government- supported child-care centers for employees Providing child-care support is important, but positive impact is more often seen when supervisors are supportive and benefits that employees consider important are provided Better job security, autonomy, lower productivity demands, supervisor support, and flexible schedules are helpful
  • Slide 46
  • Juggling Multiple Roles Dividing Household Chores Women still spend up to 50% more hours per week than men in family work Unequal division of labor is the greatest source of arguments and unhappiness in two-earner households While men have increased the amount of time spent on household chores, the greatest amount of the increase is on the weekends
  • Slide 47
  • Dividing Household Chores (Cont) Men are more satisfied with the division of household labor Women are more satisfied when men take on tasks that are traditionally womens chores African American and Hispanic men spend more time on household chores than European American men Across cultures studied, gender inequality was greatest for women employed full-time
  • Slide 48
  • Slide 49
  • Work-Family Conflict Work and family roles do not necessarily affect each other all of the time Women are not as concerned about the amount of time men spend on household chores as when there are certain womens chores that men will not perform The division of household labor is often the result of peoples experience with their parents assignment of chores
  • Slide 50
  • Work-Family Conflict (Cont) Studies suggest that women often cope successfully with careers and family and the stress involved The number of children, not the ages of the children, was found to be a significant factor in their success Highest level of stress was during the peak parenting years when there were often at least two preschool children in the home
  • Slide 51
  • Work-Family Conflict (Cont) Dual-earner couples have difficulty finding time for each other The amount of time is not necessarily the most important issue as long as they enjoy the time together and it is spent in shared activities Cross-cultural data suggests that work and parenting-related burnout is more likely to affect women
  • Slide 52
  • 12.5 Time to Relax: Leisure Activities Learning Objectives What activities are leisure activities? How do people choose among them? What changes in leisure activities occur with age? What do people derive from leisure activities?
  • Slide 53
  • Types of Leisure Activities Leisure activities can be classified as Cultural Physical Social Solitary Other ways to distinguish between leisure activities The degree of cognitive, emotional, or physical involvement Preoccupation versus interests
  • Slide 54
  • Developmental Changes in Leisure Young adults participate in a greater range of activities Middle-aged adults are more concerned with home- and family-oriented, less physically strenuous activities There is a great deal of stability over developmental ages in leisure activities preferred
  • Slide 55
  • Consequences of Leisure Activities Research shows that Participation is related to well-being Leisure activities promote mental health Leisure activities lessen the effects of stress and negative life events They strengthen feelings of attachment to ones partner, family, and friends They may be used to explore interpersonal relationships Leisure results in more marital satisfaction if spent with others rather than only as a couple