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XMM-Newton Surveys. Xavier Barcons. Acknowledgements. The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC), especially Mike Watson , Christian Motch, Francisco Carrera, Axel Schwope and Mat Page among others The Lockman Hole team, especially Günther Hasinger and Andy Fabian - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
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CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys XMM-Newton Surveys Xavier Barcons
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Page 1: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

XMM-Newton Surveys

Xavier Barcons

Page 2: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Acknowledgements

• The XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre (SSC), especially Mike Watson, Christian Motch, Francisco Carrera, Axel Schwope and Mat Page among others

• The Lockman Hole team, especially Günther Hasinger and Andy Fabian

• The X-ray Astronomy group at my Institute (IFCA), the only (and best) one in Spain

• The Spanish National Space Programme (project ESP2003-00812)

• The whole XMM-Newton project for support and making things happen, including SOC, SSC, instrument teams, Users Group and more.

Page 3: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Index

• What do X-rays tell us about the Universe?• The XMM-Newton X-ray space observatory• The XMM-Newton serendipitous X-ray

survey• The XMM catalogue• Extragalactic Surveys• Surveying the Galactic Plane• The future of XMM-Newton surveys

Page 4: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Physical processes that produce X-rays

• Plasmas (ionised gases) at temperatures of millions of degrees (bremsstrahlung and line emission)

• Very energetic electrons in strong magnetic fields (synchrotron radiation)

• Inverse Compton scattering on high energy electrons.

• Matter falling towards compact objects or black holes (accretion)

• Electron-positron pair cascades

Page 5: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

N132D SNR

Fe line

OVII

OVIII

Page 6: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

SNRs and Pulsars

The Crab nebula

Chandra

Pulsar

Page 7: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The magnetic field of isolated neutron stars

First unambiguous detection of cyclotron absorption lines in the X-ray spectrum of an isolated neutron star: direct measurement of the magnetic field strength.

B~8 x 1010 GaussBignami, Caraveo, De Luca & Mereghetti 2003

Cyclotron lines

1E1207.4–5209

Page 8: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The Galactic centre in X-rays

Page 9: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Clusters of galaxies

Coma Sérsic 159-03

Page 10: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys(Chris Done, Univ of Durham)

The X-ray view of Active The X-ray view of Active Galactic NucleiGalactic Nuclei

C. Done, Durham U

Page 11: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The X-ray spectrum of AGN

Radiation from the accretion disk, reprocessed by a corona of hot electrons

Refection (Fe line and Compton recoil)

Absorption by surrounding material

Soft excess (direct radiation from the accretion disk)

Page 12: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The importance of absorption in AGN: the Cosmic X-ray background

• The spectral energy distribution peaks at ~30 keV

• Unified model: The right mixture of absorbed and unabsorbed AGN produces the spectrum of the Cosmic X-ray background

• Predictions:– The majority of X-rays in

the Universe are produced in absorbed objects

– Many absorbed quasars should be found

Gilli et al 2000

Page 13: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The new X-ray observatories

Chandra (NASA)July 1999

XMM-Newton (ESA)December 1999

Page 14: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

How does an X-ray telescope work?

Page 15: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

XMM-Newton• Spatially resolved (15“) low-

resolution spectroscopy (E/E~20-50)

• Intermediate resolution dispersive spectrometry (0.03-0.06 Ang, E/E~200-500)

• EPIC: (3) CCD spectroscopic imaging cameras 0.1-12 keV

• (2) Reflection Grating Spectrometers (RGS): 0.05-3 keV

• (1) Optical monitor (OM): Optical/UV imaging and grism spectroscopy.

Page 16: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

A new window: Hard X-ray energies

Sensitivity to hard X-rayenergies (up to 12 keV

with XMM-Newton) RosatXMM/Chandra

log NH=

Absorbed sources can be seen!

Page 17: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The XMM-Newton serendipitous sky survey

• Every new XMM-Newton pointing (with EPIC in full window mode) discovers ~30-150 serendipitous X-ray sources.

• About 30,000 new X-ray sources/year, with positional and X-ray spectral information

Page 18: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The XMM-Newton catalogue

• Compiled by the SSC• All EPIC detected sources, flags

and large amount of information• Accessible through XSA, LUX, CDS• 1XMM released April 2003 (30,000

sources)• 2XMM released 2005 (100,000-

150,000 sources)

Page 19: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

1XMM: Sky distribution

Page 20: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

1XMM: The X-ray population

B1=0.2-0.5 keVB2=0.5-2.0 keVB3=2.0-4.5 keVB4=4.5-7.5 keVB5=7.5-12 keV

HR1=(B2-B1)/(B2+B1)

HR2=(B3-B2)/(B3+B2)

HR3=(B4-B3)/(B4+B3)

Page 21: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

1XMM

Hard sources

Soft sources

Page 22: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The Survey Science Centre identification programme

• Core programme (~1000 sources/sample):– High b faint sample (10-15 erg cm-2 s-1) – High b medium sample (10-14 erg cm-2 s-1)– High b bright sample (10-13 erg cm-2 s-1)– Galactic Plane Sample

• Imaging programme (u,g’,r’,i’,Z,H)• Statistical identifications based on X-ray

properties & imaging programme.

Page 23: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

dMe Star

QSOz=0.565

Sy 2z=0.238

NGC 4291z=0.0058

QSOz=2.649

Sy 1z=0.330

Page 24: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The XMM-Newton Medium Sensitivity Survey

Page 25: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The XMM-Newton Medium Sensitivity Survey (XMS)

• 25 XMM fields• XID:0.5-4.5 keV• SXID>210-14cgs• Ω=3.5 deg2

• 298 sources• 200 identified (67%)

Sources Number %

BLAGN 150 75

NELGs 23 12

ALG&Clus 6 3

Stars 20 10

BLLac 1 0

TOTAL 200 100

Barcons et al 2002Carrera et al 2005

Page 26: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Identification strategy

• Deep (~23mag) optical/NIR imaging of full EPIC field of view (La Palma, ESO)

• Search for candidate counterparts• Optical spectroscopy (fibre+long slit)

– AXIS (An XMM-Newton International Survey) international programme at La Palma (April 2000- April 2002)

– Calar Alto, 3.5m telescope with MOSCA (2003-2005)

http://www.ifca.unican.es/~xray/AXIS

Page 27: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

XMS spectroscopic identifications

Search for candidate counterpartsi’-band sources within either:

5 (statistical) or5 arcsec

95% of the X-ray sources have a potential optical candidatecounterpartIn > 75% of these cases, the candidate counterpart is unique

Page 28: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

40

41

42

43

44

45

46

0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

z

log

L (

0.5-

4.5

keV

, erg

/s)

BLAGN noXabs

BLAGN Xabs

NELG noXabs

NELG Xabs

Gal noXabs

Gal Xabs

XMS: Luminosity vs. redshift

NGC4291

Page 29: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

XMS: Optical colours

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

g-r

r-i

BLAGN noXabs

BLAGN Xabs

NELG noXabs

NELG Xabs

Gal noXabs

Gal Xabs

Stars

-1

-0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2

g-r

r-i

BLAGN noXabs

BLAGN Xabs

NELG noXabs

NELG Xabs

Gal noXabs

Gal Xabs

Stars

UnID noXabs

UnID Xabs

Early-type galaxiesQSOs

NGC4291

• 228 sources have all both g.r, r-i colours: 60 UnID, 168 ID

Page 30: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

XMS: fXID/fopt vs. HR2

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4

HR2

log

(fX

/fo

pt)

BLAGN noXabs

BLAGN Xabs

NELG noXabs

NELG Xabs

Gal noXabs

Gal Xabs

Stars-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

0

1

2

3

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4

HR2

log

(fX

/fo

pt)

BLAGN noXabsBLAGN XabsNELG noXabsNELG XabsGal noXabsGal XabsStarsUnID noXabsUnID Xabs

NGC4291

Star/AGN separati

on

Page 31: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

“Empty” sources and EROs

Fiore et al 2003

Most of these sources areExtremely Red Objects

(EROs) with R-K>5

Page 32: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Extremely Red Objects and obscured AGNs

Brusa, Comastriet al (2004)

Page 33: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

The deepest XMM-Newton observation in the Lockman Hole

Distant galaxycluster (z=1.2)

Rotating supermassiveBlack Holes

Absorption inAGN

Page 34: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Lockman Hole800 ks XMM-Newton observation

Average line profile calls for BH rotation

Average rest-frame spectra show relativistic Fe-lines

type-1 AGNEW~500eV

Streblyanskaya et al., 2004

type-2 AGNEW~400eV

Page 35: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Elements formed at z>1.3!

Abundance independent of z

Best X-ray spectrum of a z>1 cluster

kT~5 keVXMM 800 ks

Determination of Fe abundance and redshift in a very distant

cluster

Hashimoto et al 2004

Page 36: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Photoelectric absorptionMedium Survey (XMS)Slim(0.5-4.5 keV)~10-14 erg cm-2 s-1

•10% of type 1 AGN are absorbed(with NH<=1022 cm-2) •40% of type 2 AGN are absorbed

Mateos et al (2004)

Deep Survey (Lockman Hole)Slim(0.5-4.5 keV)~10-14 erg cm-2 s-1

•15% (<30% at 3) of type 1 AGN are absorbed (with NH<1022 cm-2) •80% (>50% at 3) of type 2 AGN are absorbed. But 5/28 are unabsorbed

Mateos et al (2005)

Page 37: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Type 1 AGN (moderately) absorbed in X-rays

S 0.5-4.5 keV= 7.2 x 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1

z=0.872 NH=2.81021 cm-2

Broad-Line AGN

L 2-10=3.21044 erg s-1

WHT/ISIS

XMM

XMMU J061515.2+710204

Page 38: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

A type 1.9 AGN with no absorption

Barcons, Carrera & Ceballos 2003

H1320+551, z=0.0653Seyfert 1.8/1.9H/H>27Expected absorption: >1022 cm-2

XMM-Newton:Disk + reprocessingAbsorption<1020 cm-2

Page 39: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

X-ray/optical mismatches: variability?Simultaneous XMM-Newton and 3.5m/CAHA spectroscopy ofMkn 993; z=0.0155 (Changing type Seyfert)

3.5m/TWINXMM

Optical: Seyfert 1.8Balmer decrement=9(NH~ 5 1021 cm-2)

X-ray: weak absorption (NH~ 7 1020 cm-2)

Optical spectral typeintrinsic to BLR,

not due to absorption

Page 40: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

ESO 602-G031 (Sy 1.8)

MRK 702 (Sy 1.9)

UGC 12138 (Sy 1.8)

soft component

soft component soft component

z=0.0356

z=0.0250z=0.0337

No or verylow intrinsicabsorption !!!

More type 1.8-2 AGN with no X-ray absorption

Lehmann et al 04

Page 41: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Type 2 AGN without absorption (Lockman Hole

deep survey)Type 2 AGN(narrow lines only)

z=0.711=1.8NH=0

Mateos et al 2005

Page 42: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Type-2 Radio-Quiet QSOs

AAT/2dF(Mat Page)

NH~5 1022 cm-2

z=2.978 (Ly, CIV, CIII])X-ray flux (2-10 keV) = 8 10-15 erg cm-2 s-1

Intrinsic X-ray luminosity = 4 1044 erg s-1

XMM

Page 43: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Optically dull, X-ray luminous galaxiesz=0.044

LX=1042 erg/s

TNG

Subaru

=1.7NH=2 1023 cm-2

XMM

Severgnini et al (2003)

Page 44: XMM-Newton Surveys

CAHA, 5 Feb 2005 XMM-Newton Surveys

Optically dull, X-ray luminous galaxies (“Fiore 3”)

R=18, z=0.15Early type galaxy

Flux (2-10 keV)=3 10-14 erg cm-2 s-1

Comastri et al 2002


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