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Worldwide BRT Systems: Applicability of BRT Systems in Turkey

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By Dario Hidalgo, PhD. Director Research and Practice EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable Transport.Sustainable Transport Symposium 2011.Kocaeli, Turkey, April 6-8 2011.
  • 1. WorldwideW ld id BRT Systems A li biliS Applicability of BRT Systems in Turkey Dario Hidalgo, PhD Director Research and PracticeEMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center forSustainable Transport SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION 2011Kocaeli, Turkey, April 6-8 2011

2. Growing cities increased congestion, pollution, accidents,and reduced physical activity Sao Paulo, Brasil 3. ProblemsPossible Trajectories 4. ProblemsGlobal FootprintIf everyone in the world lived like anaverage North American we wouldAmerican,need five planets to live on Source: WWF, Living Planet Report, 2006 5. Cars and Light Duty Vehicles per ThousandPopulationNot all the countriesreach the same levelof auto ownership Source: Lee Schipper, University of California Berkeley, 2009 6. Sustainable Transport Paradigm AvoidShift Improve Reduce need to travel andTechnologies,TechnologiesUse more efficient number and length of the operations and transport modestripsmanagement Dense and mixed land use Efficient vehicles,alternative clean Travel demand management W lki Walking, BikingBikiand cool fuels Information and Transit Improvedcommunications technologiesyefficiency See: Dalkmann and Sakamoto Transport in the GreenSakamoto, Economy Report, UNEP, 2011 http://www.unep.org/greeneconomy/Portals/88/docume nts/ger/GER_10_Transport.pdf 7. World Trend inAdvanced CitiesPedestrian andBicyclesPublic TransportationTransit OrientedDevelopmentDisincentives to CarUseCleaner and CoolerFuels and Vehicleshttp://www.nyc.gov/html/dot/images/sidewalks/ps_rendering01.JPG 8. 1. Non motorised transportCARRERA 15, BOGOTA Photos: IDU ALAMEDA EL PORVENIR, BOGOTA Photos: FPPQQ 9. 2. Disincentives to indiscriminate car useCtih iCongestion charging:Singapore, London, Sweden,SantiagoAdministrative measures(plate restrictions)Parking controlsTaxes (fuel, property) (fuelCitizens culture London Bogota, Bogota Sunday CiclovaBogota, no car day 10. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Local scale:Nodes around stationsJoint development: residental +commercial + education +entertainmentDense Housing (3 4 floors) with (3-4generous public space HelsinkiPhoto J. KenworthyZurich VancouverPhoto J. Kenworthy Photo J. Kenworthy 11. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD)Urban and regional scale:Copenhagen mapGeneral principles Limits to urban expansion and generation of protected areas (zones that cannot be developed - ecological structure) Obligatory consistency between local detailed plans and transport plan Provision of public space in every newp p y development and renovation Occupation indexes favorable to public transport use Incentives and bonuses for development I i dbf d l of desired uses (instruments) Obligation to balance growth of employment and housing 12. 3 a s t o e ted development (TOD)3. Transit- oriented de e op e t ( O )Source: IPUCC Curitiba, Brazil 13. 3. Transit- oriented development (TOD) Curitiba, Curitiba BrazilSource: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm 14. 4. Bus Systems 15. 4. Bus SystemsHigh qualityUser orientedFastReliableLow cost Leeds, UK Curitiba Sao Paulo 16. BRT key componentsCentralizedcontrol Stations with prepaymentDistinctiveand level accessimage Exclusive bus lanes Large buses withg multiple doors16 17. BRT key components Centralized control Distinctive imageStations with prepaymentand level accessLarge buses withmultiple doorsExclusive buslanes 17 18. CitieswithBRT/BusCorridors25125Guanghzhou,Hefei,Yancheng,Zaozhuang China Jaipur India;Pelembang,Gorontalo,Surakata Indonesia20Bangkok Thailand;EastLondonTransit UK100 JooPessoa Brazil;Barranquilla,Bucaramanga Colombia17EstadoMxico Mxico;Lima Per;Brampton Canada 16157513 BogotTransMilenioLosAngelesMetrorapid10508 888Curitiba7 555 4 25 2 22 2111 111 1 1 11 1100 0 1970 19751980 19851990 199520002005 2010Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 19. About 120 cities with BRT or bus corridors 4,335 km - 6,683 stations 30,000 buses, ,, 26.8 million passengers per weekday4 111 39 1 1161131 1 5 114 111 5 2 11 16 1 141830 km6 km 1Source: CTS Brasil EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database January 2011Brasil, Database, January, 20. Curitiba, RIT, 72 km median busways2.3 million pax/day Initial Corridor 1972 21. Curitiba 35 years with a coordinated land use and transport plan with a BRT backboneFuente: Arq. Antonio Juarez Nakamura, Presentacin en IV SeminarioInternacional de Arquitectura Universidad Piloto de Colombia, Bogot,Agosto de 2002 22. Amzaing Results in Urban Form in ExternalitiesFuente: http://www.curitiba-parana.com/arquitetura-urbanismo.htm 23. Curitiba new BRT Corridor (2009-2010)Linha Verde Now Now Rodovia BR116 Before Photo: CTS Brasil Photo: URBSLinha Verde FutureImage: URBS g 24. Quito, Metrobs-Q, 37 Km median busways, 440,000 pax/day Initial corridor in 1995 25. Bogot, TransMilenio, 84 Km median busways,1,7 million pax/day Initial Corridor 2000 26. Photo ITDP Bogot TransMilenioEje Ambiental Avenida Jimnez 27. Expressway LanesTransMilenio, Bogota 28. Main mode of transport 1998-2009 Total Public com; Transport p esta Anual Bogot Cmo Vamos? www.eltiempo.c Traditional Public Transport TransMilenio? BRTS Private (Car, t Two Wheeler)ActiveFuentes: EncueTransport(Walking,Bicycle) 29. Fatalities in Bogot Over Time1400 12991200 11651106 11711000 1014923800 788698 665600 5515645114001995 1997 1999 200120032005 2007 2009 Source: Anuario Estadstico Ministerio de Transporte Colombia Estadstico,Transporte, 30. Fatalities Reduced (Baseline vs. Project) Av. Caracas BRT Corridor, TransMilenio, Bogot706260 605047 esFatalidade40 383029 2320 18 18 141010 9 6 5 6 3 42211 0 19961999 2002 20052008 2011 20142017 2020Total CorredorAsociadas a TransMilenioTendencia con ProyectoTendencia Sin ProyectoData: TRANSMILENIO S.A. 31. Sao Paulo, 104 Km median busways + preferential buslanes, 5,761,000 pax/dayInitial busways 1980, Reconstructed in 2003 32. Len de Guanajuato, Mxico, Optibs,31 Km median busways (60% segregated)Initial corridor 2003 33. Mxico City, Metrobs, 66 Km median busways,570,000 pax/dayInitial Corridor 2005 34. Pereira, Colombia, Megabs, 27 Km Busways,155,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2006 35. Pereira, Co o b a e e a, ColombiaPhotos courtesy of Megabus,Pereira, ColombiaP i C l bi 36. Guayaquil, Ecuador, Metrova,16 Km Busways, 96,000 pax/dayInitial Corridor 2006Photos by D. Hidalgo 37. Santiago, Chile, 19 Km busways + 63 Km of roadimprovements, Integrated Network for 5 Million Trips/day Initial Operation in 2007 38. Photo: Sapfan (Jan Pesula) S PGuatemala City, February 2007 39. Photo: Metrocali MCali, Colombia 27 Km busways 130,000 pax/dayInitial Operation in 2009 40. Macrobs, Guadalajara, Mxico 41. Rapid growth of BRT Systems and BusC idCorridors i 2010 specially i din 2010,i ll in developing citiesl i iti16 cities started operations in 2010 (13% growth) China (4), Indonesia (3), Colombia (2), India, Thailand, Brazil, Mxico, Per, UK, Canada 21 corridors; 396 km; 464 stations; 2 047 buses 2,047 1.4 million passengers per weekday (5% growth) 7 cities expanded corridors in 2010 125 km2010, 49 new cities with corridors under construction 16 cities expanding their corridors itidi th iid 31 new cities in planning stages 42. Guahazhou BRT, ChinaOpened February 10, 201022.5 km dedicated busway26 stations (prepayment, level boarding some buses, buses passing lane up to lane, six platforms)Peak supply: 340 buses/hr/direction40 routes (in and out the system, no transfers)Peak demand: 26,900 passengers/hr/directionDaily demand: 800,000 Photo by Benjamin pax/per weekday pg g g pSource: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/guangzhou.aspx# 43. Hefei BRT, China Operations started 18 Jan 2010 2 Corridors 12.7 km busway (15 km total) 14 stations Peak supply: 60 buses/hr Commerical Speed 16p km/h Fleet: 65 buses (estimated, conventional buses 12 m) Ridership: 65,250 Photo: Karl Fjlestrom, ITDP pax/day (estimated)Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/hefei.aspx# 44. Yancheng BRT, China g, Operations startedMay 1 2010 1, 1 corridor 8 km dedicatedbusway (15 km total) 21 stations 20 BRT buses (12 m) 30 feeder buses Estimated ridership20,000 pax/day Photos and Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/yancheng.aspx# 45. Zaozhuang BRT, ChinaStarted Operations August 1, 1 2010 (Commercial operation September 1, 2010)1 Corridor 33 km Corridor,24 stations2 terminals20 buses (estimated)27 buses/hour700 pax/hour/direction20,000 pax/day30 km/h commercial speed Source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/zaozhuang.aspx# 46. Jaipur Bus, Jaipur,India Operations started 31 July 2010 Route reorganization 10 routes 352 line-km 497 bus stops 200 buses 150,000 pax/dayBusway Length 7.1 km 10 stations 20 buses 2,000 pax/day Busways plan 42 km Photos: http://www.jaipurjda.org/page.aspx?pid=69 Info: EMBARQ India and http://www.jaipurbus.com/route_map.html 47. Bangkok BRT, Thailand Free operations startedMay 15, 2010 y Commercial operationsstarted September 1, 2010 15.9 km median busway(Sathorn-Ratchaphruek) 12 stations 20 buses, conventionalhigh floor, 1 wide door Peak ridership 1,000 pax/hr Peak buses 14/hour Daily ridership 10,000pax/day Fare 10 baht (USD 0.33)Photo and information source: http://www.tour-bangkok-legacies.com/bangkok-brt.htmlAdditional source: http://www.chinabrt.org/en/cities/bangkok.aspx# 48. East London Transit, UKFebruary 2010. Two Routes (EL1, EL2)12 buses per hour47 min trip timepApproximate 20 Km, 40 stops, About 18 buses, 9,000 pax/day http://www.tfl.gov.uk/corporate/projectsandschemes/2123.aspxhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/East_London_Transit http://www.flickr.com/photos/wirewiping/438206397 8/sizes/m/in/photostream/ 49. Corredor de nibus de Joo Pessoa, Brasil Started operations in2010 1 corridor 2.5 km 5 stations 111 buses 100,000 passengers perweekday y http://www.afonteenoticia.com.br/pagina.php?pg=3&id_ htt //f t ti ib/ih ? 3&id noticia=1278 50. Transmetro, Barranquilla, Colombia Opened 10 July 2010 13.4 km dedicated busway 15 Stations (prepayment,level boarding) 1 intermediate station, 1 terminal 32.7 kmauxiliary corridors (62 kmplanned) Buses: 92 articulated (18m) 85 large conventional (15m) 107 conventional feeder (12m) Daily demand 32,000 pax (305,000 expected when fully implemented) Photo via transmetro.gov.co Sources: http://transmetro.gov.co/web2010/ Ministry of Transport, Mass Transit Group, Oct 2010 51. Metrolnea, Bucaramanga,Metrolnea Bucaramanga ColombiaOpened 21 December 2009Commercial operation 22 Commercial January 20108.9 km trunk corridor7.7 auxiliary corridors (25.2 km plan.) plan ) 24 stations (level boarding, prepayment)80.1 km feeder linesBuses 15 Articulated 47 Large Conventional 15m(203 plan.) 69 Conventional feeder (150plan.) Photo: http://www.metrolinea.gov.co/ Ridership: 75,000 pax/day Source: Ministry of Transport, Mass Transit Group, Oct 2010 GO t 52. Mexibs, Estado Mxico, Mxico Initial operation Nov 30,2010 16 km exclusive busway(Ciudad Azteca-Tecamac) 21 stations 3 terminals 130,000 pax/day(expected) Proyected expansions2011 21 k (L h Lkm (Lechera-LasPhoto: http://transeunte.org/tag/mexibus/ Amricas) 14 km (Chinalhucn-Source: http://transporteinformativo.com/pasaje/inicia- Pantitln) operaciones-mexibus-con-63-autobuses-articulados-volvo 53. Metropolitano, Lima, Peru p , , Initial Operation, May 2010 First high capacity bussystem with CNG only 27 km busways, 80% withovertaking at stationsg 35 stations, one largecentral undergroundstation, two terminals 308 articulated buses 319 feeder buses 82,000 pax/day southsection (854,000 pax/day ti (854 000 /dPhoto: Protransporte, Lima, May 2010expected) 21 km/hour commercial Source: Menckhoff, G., Ochoa, C., Ardila, A. El Metropolitanode Lima: Implementacin y Primeros Resultados de un Nuevospeed Sistema BRT CLATPU, Octubre 2010 54. Zm, Brampton, Ontario,Zm Brampton Ontario Canada Operations StartedSeptember 20, 2010 28.5 km busway 17 stations 25 buses, low floor, 25 m Two additional corridorsplanned for 2011-2012Photo: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Brampton_Zum_1074b.JPGSources:http://www.brampton.ca/en/residents/transit/zum/Pages/welcome.aspxhttp://www brampton ca/en/residents/transit/zum/Pages/welcome aspxhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Z%C3%BCm 55. Systems expansions 2010NameCity Expansion (growth)TransjakartaJakarta,Jakarta Indonesia+48 km (34%)BRT Teheran Teheran, Iran+21km (31%)Janmarg Ahmedabad, India +20 km (105%)Select BusNew York City+14 km (121%)Xiamen BRTXiamen, China+11 km (28%)Hangzhou BRTHangzhou,Hangzhou China +6 km(46%)Optibs Len, Mxico +5 km(19%)125 km 3% increase over existing km in 2009Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 56. http://www.embarq.org/en/modernizing-public-transportation 57. Varied throughput(2009) 58. Commercial speed(2009) 59. Capital Cost(2009) 60. Common problems What Went Wrong Rushed implementation Very tight financial planning Very high occupancy levels Early deterioration of infrastructure Issues with technological components Insufficient user educationFilename/RPS Number 61. Latin AmericanAssociation ofIntegrated Bus Systems andBRT Agencies 62. BRT: Lessons for TurkeyGood performanceHigh capacityLow costL tRapid implementationHigh positive impact Travel time, emissions, accidentsBRT is a feature or an aspiration of most cities 63. Muchas Gracias! Volvo Research and Educational Foundations 64. Cities with the most used BRT/Bus CorridorsNetworks 2010NameCorridors Km Pax/dayPrioridade Transporte Colectivo,SaoPaulo,Brazil p ,,10 301.3 6,843,664 , ,Rede Integrada deTransporte,Curitiba, Brazil672.0 2,260,000TransMilenio,Bogota, Colombia784.0 1,700,000Busways,Taipei,ChinaTaiwan1030.3 1,680,000TehranBRT,Iran591.0 1,440,000Prioridade Transporte Colectivo,PortoAlegre,Brazil1057.2 1,170,000GuangzhouBRT,China122.5800,000Optibus,Leon,Mexico 431.0700,000Metrobus,Istanbul,Turkey243.0700,000Metrobus,MexicoCity,Mexico 266.0570,000Metrorapid,LosAngeles,USAdl 21 390.2 464,600MetrobusQ,Quito,Ecuador342.2440,000Prioridade Transporte Colectivo,BeloHorizonte,223.7435,000Brazil Dark color strong segregation, stations with prepayment Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 65. Cities with the Longest BRT/Bus Corridors Networks 2010NameCorridors KmMetrorapid,LosAngeles,California 21 390.2Prioridade Transporte Colectivo,SaoPaulo,Brazil10 301.3SmartBus,Melbourne, Australia 4 233.0MIO,Cali,Colombia6 179.0TransJakarta,Jakarta,Indonesia 10 172.2LINK,Phoenix,USA 4 128.0Metrobus,Monterrey,Mexico3 101.0TehranBRT,IranT h BRT I591.091 0TransHulonthanlangi,Indonesia390.0TransJogja,Indonesia 390.0TransMilenio,Bogota,ColombiaTransMilenio Bogota Colombia 784.084 0TransMetro,Pekanbaru,Indonesia 274.0Rede Integrada deTransporte,Curitiba,Brazil 672.0Dark color strong segregation stations with prepaymentsegregation,Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 66. RegionCountry 49 Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors under Construction Dec 2010AfricaGhana (1) Accra (Ghana),(3) Cape Town, Nelson Mandela BaySouth Africa (2) ( )AsiaIndia (6) Surat, Indore, Bhopal, Vishakhapatnam, Vijayawada, Rajkot(12)AmmanJordan (1)Korea, Republic (1) ChangwonTurkey (1)Kocaeli (Izmit)EuropeFrance (20) Annenasse, Antibes-Sophia Antipolis, Cannes, La Rochelle, Lille,(23)Lyon, Metz, Nancy, Nice, Nimes, Perpignan, Rennes, Saint-Brieuc, Saint-Etienne, Saint-Nazaire, Saint-Pierre-de la-Reunion, Sait-Paul-de-la-Reunion,Toulouse, ToursToulouse Tours, ValenciennesItaly (1) Bologna,UK (2)Cambridge, Leigh-Salford-ManchesterLatin Argentina (1) Buenos AiresAmerica and Cartagena, Medelln, SoachaColombia (3)theCaribbean Mxico (1)Monterrey(10)Panam (1)Panam CityParaguay (1)AsuncinPer (1)ArequipaPuerto Rico (1) San JuanVenezuela (1) BarquisimetoUSA and USA (9) Albany (NY), Austin (TX), Berkeley (CA), Fort Collins (CO), Grand RapidsCanada (9)(MI), Roaring Forks Valley (CO), San Bernardino (CA), San Francisco (CA),Seattle (WA)Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 67. Region Country16 Cities with BRT/Bus Corridors under ExpansionDecember 2010Africa (1) South Africa (1) JohannesburgAsia India (3)Ahmedabad, Jaipur, Pune(4)Iran (1) TeheranLatinBrasil (5)( ) Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Porto Alegre, Recife, Salvador gAmericaColombia (2) Bogot, Caliand theCaribbeanGuatemala (1)Guatemala City(10) Mxico (2)( ) Len, Mxico City, yUSA andUSA (1)New York City (NY)Canada (1)Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011 68. Region Country31 Cities Planning BRT/Bus CorridorsDecember 2010Africa Ethiopia (1) Addis Abeba(11) Kenia (1)Nairobi South Africa (7) Tshwane (Pretoria), Bloemfontein, Durban (eThekwini),East L dELondon, Ek h l i P l k Ekurhuleni, Polokwane, RRustemburgb Tanzania (1) Dar es Salaam Uganda (1) KampalaAsia China (5)Shanghai, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Wuxi, Xian(4)Mongolia (1) Ulan BatorEurope (2) UK (2) Bath-Sommerset, GlasgowLatinBrasil (3) Fortaleza, Rio de Janeiro, UberlandiaAmericaColombia (1) Ccutaand theCaribbeanEcuador (1)Cuenca(12) El Salvador (1)San Salvador Mxico (6) Chihuahua, Chimalhuacan, Guadalajara, Mexicali,Oaxaca, TijuanaOceaniaAustraliaBrisbane (expansion)USA andUSA (2)Chicago, IL; Santa Clara, CACanada (2) Source: EMBARQ BRT/Bus Corridors Database, January, 2011

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W ld id BRT S A li bili Worldwide BRT Systems Applicability of BRT Systems in Turkey Dario Hidalgo, PhD Director Research and Practice EMBARQ, The World Resources Institute Center for Sustainable Transport SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION 2011 Kocaeli, Turkey, April 6-8 2011
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