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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 1Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

    Biopower/Net idening

    Biopower/Net Widening.............................................................................................................................................1

    Biopower/Net idening !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

    ***NET WIDENING NEG CARDS..........................................................................................................................9

    """N#$ ID#NING N#G %&'DS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9

    Net Widening 1NC....................................................................................................................................................10

    Net idening 1N% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 10

    Link So!i"# Ser$i!e%...............................................................................................................................................11

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 11

    Link So!i"# Ser$i!e%...............................................................................................................................................1&

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 12

    Link So!i"# Ser$i!e%...............................................................................................................................................1'

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1,

    Link (ri%on%...........................................................................................................................................................1)

    Lin( ) -risons !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!1.

    Link De"t..............................................................................................................................................................1+

    Lin( ) Deat !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

    Link Re,or-...........................................................................................................................................................1

    Lin( ) 'eorm !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

    So!i"# Contro# Tr"nn........................................................................................................................................1

    Socia* %ontro* $yranny !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 13

    So!i"# Contro# nder-ine% Li2ert...........................................................................................................................19

    Socia* %ontro* undermines Liberty !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 19

    So!i"# Contro# De%tro% De-o!r"!.........................................................................................................................&0

    Socia* %ontro* Destroys Democracy !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 20

    So!i"# Contro# e%!"#"te% to Repre%%ion.....................................................................................................................&1

    Socia* %ontro* esca*ates to 'epression !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 21

    Trn% te !"%e So!i"# Contro# t"rget% te (oor......................................................................................................&&

    $urns te case ) Socia* %ontro* targets te -oor !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 22

    So!i"# Contro# !"%e% De-"ni3"tion.....................................................................................................................&'

    Socia* %ontro* causes Deumanization !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2,

    So!i"# Contro# 4 Biopower.......................................................................................................................................&)

    Socia* %ontro* 4 Biopower !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2.

    Intern"# Link 5 I-p"!t 6"#e to Li,e....................................................................................................................&7

    Interna* Lin( 5 Impact ) 6a*ue to Lie !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!27

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 2Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

    ***NET WIDENING A88 CARDS.........................................................................................................................&+

    """N#$ ID#NING &88 %&'DS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2

    N: 8eder"# power in!re"%ing..................................................................................................................................&

    N: 8edera* power increasing !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2

    Rigt to So!i"# Ser$i!e%............................................................................................................................................&

    'igt to Socia* Ser+ices !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 23

    So!i"# Contro# Good..................................................................................................................................................&9

    Socia* %ontro* Good !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!29

    So!i"# Contro# Good..................................................................................................................................................'0

    Socia* %ontro* Good !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!,0

    ****BI;(;WER NEG CARDS..............................................................................................................................'1

    """"BI;-;#' N#G %&'DS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,1

    Biopower 1NC..........................................................................................................................................................'&

    Biopower 1N% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,2

    Biopower 1NC..........................................................................................................................................................''

    Biopower 1N% !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,,

    Link So!i"# Ser$i!e%...............................................................................................................................................')

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,.

    Link So!i"# Ser$i!e%...............................................................................................................................................'7

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,7

    Link

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 ,Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

    Link A2ortion.........................................................................................................................................................))

    Lin( ) &bortion !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ..

    Link A2ortion.........................................................................................................................................................)7

    Lin( ) &bortion !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .7

    Link Se>"#it........................................................................................................................................................)+

    Lin( ) Se>ua*ity !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.

    Link S!oo#/Ed!"tion...........................................................................................................................................)

    Lin( ) Scoo*/#ducation !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .

    Link S!oo#/Ed!"tion...........................................................................................................................................)

    Lin( ) Scoo*/#ducation !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .3

    Link (ri%on%...........................................................................................................................................................)9

    Lin( ) -risons !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!.9

    Link L"w................................................................................................................................................................70

    Lin( ) Law !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 70

    Link I--igr"tion...................................................................................................................................................71

    Lin( ) Immigration !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!71

    Link St"te...............................................................................................................................................................7&

    Lin( ) State !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!72

    Link St"te...............................................................................................................................................................7'

    Lin( ) State !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7,

    Link We#,"re..........................................................................................................................................................7)

    Lin( ) e*are !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7.

    Link So!i"# We#,"re...............................................................................................................................................77

    Lin( ) Socia* e*are !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 77

    Link =i#it"r..........................................................................................................................................................7+

    Lin( ) =i*itary !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7

    Link Terrori%-.......................................................................................................................................................7

    Lin( ) $errorism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!7

    Link E!ono-........................................................................................................................................................7

    Lin( ) #conomy !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 73

    Link E!ono-........................................................................................................................................................79

    Lin( ) #conomy !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 79

    Link (o$ert Rep%..................................................................................................................................................+0

    Lin( ) -o+erty 'eps !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!0

    Link Di%e"%e Repre%ent"tion%................................................................................................................................+1

    Lin( ) Disease 'epresentations !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 .Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

    Link Di%e"%e Repre%ent"tion%................................................................................................................................+&

    Lin( ) Disease 'epresentations !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2

    Link Di%e"%e Repre%ent"tion%................................................................................................................................+'

    Lin( ) Disease 'epresentations !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,

    Link AIDS..............................................................................................................................................................+)

    Lin( ) &IDS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .

    A&? (er-...................................................................................................................................................................+7

    &2? -erm !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 7

    A&? (er-...................................................................................................................................................................++

    &2? -erm !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

    A&? (er- p"nd Biopower....................................................................................................................+

    I/L) Socia* Ser+ices #>pand Biopower !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3

    I/L So!i"# Ser$i!e% E>p"nd Biopower....................................................................................................................+9

    I/L) Socia* Ser+ices #>pand Biopower !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9

    I/L: ="n"ge-ent o, te Bod ke to Biopower.......................................................................................................0

    I/L: =anagement o te Body (ey to Biopower !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 0

    I/L: A&? Biopower i% Good.......................................................................................................................................1

    I/L: &2? Biopower is Good !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 1

    I/L: Nor-"#i3"tion %t"2i#i3e% Biopower....................................................................................................................&

    I/L: Norma*ization stabi*izes Biopower !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 2

    I: Biopower E>tin!tion.........................................................................................................................................'

    I: Biopower #>tinction !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ,

    I: Biopower 4 C!#e o, 6io#en!e..............................................................................................................................)

    I: Biopower 4 %yc*e o 6io*ence !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! .

    I: Biopower otweig% te

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 7Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

    I: Biopower 'acism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9

    I: Biopower R"!i%- ............................................................................................................................................0

    I: Biopower 'acism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 30

    I: Biopower R"!i%-.............................................................................................................................................1

    I: Biopower 'acism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 31

    I: Biopower Se>i%-.............................................................................................................................................&

    I: Biopower Se>ism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 32

    I: Biopower Se>i%-.............................................................................................................................................'

    I: Biopower Se>ism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3,

    I: Biopower (o$ert.............................................................................................................................................)

    I: Biopower -o+erty !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3.

    I: Biopower C"pit"#i%-........................................................................................................................................7

    I: Biopower %apita*ism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 37

    I: Nor-"#i3"tion de-"ni3e%..................................................................................................................................+

    I: Norma*ization deumanizes !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 3

    Biopower Nor-"#i3e% (ri%on%/A%#-%/ua*ity !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 33

    A#t So#$en!..............................................................................................................................................................9

    &*t So*+ency !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 39

    A#t So#$en!..............................................................................................................................................................90

    &*t So*+ency !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 90

    A#t So#$en! A&? In"!tion......................................................................................................................................91

    &*t So*+ency ) &2? Inaction !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!91

    A#t So#$en! Re%i%t"n!e i% @e.............................................................................................................................9&

    &*t So*+ency ) 'esistance is @ey !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!92

    A#t So#$en! Re%i%t Se>"# Di%!or%e...................................................................................................................9'

    &*t So*+ency ) 'esist Se>ua* Discourse !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9,

    A#t So#$en! W"te$er Being................................................................................................................................9)

    &*t So*+ency ) ate+er Being !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9.

    A#t So#$en! Gene"#og........................................................................................................................................97

    &*t So*+ency ) Genea*ogy !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 97

    A#t So#$en! Gene"#og .......................................................................................................................................9+

    &*t So*+ency ) Genea*ogy !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

    A#t So#$en! : Criti!i%-...........................................................................................................................................9

    &*t So*+ency : %riticism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 9

    A#t So#$en! Criti!i%-...........................................................................................................................................9

    &*t So*+ency ) %riticism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 93

    A#t So#$en! Criti!i%-...........................................................................................................................................99

    &*t So*+ency ) %riticism !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 99

    A#t So#$en! A&? (er- Tot"# Ree!tion @e....................................................................................................100

    &*t So*+ency ) &2? -erm ) $ota* 'eAection @ey !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 100

    ****BI;(;WER A88 CARDS.............................................................................................................................101

    """"BI;-;#' &88 %&'DS !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!101

    A&? Generi! Biopower Link%..................................................................................................................................10&

    &2? Generic Biopower Lin(s !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!102

    TRN 8eder"# So!i"# Ser$i!e% Good..................................................................................................................10'

    $'N ) 8edera* Socia* Ser+ices Good !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10,

    TRN 8eder"# So!i"# Ser$i!e% Good..................................................................................................................10)

    $'N ) 8edera* Socia* Ser+ices Good !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!10.

    No Link SS 4/4 Biopower......................................................................................................................................107

    No Lin( SS 4/4 Biopower !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 107

    A&? i%ting %tr!tre%..................................................................................................10

    -erm So*+es ) %ritiue witin e>isting structures !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 103

    (er- So#$e% =%t work witin te St"te.............................................................................................................109

    -erm So*+es ) =ust wor( witin te State !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 109

    (er- So#$e% =%t work witin te St"te.............................................................................................................110

    -erm So*+es ) =ust wor( witin te State !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 110

    Biopower Good.......................................................................................................................................................111

    Biopower Good !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!111

    Biopower Good

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 3Gordon/Lacy/Symonds Biopower

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 9Lab 8i*e $it*e

    ***NET WIDENING NEG CARDS

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 10Lab 8i*e $it*e

    Net idening 1N%

    &! Socia* ser+ices to pro+ide eua*ity to te poor gut *iberty

    -ub*iusF G;( 2#ogF 200G;(2#i%F Septe-2er '0F ttp?//www.gop2#i%.!o-/Hp41 (=@$e concept o *iberty manistests itse* in te e>ercise o our ree:wi**! ;ur country was ounded to

    protectF enance and preser+e te ree:wi** o its citizenry! Since te depressionF owe+erF teDemocrats and *etists in tis country a+e been (i**ing *iberty wit e+ery socia* progam concei+ed to

    e>pand eua*ityE! Liberty and eua*ityF wit te notab*e e>ception o te moment o creationF are

    o,ten mutua**y e>c*usi+eF and te acceptance o Eeua*ity:basedE po*icies is s*ow*y (i**ing *iberty! $e

    signs are tere?

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 11Lab 8i*e $it*e

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices

    Socia* ser+ices are used as socia* contro*

    Gi*bertF ni+ersity o %&:Ber(e*eyF 1993Nei#F Erope"n Jorn"# o, So!i"# WorkF 8ro- %er$i!e to %o!i"# !ontro#? I-p#i!"tion% o, we#,"re re,or- ,or

    pro,e%%ion"# pr"!ti!e in te nited St"te%F J"n"rFttp?//www.in,or-"wor#d.!o-/%-pp/!ontentKd24"##K!ontent4"919+91&F /10/09F G=@In response to te e>p*osi+e growt and te canging demograpic composition o pub*ic we*are

    recipientsF tis program as undergone ,or maAor reorms o$er te #"%t tree de!"de%? te 19+& Ser$i!e

    "-end-ent%F te 19+ Work In!enti$e progr"- WINF te 8"-i# Spport A!t o, 19F "nd te 199+

    progr"- o, Te-por"r A%%i%t"n!e to Need 8"-i#ie% TAN8. $ese reorms a+e ad a proound impact

    not on*y on te scope and purpose o pub*ic assistance to needy ami*iesF but a*so on te nature o

    proessiona* socia* wor(pr"!ti!e in ti% "re" o, p2#i! %o!i"# %er$i!e. &n ana*ysis o te maAor we*are

    reorms o$er te #"%t '7 e"r% re+ea*s owte n"tion"# entit#e-ent to in!o-e -"inten"n!e "nd %o!i"#

    %er$i!e% "% re!ededF #o!"# re%pon%i2i#it "nd pri$"te de#i$er o, %er$i!e "$e in!re"%edF "nd empases on

    ser+ice unctions a+e sited rom reabi*itati+e%o!i"# !"%ework/counse**ing to wor(:oriented trainingF

    Aob searc acti+itiesF and *oca* emp*oyment! Te pro$i%ion o, p2#i! "%%i%t"n!e "% 2een tr"n%,or-ed ,ro-

    " ,eder"# entit#e-ent 2"%ed on need% to " 2dget:dri$en:ti-e:#i-ited 2ene,it en$e#oped 2 in!enti$e% "nd

    %"n!tion%F wit we#,"re !#ient% in!re"%ing# %2e!t to -"nd"tor p"rti!ip"tion in work:re#"ted "!ti$itie%. $is

    mo+ement rom we*are to wor(are as inused te proessiona* ro*e o socia* wor(ers wit a steadi*y

    e>panding unction o socia* contro*Fwi! i% n#ike# to en!or"ge pro,e%%ion"# p"rti!ip"tion in te p2#i!

    %o!i"# %er$i!e%.

    Socia* ser+ices are percei+ed psyco*ogica**y as a orm o socia* contro*

    CoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937

    St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. 3F N&-H=ost notab*yF tere are te +arious recent scoo*s o re+isionist istory about te origins o eigteent:

    and nineteent century contro* institutions and systems. I re$iew ti% work in !"pter 1. It in!#de%

    Rot-"n% pioneering i%tor o, te origin% o, te "%#- in e"r# nineteent:!entr A-eri!" "ndF ,ro-

    ite " di,,erent inte##e!t"# tr"ditionF 8o!"#t% e>tr"ordin"r M"r!"eo#og i, de$i"n! !ontro# %%te-%.

    We "$e ere "t #"%t " $o!"2#"r wit wi! to !o-preend -ore re!ent !"nge%. A#re"dF %! work "%

    2een e>tended into te !onte-por"r %!eneF ,or e>"-p#e in S!##% writing% on Mde!"r!er"tion "nd to%e o,8o!"#t% ,o##ower% on te Mpo#i!ing o, ,"-i#ie% "nd te M"d$"n!ed p%!i"tri! %o!iet. Less penetrating

    teoretica**yF but eua**y compe**ing po*emica**yF are te +arious ormu*ations about te terapeutic

    stateCF psyciatric despotismCF te psyco*ogica* societyCF and mind contro*C!NoteF tog t"t tis

    workF "nd oter "##iedF 2t -ore "-2itio% %o!i"# !ritie%F tend curious*y to concentrate on psyciatry )te orm o inter+ention *east +isib*e as socia* contro* and"rg"2# te *east appropriate to concei+e

    simp*y as socia* contro*!

    $e more ob+iousF e+eryday orms o contro* po#i!eF pri%on%F !ort% a+e been muc *ess reuent*y

    cosen or tis type o sopisticated teoretica* scrutiny!Tere "re no do2t #e%% g#"-oro% "nd ro-"nti!

    %2e!t% ,or te %o!i"# !riti!. Tere i% -! -ore ,n "nd teoreti!"# -i#e"ge in %tding ,"%ion% in

    p%!o"n"#ti!"# teorF nde en!onter grop%F pri-"# %!re"-ing "nd %en%iti$it tr"iningF t"n in peeringdown te !orridor% o, " $eni#e !orre!tion"# in%tittion. $ere areF o courseF useu* statistics and good

    etnograpies o tese more mundane contro* agencies po#i!e dep"rt-ent%F $eni#e !ort%F pri%on%F

    !ri-e pre$ention progr"-% #o!"ting in i%tori!"# %p"!e ow did te et tereH in p%i!"# %p"!e te !it.

    Te neig2orood "ndF "2o$e "##F in%o!i"# %p"!e te network o, oter in%tittion% %! "% %!oo# "nd

    ,"-i#F broader patterns o we*are and socia* ser+icesF 2re"!r"ti! "nd pro,e%%ion"# intere%t%.

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    Gonzaga Debate Institute 2009 12Lab 8i*e $it*e

    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices

    Socia* wor( and socia* ser+ices are socia* contro*

    %owgerand&tertonF in%tr!tor "t J"ne Add"-% S!oo# o, So!i"# WorkF ni$er%it o, I##inoi%F (D

    FA%%o!i"te pro,e%%orF S!oo# o, So!i"# WorkF ni$er%it o, A#"2"-"F 19.

    C"r#e% D. "nd C"r#e% R.F So!i"# Contro#? " r"tion"#e ,or %o!i"# we#,"reF So!i"# Work 19?)F ))7+:)+&F J# 19)FJWS TAO

    S! di%!%%ion reg"rding te reg#"tion o, 2e"$ior i% not !"r"!teri%ti! o, %o!i"# work! Socia* wor(ers do

    not *i(e to entertain te idea o socia* demands on bea+ior! Nor do tey *i(e to tin( tat teir wor( is

    part o a process to produce socia* competence or te good o te society! Ne+erte*essF wene+er a

    socia* wor(erF parentF educatorF pysicianJanyoneJengages in an acti+ity to modiy: or set

    boundaries on uman conduct according to +a*ued normsF tat person is engaging in socia* contro*.enF or e>amp*eF a moter teaces a ci*d mannersF aritmeticF or ea*t abitsF se is engaging in

    socia* contro* as se passes on troug te socia*ization:education process a set o ru*es or +a*ues tat

    are part o our ci+i*ization! (%!oter"p i% " ,or- o, %o!i"# !ontro# to te e>tent t"t it en!orPe% " p"tient

    to gi$e p one %et o, 2e"$ior% ,or e>"-p#eF de#%ion%F !o-p#%io- ,or "noter %et !on%idered -ore

    "ppropri"te in te %o!iet. 8"-i# !on%e#ing i% " ,or- o, %o!i"# !ontro# in t"t it en!or"ge% ,"-i# -e-2er%

    to te-per !ert"in inter"!tion% t"t "re dged ,"#t in ,"$or o, -ore nor-"ti$e 2e"$ior t"t wi## en"2#ete- to P t "#ong Q$it#i e"! oter wit #e%% ,ri!tion "nd p"in. en socia* wor(ers assist c*ients to ind a

    AobF app*y or pub*ic aidF or manage te use o a*coo* or oter drugsF tey are engaging in te process

    o socia* contro*. Te o2e!ti$e in "## te%e in%t"n!e% i% to en"2#e !#ient% to get "#ong 2etter witin te %o!i"#

    order. Te !on!ept o, %o!i"# "!tion i% not "ntiteti!"# Eo ti% r"tion"#e o, %o!i"i we#,"re! Socia* action

    in+o*+es strategies and tactics tat indi+idua*s or groups in society may underta(e to cange norms!

    en peop*e embar( on socia* actionF tey are not denying te rea*ity o normati+e bea+ior! $ose

    wo see( to cange society Kwit te e>ception o anarcistsH do not see( to end a* normsF but to

    substitute dierent ones!

    State socia* ser+ices pro+ide a way or socia* contro*!

    GuoF 8acu*ty o #ducation at te ni+ersity o %a*garyF 200Si2"oF Re%e"r! on I--igr"tion "nd Integr"tion in te =etropo#i%F Bridging te G"p in So!i"# Ser$i!e% ,or

    I--igr"nt%?A Co--nit:B"%ed perien!e% o, i--igr"nt wo-en in "

    $o#nt"rF non:pro,it org"ni3"tion wi! pro$ided o2 !on%e##ing "nd p#"!e-ent %er$i!e% ,or non:Eng#i%

    %pe"king wo-en. Se contends tat etnic organizations unction as an e>tension o te coordinated

    acti+ities o te state! $roug unding reuirements and accountabi*ity proceduresF te state e>ercises

    a orm o socia* contro*! It becomes an a*ternati+e way or te state to dissipate potentia* dissension

    and maintain c*ass domination. Tere,oreF te initi"# "d$o!"! i-pet% ,or te "gen! w"% 2#nted.

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    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices

    Socia* wor( and conseuent*y socia* contro* a+e istorica**y increased in times o socia*

    disruption

    %owgerand&tertonF in%tr!tor "t J"ne Add"-% S!oo# o, So!i"# WorkF ni$er%it o, I##inoi%F (D

    FA%%o!i"te pro,e%%orF S!oo# o, So!i"# WorkF ni$er%it o, A#"2"-"F 19.C"r#e% D. "nd C"r#e% R.F So!i"# Contro#? " r"tion"#e ,or %o!i"# we#,"reF So!i"# Work 19?)F ))7+:)+&F J# 19)F

    JWS TAO

    =i##er "% "rged t"tF to prote!t te dignit o, -"nF %o!i"# !"%ework %o#d de"# on# wit te $o#nt"r

    !#ient/ pansi+e re*ie po*icies are designed to mute ci+i* disorderF

    and restricti+e ones to reinorce wor( norms: In oter wordsF re*ie po*icies are cyc*ica*J*ibera* or

    restricti+e depending on te prob*ems o regu*ation in te *arger society wit wic go+ernment must

    contends$o -i+en and %*owardF te use o pub*ic we*are to dampen ci+i* disorder is uestionab*e

    socia* po*ic G"r,"% e%tion% %ing te know#edge o, %o!i"# %!ien!e in %o!i"# work pr"!ti!e. Se o#d% t"t

    t#iere i% " !$%i2i#itF p"rti!#"r# in 2e#i"$io$i%-F t"t te tt%e o, %! know#edge wo#d #i-it indi$id"#,reedo- "nd %e#,deter-in"iion.

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    Link) -risons

    Teir togt o, e#ping te in!"r!er"ted "re %ed to -"%k te ,"!t t"t te -odern -etod% o,

    in!"r!er"tion "re " w" to %rp"%% te p%i!"# -etod o, pni%-ent to in!orpor"te M%o!i"#

    !ontro# o$er te -ind% o, te pri%oner%

    CoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. 27F N&-H

    $e Great IncarcerationsCo, te nineteent !entr tie$e% into pri%on%F #n"ti!% into "%#-%F!on%!ript% into 2"rr"!k%F worker% into ,"!torie%F !i#dren into %!oo# are to be seen as part o a grand

    design. (ropert "d to 2e prote!tedF prod!tion "d to 2e %t"nd"rdi3ed 2 reg#"tion%F te ong %egreg"ted

    "nd in!#!"ted wit te ideo#og o, tri,t "nd %!!e%%F te de$i"nt %2e!ted to di%!ip#e "nd %r$ei##"n!e. $e

    new discip*inary mode wic te prison was to representF be*onged to an economy o power uite

    dierent rom tat o te directF arbitrary and +io*ent ru*e o te so+ereign! -ower in capita*ist society

    ad to be e>ercised at te *owest possib*e cost Keconomica**y and po*itica**yH and its eects ad to be

    intensi+e and e>tended ) re*ayedC trougout te socia* apparatus! Ti% w"% power Mt"t in%idio%#

    o2e!ti,ie% to%e on wo- it i% "pp#iedF to ,or- " 2od o, know#edge "2ot to%e indi$id"#%F r"ter t"n todep#o te o%tent"tio% %ign o, %o$ereignt.

    $e istorica* transition wic symbo*ized te new order was rom punisment as torture " p2#i!F

    te"tri!"# %pe!t"!#e to te more economica**y and po*itica**y discreet prison sentence. (ni%-ent2e!"-e Mre"%on"2#e "nd te 2od di%"ppe"red "% te -"or t"rget o, pen"# repre%%ion. Witin " ,ew de!"de%F

    te gri%# %pe!t"!#e% o, tortreF di%-e-2er-entF e>po%reF "-pt"tion "nd 2r"ndingF were o$er. Interest was

    transerred rom te body to te mind ) a coerci+eF so*itary and secret mode o punisment rep*acing

    one tat was representati+eFF scenic and co**ecti+e! Gone w"% te #itrg o, tortre "nd e>e!tionF were

    te tri-p o, te %o$ereign w"% %-2o#i3ed in te pro!e%%ion%F "#t "t !ro%%ro"d%F p2#i! re"ding% o, te%enten!e "ndF e$en ",ter de"tF wen te !ri-in"#% !orp%e w"% e>i2ited or 2rnt. In it% p#"!e !"-e " wo#e

    te!no#og o, %2t#e power.

    (ri%on re,or- rein,or!e% " ier"r! o, 2iopo#iti!"# %o!i"# !ontro# trog te nor-"#i3"tion o,

    pri%oner% "nd %ti,ie% te St"te% r#e o$er te %2e!t pop#"tionCoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937

    St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. 2,F N&-HTi% i% w"t te reormed prisondoe%. It render% do!i#e te re!"#!itr"nt -e-2er% o, te working !#"%%F itdeter% oter%F it te"!e% "2it% o, di%!ip#e "nd orderF it reproduces te *ost ierarcy. It repairs deecti+e

    umans to compete in te mar(et p*ace!Not %t te prison2t te !ri-e %%te- "% " wo#eF is part ote *arger rationa*ization o socia* re*ations in nascent capita*ism. $e transition rom a paterna*istic

    socia* order to te capita*ist mar(et system ca**s or new orms o regu*ating economic and socia*

    re*ationsips! & new tecno*ogy o repression emerges to *egitimate and strengten ru*ing:c*ass contro*

    o te wor(orce and to dea* wit +arious redundantF super*uous or margina* popu*ations to%e

    grop% #e"%t "-en"2#e to te $irte% o, 2orgeoi% r"tion"#it. E"r#ier "d o!F ine,,i!ientF we"k "nd

    de!entr"#i3ed ,or-% o, !ontro# "re rep#"!ed. $e state ta(es on a more and more acti+e ro*e in guidingF

    coordinatingF and p*anning a crimina* Austice system wic can acie+e a more torougF rationa*ized

    penetration o te subAect popu*ation!

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    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices

    $e apparatus o socia* contro* widens wit e+ery increase in dependent e>pert groups

    based around scientiic (now*edgeC or te progress o society

    CoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937

    St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. 1,:1.F N&-H$e increasing dierentiation and c*assiication o de+iant and dependent groups into separate types

    and categoriesF eac wit its own body o scientiicC (now*edge and its own recognized and accredited

    e>perts pro,e%%ion"#% wo e$ent"## "!ire %pe!i"#i3ed -onopo#ie%.

    Te %e!ond -"%ter !orre!tion"# !"nge te %2e!t o, ti% 2ook is!on%ider"2# -ore opaue. $e +eryessence o te transormation %t w"t i% "ppening isopen to di%pte "% we## "% it% %ppo%ed !"%e%.

    8or %o-e o, % tere "$e indeed 2een re"# !"nge% te increasing e>tensionF wideningF dispersa*F and

    in+isibi*ity o te socia* contro* apparatus 2t te%e "$e !ontino% r"ter t"n di%!ontino% wit te

    origin"# nineteent:!entr tr"n%,or-"tion. =oreo$erF tese canges run in a*most e+ery respect

    diametrica**y opposite to te ideo*ogica* Austiications rom wic tey are supposed to be deri+ed! In

    oter wordsF i we are in te midst o a second transormationCF it is not uite wat it appears to be!

    Socia* ser+ices are a orm o socia* contro*C tat not on*y ides te coercion o te stateF

    but a*so perpetuates cyc*es o action tat maintain te current orderCoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937

    St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. &F NA($e term socia* contro*C"% #"te# 2e!o-e %o-eting o, " =i!ke =o%e !on!ept. In %o!io#og te>t2ook%F

    it "ppe"r% "% " netr"# ter- to !o$er "## %o!i"# pro!e%%e% to ind!e !on,or-it r"nging ,ro- in,"nt

    %o!i"#i3"tion trog to p2#i! e>e!tion. In radica* teory and retoricF it as become a negati+e term to

    co+er not Aust te ob+ious*y coerci+e apparatus o te stateF but a*so te putati+e idden e*ement in a**

    state:sponsored socia* po*icyF weter ca**ed ea*tF education or we*are!

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    Lin( ) Deat

    (redi!tion% o, ,tre "po!"#p%e "re 2"%ed o, " %o!io#ogi!"# "gend" !o-p#i!it wit %o!i"# !ontro#

    CoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937

    St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. 3:9F N&-H

    $ere is yet anoter space in wic I want to *ocate socia* contro*? te uture! 8ro- !#"%%i!"# nineteent:!entr %o!i"# teor onw"rd%F specu*ation about te uture as a*ways been on te socio*ogica* agendaF

    weter in positi+ist teories about e+o*ution and progressF in gr"nd !!#i!"# $iew% o, wor#d i%tor orrecent*y in more pessimistic and apoca*yptic +isions o te uture! $e interest in prediction as been

    re+i+ed in te *iterature about post:industria* societyF uturo*ogy and socia* orecasting. De%piteFowe$erF te !ontining p2#i! %en%iti$it to te !ri-e pro2#e- "% "n inde> to Mwere "re we goingF suc

    *iterature pays +irtua**y no attention to te subAect! It isF "% !"pter + %ow%F in te *ess academic wor*do science ictionF tat te more interesting utures o socia* contro* are to be ound!

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    Lin( ) 'eorm

    Te "tte-pt "t re,or- trog in!re"%ing %o!i"# %er$i!e% e>p"nd% te %pere o, %o!i"# !ontro# t"t

    ide% te ,"!t t"t re,or- ,"i#%F 2t !ontine% to e>p"nd in%tittion% to -"int"in te %o!i"# order

    2eind te -"%k o, we#,"re

    CoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. &0F N&-H

    $is goa* o canging te person was born o an optimistic wor*d +iew. Tere w"% " p"trioti! ent%i"%-to 2e ,ree ,ro- te 2rt"# Erope"n -on"r!i!"# erit"geF "nd " re$#%ion o$er te %pe!t"!#e o, p2#i!

    p%i!"# pni%-ent. Te pe%%i-i%ti! C"#$ini%t $iew o, inn"te depr"$it w"% rep#"!ed 2 a more optimisticpost:#n*igtenment +iew o peop*e as p*astic creatures wo cou*d be saped by teir en+ironments.

    $e prospects or reorm seemed brigt and tese institutions pro*ieratedF e+entua**y dominating te

    socia*:contro* repertoire!SoonF tougF tere was ai*ure? 2 te 10%F "nd !#e"r# 2 te 190%. It w"%

    o2$io% t"t "%#-% "d degener"ted into -ere !%todi"# in%tittion% o$er!rowdedF !orrpt "nd !ert"in#

    not re"2i#it"ti$e. None o te ear*y promises ad been rea*ized but te continuing story was

    *egitimation despite ai*ureC.. Te pro,ond !riti!i%-% -"de no di,,eren!e te institutions were (ept

    going because o teir unctiona*ism and te enduring power o te retoric o bene+o*ence!

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    Socia* %ontro* $yranny

    #>pansion in state socia* contro* resu*ts in tyranny!

    8ow*erF Erope:A%i" Stdie%F 199JonF Re$iew o, ="king Sen%e o, Tr"nn? Interpret"tion% o, Tot"#it"ri"ni%-F 6o#-e ) N-2er 'F ="F pg.

    70:710F JST;RF G=@Te %or!e o, ti% proe!tF wi! we !"n !"## te te-pt"tion o, tot"#it"ri"ni%-F #" in te !onn!tion o, te

    pr"!ti!"# e>perien!e o, tot"# %o!i"# -o2i#i%"tion dring te 8ir%t Wor#d W"r wit te !o-preen%i$e %!ienti,i!

    teorie% o, %o!iet wi! were ,or-#"ted dring te #"te 19t !entr. =ass re+o*utionary mo+ements

    pro+ided te conte>t or using togeter teory and practice by using te be*ie in te utopia o a

    perect*y integrated society to *egitimate te practices o tota* administration wi! "d "ri%en dring

    te wor#d w"r. $e modern disparaging use o te term o**owed soon aterM pioneered by e>:re+o*utionaries wo used it to reer ironica**y to te no+e* destructi+eness o te unintended

    conseuences o te new po*itica* proAect!Go+ernment based on te uninibited use o tecno*ogies o

    socia* contro* and sur+ei**ance and *egitimated by an ideo*ogy wic remo+ed a** +estiges o indi+idua*F

    and tereore in teir eyes anti:socia*F rigts ad created a no+e* orm o abso*ute or tota* tyranny.

    Co#d W"r po#e-i!% "nd te !ontro$er%ie% o$er te n"tre o, te po%t:St"#ini%t regi-e% "dded ,re% #"er% to

    te -e"ning o, te ter- 2t did not "#ter it% !#"i- to de%!ri2e " ,nd"-ent"## new tpe o, po#it.

    #>pansi+e Socia* %ontro* *eads to tota*itarianism

    %oorayF (.D.F 199="rkFHuman Rights In AustraliaF Fttp?//www.or!i$i#i%"tion.!o-/!oor"/rigt%/!"p.t-9/10/9F "!!e%%ed :

    10:09F NG

    $is is an e>treme*y dangerous trend wic is reminiscent o tota*itarian socia*ist Austice. In !o--ni%t

    !ontrie% te -o%t %erio% o,,en!e% "re to%e wi! eop"rdi%e te e!ono-i! "nd po#iti!"# #ine o, te p"rt.

    E$en !ri-e% %! "% -rder "nd te,t "re !on%idered to 2e de$i"nt po#iti!"# 2e"$ior. $is notion o

    crimina*ity is based on te centra* concern or socia* contro* and socia* engineeringF te be*ie tat a**

    oter considerations must gi+e way to te po*itica**y determined priorities o society. Societies oundedupon respect or persona* *iberty sow a undamenta**y dierent conception o Austice. In %! %o!ietie%

    de pro!e%% o, te #"w "% " $"#e t"t tr"n%!end% "## oter intere%t%. Te pro!edr"# "nd e$identi"r r#e%

    "$e 2een e$o#$ed o$er " #ong period o, ti-e "nd "$e 2e!o-e e%t"2#i%ed owing to te !on$i!tion t"t in

    teir "2%en!e per%on"# #i2ert i% "t gre"t peri#. Ti% !on$i!tion %te-% ,ro- te know#edge t"t "n 2ene,it t"t-" 2e g"ined 2 di%pen%ing wit de pro!e%% i% otweiged 2 te enor-o% d"-"ge t"t it !"%e% to te

    ,ond"tion% o, #i2ert. $e tendency to create e>traordinary oences and e>traordinary procedures

    arises rom regu*ationist and inter+entionist go+ernment! Se+era* $ird or*d countriesF wic

    inerited democratic po*itica* systemsF a+e aced tis di*emma wen tey a+e sougt to tread te

    pat o radica* socia*ism!Te%e !ontrie% "dopted e!ono-i! po#i!ie% wi! !"##ed ,or %t"te owner%ip o,

    #"rge %e!tor% o, te e!ono- "nd te i-po%ition o, rigid# !ontro##ed e>!"nge %%te-%. A% " re%#t e$er

    $io#"tion o, te e>!"nge r#e% "nd e$er o,,en!e "g"in%t %t"te propert 2e!"-e o, $it"# !on!ern to te

    e!ono-i! %r$i$"# o, te n"tion. Te ,ond t"t it w"% i-po%%i2#e to -"n"ge te n"tion"# e!ono- 2

    re!or%e to ordin"r #"w% o, te #"nd. Ti% %it"tion #ed to te !re"tion o, %pe!i"# !ort% "nd %pe!i"#

    pro!edre% ,or te tri"# o, no$e# ,or-% o, e!ono-i! !ri-e%. T% in -"n !"%e% te r#e o, #"w w"%

    irretrie$"2# !o-pro-i%ed. We%tern n"tion% "$e et to ,"!e ti% tpe o, !ri%i%. cessi+e*y it wi** create a demand or no+e* orms o

    regu*ation and *aw enorcement wic wi** gradua**y undermine te oundations o persona* *iberty!

    Ti% i% "#re"d "ppening in A%tr"#i".

    http://www.ourcivilisation.com/cooray/rights/chap7.htmhttp://www.ourcivilisation.com/cooray/rights/chap7.htm
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    Socia* %ontro* undermines Liberty

    Socia* contro* (i**s *iberty wic ma(es society impossib*e

    'eicertF pi#o%operF 19Wi##i"- ;F ("rti%"n% o, 8reedo-? A Std in A-eri!"n An"r!i%-F 19+F

    ttp?//www.dite>t.!o-/rei!ert/p"rti%"n%/intro.t-#F A!!e%%ed :10:09F A=GW"te$er oter ,"#t% it -" po%%i2# po%%e%%F "n"r!i%-F n#ike #i2er"#i%-F !"nnot 2e !riti!i3ed on te

    grond% t"t it "!!o--od"te% it% dedi!"tion to te prin!ip#e o, indi$id"# ,reedo- to te de-"nd% o, power

    "nd p2#i! order. An"r!i%- i% di%tingi%ed ,ro- oter po#iti!"# ideo#ogie%F in ,"!tF pre!i%e# 2e!"%e o, it%

    ree!tion o, power "nd ,or-"# org"ni3"tion. An"r!i%t% re!ogni3e t"t power i% " de,inite "nd ne!e%%"r

    !"r"!teri%ti! o, "## %o!i"# %it"tion% 2t te dr"w " !"re,# di%tin!tion 2etween %o!i"# "nd po#iti!"# power.

    So #ong as tere are uman beings tere wi** natura**y e>ist subt*e orces o socia* contro* wic ma(e

    co**ecti+e socia* action and cooperation possib*e. &narcists denyF owe$erF tat tis contro* must be

    e>ercised by go+ernment o+er te indi+idua*s o wom society is composed!6iewing te wor#d ,ro- "

    po%ition o, #i2ert"ri"n !on!ernF "n"r!i%t% -"int"in t"t po*itica* power wie*ded by go+ernment can ne+er

    be acceptab*e in teir eyes as a *egitimate mode o socia* contro* because it cruses out indi+idua*

    reedom. And were indi+idua* reedom is absentF socia* *ie becomes impossib*eF or society is notingmore tan te sum tota* o te ree acts o te indi+idua*s o wic it is composed.

    http://www.ditext.com/reichert/partisans/intro.htmlhttp://www.ditext.com/reichert/partisans/intro.html
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    Socia* %ontro* Destroys Democracy

    Socia* contro* destroys democracyF tatCs ob+ious*y bad

    =urpy and %oiF (ro,e%%or o, So!io#og "t te ni$er%it o, =i"-i "nd A%%i%t"nd (ro,e%%or o, So!io#og

    "t B"rr ni$er%itF 199

    Jon "nd JngF (o%t-oderni%-F nr"$e#ing r"!i%-F "nd de-o!r"ti! in%tittion%F 199F JWS TAODemocracy is tougt to pose prob*ems re*ated to socia* contro*! In actF in some ways tese ideas are

    antitetica*. I-p#ied 2 !ontro#F ,or e>"-p#eF "re di,,eren!e% in power? "% We2er note%. %o-eone "% te"2i#it to -"ke oter% "#ter teir 2e"$ior. ;ne group o persons as te *atitude to orce oters to

    engage in actions tey oterwise wou*d not perorm! In @antian *anguage! someone is treated as

    mere*y a means to oster anoterCs ends! %*ear*y tis idea is anatema to democracy! %oercionF in

    sortF is undemocratic!A tr# de-o!r"ti! order i% %ppo%ed to 2e 2"%ed on #egiti-"!U%e#,: i-po%ed

    %tri!tre%Ur"ter t"n tre"t or inti-id"tion.A% oppo%ed to "toritF order i% predi!"ted on te r#e o, #"w.

    $e rigt to go+ernF tereoreF is disseminated trougout society and is not te so*e proper*y o one

    group or anoter. A% de%!ri2ed 2 Le,ort. in " de-o!r"! power %te-% ,ro- te peop#eV on te oter "nd.

    it i% te power o, no2od.& C#e"r# no !"-pion o, de-o!r"!F (#"to "rged t"t ti% ,or- o, go$ern-ent

    i% in,erior to "ri%to!r"! or o#ig"r!. In e"! o, te%e "#tern"ti$e% to " de-o!r"ti! po#itF te peop#e "re

    repre%ented 2 "noter p"rt. So-eow te%e %e#e!t per%on% "$e in%igt into te wi## o, te -"%%e%F or "t#e"%t "re "2#e to dire!t te p"%%ion o, te pop#"!e in " !on%tr!ti$e -"nner. A!!o-p"ning ti% %ki## "re

    %o!i"# di,,erenti"tion% t"t "re 2e#ie$ed to 2e ne!e%%"r ,or order to pre$"i#. I, te peop#e "re #e,t to teir own

    de$i!e%F te wor%t e#e-ent% o, %o!iet wi## ri%e to pro-inen!eF tere2 re%#ting in !orrption "nd -or"#

    de!".' Te -or"# po$ert o, te -"%%e% "% 2een " pop#"r te-e trogot We%tern i%tor. Contro#

    2e!"-e " reire-ent ,or te pro-otion o, %o!i"# pro%perit. R"ter t"n te pi#o%oper king% pro-oted 2

    (#"to. re"# king% wo "d " di$ine -"nd"te to #e"d were " ke ,e"tre o, =edie$"# %o!iet. E$en %2%eent

    to te En#igten-entF wi! w"% %ppo%ed to %e!#"ri3e te go$ern-entF te !o--on peop#e were %ti##

    di%%*!d. A !#o%e "%%o!i"tion de$e #oped 2etween te "ii%#o!r"!. or "t k"%t te ri$ or power,#F "nd to%ewo "re %ppo%ed to repre%ent te peop#e. In ti% w"F te option% o, te pie2e#"n%. now"d"% re,erred to "%

    te $oter%F "r! !!wtro##!d. Be!"%e o, ti% re#"tion%ipF in oter word%F te %o$ereignt "ttri2ted to te

    indi$id"# 2 Lo!ke i% %per$i%ed "nd te-pered. In te endF e$en ="r>i%t% wo !"-pion!d te !"%e o, te

    peo#et>F"t %!!-2ed to e#iti%- 2 gi$ing pri-"! to p"rt #e"der%ip. Te point it. t"t te peop#e "$e

    ne$er 2een tni%t!d to go%eni. e$en in %o!ietie% t"t !#"i- to 2e d!nto!ni!. A inre de#i2er"ti$e 2od i%

    reired to en%"ne te r"tion"#it "nd %t"2i#it o, te po#it. 8or e>"-p#eF eiter te 2%ine%% !#%!" or e#ite

    go$ern-ent repre%ent"ti$e% "$e 2een dee-ed ne!e%%"r to #e"d te -"%%e%. Te peop#e "r! %i-p# tooi-p#%i$e to -"ke %ond de!i%ion%. But in a rea* democracy mute trust must be p*aced in te popu*ace.

    &*toug e+ery person does not a+e to be in+o*+ed in e+ery decisionJa type o micromanagement

    tat wou*d be impossib*eJideas and proposa*s must be ab*e to emanate rom e+ery segment o society!

    &s @ar* =anneim arguesF rea* democracy rests on te toroug democratization o cu*ture. #noug

    conidence must be p*aced in te masses to a**ow te ree *ow o inormation and criticism! I *imits

    are imposed a priori on tis acti+ityF eiter direct*y troug inter+ention or indirect*y troug

    *ogistica* reuirements! Democracy is abridged. I poweru* interests o+ert*y inter+ene in te process

    o go+ernance to sape po*iciesF must persons recognize tat democracy is in AeopardyF Reiring

    !"ndid"te% #o2e we"#t to rn ,or o,,i!e or "$e teir ide"% di%%e-in"ted i% " #e%% o2$io% 2t e"##

    e,,e!ti$e -e"n% o, !ontro# To%e wo "r! power,# "nd own -o%t o, te -oneF ,or e>"-p#e. wi## !ert"in#

    not 8nd " !"ndid"te or %pport #egi%#"tion or ide"% t"t tre"ten teir %o!i"# po%ition. In 2o !"%e%Fn,ettered in,#en!e i% denied to te -"%%e% 2e!"%e ide"% "ir !en%ored 2e,ore "n di%!%%ion or de#i2er%!in

    i% in"gr"ted.

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    Socia* %ontro* esca*ates to 'epression

    Socia* contro* measures *ead to Aob:arassment and repressi+e state practicesF assu*tF

    intimidationF imprisonmentF and deat

    BergF Re%e"r!er ,or 6"nder2i#t F 200..

    B.LF "#it"ti$e Re%e"r! =etod% ,or te So!i"# S!ien!e%. Bo%tonF =A? (e"r%on Ed!"tionF In!Fttp?//www.-"ne!o#ogre$iew.org/p"%ti%%e%/er1+&/-i>et"#.pd,F C==

    $e socia* contro* *iterature oers signiicant insigt into +arious c*assiication scemes or orms o

    socia* con: tro*! =ost discussions o te socia* contro* o mo+ements ocus on te state as te socia*

    contro* agent and on direct co: ercion and +io*ence as princip*e orms o socia* contro*F suc as

    po*icingF direct assau*tF intimidationF imprisonment and deat! %o,t ,or-% o, repre%%ion ti#i3ed 2%t"te

    "nd non:%t"te "!tor%. Te ,ond t"t p2#i! "!!ept"n!e o, %o,t ,or-% o, repre%%ion ,o%ter%"n e%!"#"tion to

    "rder ,or-% o, repre%%ion? So,t re: pre%%ionUin te ,or-o, ridi!#eF %tig-"ti3"tion or %i#en!eU prep"re%

    te grond ,or "rd repre%%ion&00+F &&+. Te %gge%t t"t te npop#"r n"tre o, te -o$e-ent "nd

    te Some mo+ement sco*ars document sot socia* contro* measures suc as inte**igence gateringC"r#e 199V ="r> 191F appea*s to te *arger societyC"2#e et "#. 1999V C"r#e 199F stigmatization

    O"$e%to%ki et. "#. &00) and on:te:Aob arassment Dr"per &000. In " %td o, %o!i"# !ontro# "nd te

    A-eri!"n Indi"n =o$e-entF C"r#e 199 de%!ri2e% te 8BI% !onterinte##igen!e progr"-% %e o,opinion !ontro#F wi! in!#ded di%in,or-"tionF prop"g"nd"F "nd -edi" -": nip#"tion. ;pinion !ontro#

    pre$ented te di%%e-in"tion o, "!!r"te in,or-"tion "nd !"%ed te -o$e-ent to "!t de,en: %i$e# "nd ,o!%

    on repre%%ion r"ter t"n -o$e-ent go"#%. &cti+istsC deensi+e position promoted +io*ent strategies and

    tactics tat *imited recruitment and *egitimated or muc o te pub*ic te stateCs repression o te

    mo+ement! Some researcers argue tat sot orms o socia* contro* set te stage or ard ormsF

    depending on pub*ic opinion! In a study o e>treme rigt acti+ism in te Neter*andsF Linden and

    @*andermans K200H e>amine te interaction o ard and sot orms o repression uti*ized by state and

    non:state actors! $ey ound tat pub*ic acceptance o sot orms o repression osters an esca*ation to

    arder orms o repression? Sot re: pressionJin te orm o ridicu*eF stigmatization or si*enceJ

    prepares te ground or ard repressionE K200F 22H! $ey suggest tat te unpopu*ar nature o te

    mo+ement and te pre+ai*ing pub*ic opinion promoted an unsupporti+e socia* en+ironment or

    acti+ists tat encouraged te stateCs use o more repressi+e tactics . In ti% !"%eF %o,t repre%%ion !o-:

    2ined wit neg"ti$e p2#i! opinion %et te %t"ge ,or "rd re: pre%%ion "nd #i-ited te "tt"in-ent o, -o$e-ent

    go"#%.

    Strong state socia* contro* resu*ts in more state:citizen (i**ing!

    %ooneryF &ssistant -roessor o Socio*ogy at te ni+ersity o GeorgiaF 199="rkF 8ro- W"rre to Tr"nn? Let"# Con,#i!t "nd te St"teF A-eri!"n So!io#ogi!"# Re$iewF 6o#. +&F No. &

    Apri#F pp. '1+:''F JST;RF G=@

    In centra*ized po*itica* systemsF *eta* con*ict is once again reuent2t ,or re"%on% t"t "re tpi!"##

    di%tin!t ,ro- to%e pre$"i#ing in %t"te#e%% %o!ietie%. Were"% te "2%en!e o, go$ern-ent -e"n% t"t peop#e

    "$e to %o#$e di%pte% on teir ownF centra*ized go+ernment ma(es te state a partyF actua* or potentia*F

    to e+ery con*ict. I, te ,or-er tend% to prod!e w"rreF te #"tter $eer% tow"rd tr"nn. $yranny maniests

    itse*F abo+e a**F in *arge:sca*e e>ecutions. Bt it "#%o !re"te% -ore w"r ,"t"#itie% "nd "2ot "% -!re2e##io% o-i!ide "% non!entr"#i3ed %t"te% do. A#tog te twentiet !entr -" 2e te -o%t #et"# o,

    re!ent !entrie% Ti## 1990?0:+F it o#d% no -onopo# on %t"te ki##ing. $e istorica* record aboundswit accounts o *arge:sca*e s*augter:romte O# W"#ter 19+9F !"p%. +:10 "nd A%"nte Wi#k% 197

    kingdo-% o, A,ri!" to te A3te! e-pire o, Centr"# A-eri!" D"$ie% 191F !"p. 9F ,ro- te =ongo#

    S"nder% 191 "nd Cine%e R--e# 199)?71:7) empires in te #ast to te Spanis Inuisition in te

    est;Brien 19'. e!tionF w"rF "nd re2e##ion in !entr"#i3ed "nd non!entr"#i3ed regi-e%F I !on!entr"te ere on te twentiet

    !entr. E>e!tion A$"i#"2#e d"t" %gge%t t"t r"te% o, interper%on"# o-i!ide "re re#"ti$e# #ow in !entr"#i3ed %t"te% Ar!er "nd

    G"rtner 19)F p"rt 'V Rei%% "nd Rot 199'?7&.

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    $urns te case ) Socia* %ontro* targets te -oor

    $e Great Depression -ro+es $at e*are Is & $oo* sed By $e #*ite $o %ontro* $e

    nder %*ass

    %am*inF Bure(F &nd%ocranF ni$er%it o, Cin!inn"tiF Bow#ing Green St"te ni$er%itF ni$er%it o,

    Sot 8#orid"F 200=it!e## B.F =e#i%%" W.F Jon @.F We#,"re (o#i! "% So!i"# Contro#F JneF 6o#-e 1 N-2er &F SA

    Te teoreti!"# ide"% o, B#"ner 19+9 "nd Spit3er 197 "$e %p"wned " n-2er o, %tdie% t"t e>"-ined

    te re#"tion%ip 2etween pre$enti$e e.g.F r"!i"# re%identi"# %egreg"tion "nd -ore tr"dition"# e.g.F po#i!e

    %i3eF "rre%t r"te%F i-pri%on-ent r"te% -e!"ni%-% o, -"!ro%o!i"# !ontro# C"-#inF 199V Li%k" 5 C"-#inF

    19)V In$er"rit 5 Gr"ttetF 199V Li%k"F L"wren!eF 5 Ben%onF 191. pansion o re*ie programs in te 19,0s!R"terF itwas te%e$erit "nd per+asi+eness o *abor riots and crimina* acti+ities directed againstte intere%t% o,

    economic e*ites tat ,in"## brougt a response rom edera* and *oca* oicia*s!

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    Socia* %ontro* causes Deumanization

    &ndF socia* contro* arises into con*icts o upper +s! *ower being menta*ityF *eading into

    deumanization!

    -odgrec(iandOoPF (ro,e%%or% o, So!io#og "nd C"r#eton ni$er%itF 199

    Ad"- "nd ="ri"FMulti Dimensional Sociology, Rot#edgeF 199F JoXWi#e te propo%ition t"t -"n indi$id"#% "nd %o-e "ni-"#% tend to 2e"$e "ggre%%i$e# wen te ,ind te-%e#$e% in " %tr"nge!rowdF ,"!ing te pro2#e- o, di$i%ion o, no!!pied o2e!t% -" 2e rendered "% " $er intere%ting gener"# "nd %nteti! re%#t o, -"n

    %tdie%F te propo%ition %ti## doe% not e>p#"in %,,i!ient# -"n !re#t "nd oter peno-en" "%%o!i"ted wit de-"ni3"tion. It -" 2e

    "%%-ed t"t $"rio% en$iron-ent"# or 2io#ogi!"# deter-in"nt% -" in,#en!e "ggre%%i$e 2e"$ior. Ne$erte#e%%F te most essentia*

    actors *eading to structura*ized aggression are o a strict*y socia* caracter! $is is because te

    deumanization penomenon appears in numerous socia* conte>ts? in *abour a*ienationF wars and

    socia* disturbancesF in anoma*ous situations connected wit *arge urban and industria* agg*omerationsF

    etc. Te e%tion en!e "ri%e%? wi! %pe!i,i! ,"!tor in e"! !"%e #e"d % to de-"ni3"tionH It seems probab*e tat

    deumanization a*ways appears main*y as te conseuence o te rationa*ization *ouris wen a gi+en

    socia* system *eads to te situation o a brea(down o traditiona* e*ements o socia* contro* and te

    con*icts"ri%ing ,ro- te #"g o, "%pired $"#e% 2eind te "2i#it to "tt"in te- "re re%o#$ed not 2 -e"n% o, in,or-"# interper%on"#

    "rr"nge-ent%F 2t "reF on te !ontr"rF wor%ened 2 "nt"goni%ti! %%te-% o, ideo#ogie%. Deumanization is ence"n

    in%tr-ent"## %e,# !on%een!e o, r"tion"#i3"tion o, "ggre%%i$e 2e"$ior causedby te pi*osopy o speciic socia*

    systems. It %pont"neo%# %er$e% te%e %%te-% "nd %trengten% te- on te prin!ip#e o, te ,eed:2"!k. Deumanization maytus assume +arious orms! It mayF or instanceF be an e>pression o certain traditiona* ideo*ogies

    wic regard certain categories o peop*e as *owerC beingsor o, " #ower r"!e. T"t point o, $iew -" "%%-e te

    ,or- o, " Mnetr"# pi#o%op wen " gi$en %o!iet i% 2"%ed on e#e-ent% o, !"%te or " !#"%% %%te-. Deumanization may a*so

    ta(e te sape o a certain seeming*y rationa* ideo*ogy wic uses +arious pseudo:actua* arguments in

    an attempt to Austiy irrationa* princip*es! $ese princip*es are genera**y to te eect tat peop*e o

    certain traits constitute a *ower category o uman beingsF orF in some e>treme casesF are comp*ete*y

    depri+ed o uman traits! In te modern wor*d deumanization at times assumes a mas(ed orm . Ti%!on%i%t% o, tre"ting indi$id"#%F grop% or e$en entire %o!ietie% pre# "% o2e!t% in te!ni!"# or org"ni3"tion"# "!ti$itF "#tog te "re

    "ttri2ted -"n tr"it% on te "2%tr"!t #e$e#. -arado>ica* situations may arise in ig*y de+e*oped socia* systems?

    agencies designed to e*iminate socia* dierences and introduce e*ements o socia* Austice may in

    practice *ead to contrary resu*ts.

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    Socia* %ontro* 4 Biopower

    Socia* contro* becomes a too* used by dangerous e*itesF perpetuating tyranny and

    macrosocia* contro*!

    %am*inF Bure(F &nd%ocranF ni$er%it o, Cin!inn"tiF Bow#ing Green St"te ni$er%itF ni$er%it o,

    Sot 8#orid"F 200=it!e## B.F =e#i%%" W.F Jon @.F We#,"re (o#i! "% So!i"# Contro#F JneF 6o#-e 1 N-2er &F SA

    $e con*ict perspecti+e broad*y conceptua*izes socia* contro* as an instrument used by socia* e*ites to

    contro* tose bea+iors and popu*ationst"t tre"ten teirp"rti!#"ri%ti! intere%t% B#"!kF 19+V B#"#o!kF

    19+V Li%k"F 199&V inneF 190F19V TrkF 19+9!A#tog tere i% !on%ider"2#e di%"gree-ent

    !on!erning teidentit o, %o:!"##ed e#ite%F #et "#one te -"nner in wi! te "re "2#e to !o:opt "nd in,#en!e

    in%tittion% o, -"!ro%o!i"# !ontro# BierneF 199V Li%k"F 19F 199Ftere is a common teme tat uniies

    tis *iterature and distinguises it rom its maAor competitorF te rationa* coice perspecti+e! &*toug

    te termino*ogy may dierF +irtua**y a** proponents o con*ict teory recognize tat te contro* o

    dangerous groups and strata encompasses more tan do te macinations o te crimina* Austice

    system! 'aterF seeming*y innocuous go+ernmenta* organizations and po*icies may a*so ser+e as

    +eic*es o macrosocia* contro*!

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    Interna* Lin( 5 Impact ) 6a*ue to Lie

    Socia* ser+ices are anoter way or te dominant order to maintain socia* contro* troug

    discip*inary power tat denies +a*ue to *ie to te popu*ation

    CoenF #meritus -roessor o Socio*ogy at te London Scoo* o #conomicsF1937

    St"n#eF 6i%ion% o, So!i"# Contro#? Cri-eF (ni%-ent "nd C#"%%i,i!"tionF p. &F NA(Bt ti% !on%tr!tion w"% not %t "n i%o#"ted -"n -en"gerieF #"2or"tor or ,or!ing grond ,or 2e"$ior"#

    !"nge. R"terF Mp"nopti!i%- e-erged "% " new -od"#it o, !ontro# trogot %o!iet. $e reorm o

    prisonersF te instruction o scoo*ci*drenF te coninement o te insaneF and te super+ision o

    wor(ers a** became proAects o doci*ityC re*ated to te new po*itica* and economic order!ism tan 8oucau*tCs insistence

    trougout tat e is constructing a po*itica* economy o te bodyC wic is not simp*y a re*ection o

    teC po*itica* economy!Cert"in# it was te economic ta(e:o o te estte "!!-#"tion o, !"pit"#Fnew re#"tion% o, prod!tionF te new #eg"# %t"t% o, propert wic reuired te po*itica* ta(eo to a

    dierent orm o power!Te pri%onF owe$erF "nd a**oter new metods o contro*F e+entua**y become

    micro:systems wit teir own momentum and *ogic not reducib*e to te wor(ing o capita*!$usF te

    growt o a capita*ist economy ga+e rise to te speciic moda*ities o discip*inary powerF wose

    genera* ormu*asF tecniues o submitting orces and bodiesF in sort po*itica* economyC cou*d be

    operated in te most di+erse po*itica* regimesF apparatuses or institutions!C

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    """N#$ ID#NING &88 %&'DS

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    N: 8edera* power increasing

    Non:niue? 8edera* go+ernment power as signiicant*y increased

    @ot(inF pre%identi"# ,e##ow "t C"p-"n ni$er%it "nd writer ,or te W"%ington (o%tF 2009Joe#F Te

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    'igt to Socia* Ser+ices

    e a+e an etica* ob*igation to pro+ide necessary socia* ser+icesF regard*ess o biopo*itica*

    imp*ications

    nited Nations ni+ersa* Dec*aration o

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    Socia* %ontro* Good

    Socia* contro* is good: a*truism no *onger dri+es te race or an increasement in socia*

    ser+ices: on*y troug pragmatic ac(now*edgement o e+idence can we acie+e success!

    DayF &utor and researcer o economicsF 31

    (eter R%%e##F Social Work and Social ControlF pg. &10:&11F 1/1F JoXIt "% 2een %"id t"t a*toug socia* wor(ers +iew socia* contro* as an inappropriate unctionF it can be

    seen as te primary unction o socia* we*areCowger "nd Atertton 19).* ;ne is ten aced wit te

    prob*em o te re*ationsip between te socia* ser+ices and society! $o wom are te pro+iders o

    socia* ser+ices accountab*eH Cowger "nd Aterton "n%wer t"tF Mto%e wo pro$ide %o!i"# %er$i!e% "re "!!ont"2#e to teir!on%titen! : te #egi%#"tor%F te donor%F "nd te !iti3en% wo %pport "gen!ie% "nd progr"-%F "nd te !on%-er% wo %e te %er$i!e%.

    Tepro+iders o ser+ices are responsib*e or e*ping peop*e reso*+e te prob*emso, teir #i$e% in ways

    tat permit tem to get a*ong better in society. Ti% !on!ept i% not re$o#tion"rF nor doe% it need to 2e.

    Bt "% %oon "% one t"ke% ti% po%ition one retrn% to te origin"# te-e? te primary unction o socia*

    we*are is socia* contro*!So!i"# worker% : "nd oter% in te e#ping pro,e%%ion% "re ,reeF in -o%t %o!ietie%

    "t #e"%tF to de,ine nor-"ti$e 2e"$ior !o-p"%%ion"te# 2t "re #e%% ,ree to e%po%e $"#e% independent o, teir

    !on%titen!. $e answer to te uestion wo decides normati+e bea+iorRE is tus answered as best it

    can be witin te ramewor( o te constitutency concerned! Socia* agencies are unded and cartered

    to acie+e certain ends.So!i"# progr"-% "re ,nded "nd de%igned to "tt"in %pe!i,i! o2e!ti$e%. 8or e>"-p#eF ,"-i# "gen!ie% "ree>pe!ted to %trengten ,"-i# #i,e. Ti% e>pe!t"tion doe% not i-po%e %! " %e$ere #i-it t"t te ,"-i# "gen! !"nnot 2e inno$"ti$e or"!!epting tow"rd% !"nge% t"t "$e t"ken p#"!e in re#"tion% 2etween -en "nd wo-en.

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    Socia* %ontro* Good

    Socia* contro* is an eecti+e way to so*+e societa* prob*ems and is te on*y a*ternati+e to a

    po*icy state

    %owgerand&tertonF in%tr!tor "t J"ne Add"-% S!oo# o, So!i"# WorkF ni$er%it o, I##inoi%F (D

    FA%%o!i"te pro,e%%orF S!oo# o, So!i"# WorkF ni$er%it o, A#"2"-"F 19.C"r#e% D. "nd C"r#e% R.F So!i"# Contro#? " r"tion"#e ,or %o!i"# we#,"reF So!i"# Work 19?)F ))7+:)+&F J# 19)F

    JWS TAO

    In an ad+anced industria* societyF socia* and ecotiomic situations are constant*y cangingF wit new

    socia* and economic needs continua**y appearing. R"pid te!ni!"# !"nge%F di%!ri-in"tion "g"in%t

    -inoritie%F re#o!"tion o, ind%trie%F "nd go$ern-ent"# "nti in,#"tion progr"-% t#i"t "!!ept + per!ent

    ne-p#o-ent "% " %it"tion not reiring re!ti,i!"tionUa** tese increase socia* and economic ineua*ity.

    I society does not meet te needs o te peop*e wo are ad+erse*y aected by tese actorsF de+iance is

    *i(e*y to continue and mu*tip*yF and greater socia* unrest and disorder are probab*e. So!ietie% "$e

    "tte-pted to e>er!i%e %o!i"# !ontro# in " $"riet o, w"% "% " re%pond to de$i"n!eF %o!i"# nre%tF "nd di%order.Some societies a+e re*ied ea+i*y on te perpetua* treat or use o po*ice power! Some a+e re*ied on

    e*aborate systems o socia* we*are. =o%t "$e re#ied on 2ot. It wo#d "ppe"r t"t or %o!iet i% not ,ir-#

    !on$in!ed t"t te de$e#op-ent o, %o!i"# we#,"re %er$i!e% i% " %"ti%,"!tor -e"n% o, %o!i"# !ontro# in %o-e

    pro2#e- "re"%. $ereoreF wen dea*ing wit tese areas it *uctuates between po*ice power and tepro+ision o socia* ser+ices!Ti% i% te !rrent re%pon%e to drg "2%e. Is tere a tradeo between socia*

    we*are ser+ices and po*ice power as two o te predominant mecanisms or te contro* o de+ianceR

    Is it not true tat te primary options a+ai*ab*e or attaining socia* contro* in our society are oten

    eiter po*ice power or socia* ser+icesRTi% %e"n% -o%t o2$io% in pro2#e- "re"% %! "% drg "2%eF

    "#"Yo%-F -ent"# i##ne%%F "nd $oii#e de#inen!F Socia* wor(ers can contribute signiicant*y to an

    order*y society by e*ping Ko see( and pro+ide remedies or so*utions or te dysunctions in te socia*

    and economic system! $eir contribution wou*d inc*ude e*ping te poorF minoritiesF and oter

    disrancised peop*e participate acti+e*y in te socia* and economic system o te society. Ti% i% not to

    %gge%t " new tr%t ,or %o!i"# we#,"re %er$i!e%. $e tas( o te socia* ser+ices sou*d in+o*+e te

    pro+ision o e+idence tat te best way to contro* disorder and de+iance in te society is by responsi+eF

    uni+ersa*F and *e>ib*e socia* ser+ices ocused on K1H a**e+iation o indi+idua* prob*ematic bea+iorF and

    K2H inter+ention in te ongoing process o te society! Ti% -" e done 2 dire!t %er$i!e to indi$id"#%"nd grop%F %o!i"# !"nge %tr"tegie%F "nd p#"nning. &s te socia* ser+ices are ab*e to demonstrate tat

    teir approac to disorder and de+iance is eecti+eF te approac wi** be more uni+ersa**y sanctioned

    and pro+ide a +iab*e a*ternati+e to te direct bea+ior contro* o po*ice power!

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    """"BI;-;#' N#G %&'DS

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    Biopower 1N%

    Socia* Ser+ices create norma*izing practices tat e>pand biopo*itica* regimes o go+ernance

    8*oersc no dateJerrF ="nde# S!oo# o, App#ied So!i"# S!ien!e%F C"%e We%tern Re%er$e ni$er%itF BookRe$iew : Re"ding 8o!"#t ,or So!i"# WorkF ttp?//-%"%%.!"%e.ed/,"!#t/,#oer%!/,o!"#tre$iew.t-#

    A% one -igt e>pe!t ,ro- " $o#-e in,#en!ed 2 8o!"#tF ti% oneF Re"ding 8o!"#t ,or So!i"# WorkF "%" !on%pi!o% "nd re!rring te-e? Z[\socia* wor( and socia* we*are *iterature and practice are arrom being socia**y neutra* or #i-ited to te!ni!"# inter$ention%V tey are deep*y imp*icated in te

    construction o power re*ations \ p. 171. Tog ti% i% not new to te !riti!i%- o, %o!i"# workF we #e"rn

    new -etod% ,or keeping te di%!%%ion "#i$e trog 8o!"#t% !ontri2tion to interre#"ted de2"te% "2ot

    know#edgeF powerF do-in"tionF nor-"#i3"tionF "nd %o!i"# pr"!ti!e. 8o!"#t% %ign"tre ter-F 2io:powerF

    en!"p%#"te% i% togt "nd pro$ide% " point o, dep"rtre ,or -o%t o, te $o#-e. =odern go+ernmentsF

    ,or e>"-p#eF use bio:power to contro*F regu*ateF and routinize e+eryday socia* re*ationsV tpi!"##F

    owe$erF tis is not accomp*ised troug tecniuesF know#edgeF "nd !#"%%i,i!"tor %!e-e% tat gi+e

    empasis to te ea+y:anded "nd power:o$er. Bio:power reersF insteadF to te myriad ways tat

    dominant discourses on genderF se>ua*ityF etnicityF and wor(F become ta(en:or:grantedF norma*izedF

    and interna*izedF so tat te indi+idua* desires to be te (ind o subAect dictated by te d ominant

    discourse. $e cie tecniue o bio:power is " grop o, pr"!ti!e% !"##ed di+iding practices tat wor(

    to p*ace socia* wor( c*ients eiter inside a norma* circ*e o bea+iorF or outsideF witin a circ*e o

    abnorma* bea+ior.$e common too*s o socia* wor( bio:power are te e>"-in"tionF te int"keF or

    assessmentV te ma(ing o a caseM sur+ei**ance and o**ow:up %ee C"pter Nine 2 @en =o,,"tV andF

    o, !or%eF terapy %ee C"pter Se$en 2 C"terine E. 8oote "nd Artr W. 8r"nk. $e oped:or eect o

    dep*oying bio:power in socia* wor( is te production and reproduction o norma*ized c*ient

    subAecti+ities! 8or e>"-p#eF we #e"rn ,ro- C"ro#:Anne ;Brien C"pter Si> t"t gay and *esbian yout

    oten ee* margina*ized by eteronormati+e practices in socia* ser+ice agencies. =oreo$erF -o%t %o!i"#

    work #iter"tre on ot %e>"#it !ontri2te% to te reprod!tion o, " etero%e>"# -"rri"ge di%!or%e.

    8o!"#t "rge% t"t modern socia* institutions set tepo#iti!"#F #eg"#F "nd %o!i"# conditions !"##ed

    go$ern-ent"#it or creating subAect positions #ike te -"rriedF eteronor-"ti$e -"#e %ee C"pter Tree

    2 Adrienne S. C"-2on. en suc discourses are eecti+e*y reproducedF te -"#e !o-e% to de%ire

    or w"nt to 2e!o-e te -"%!#ineF -"rried -"nV ereF bio:power is interna*ized.

    #>pansi+e systems o biopo*itica* go+ernance are te most *i(e*y cause o uman e>tinction

    'abinowF Berke#e pro,e%%or o, "ntropo#ogF 193.("#F Te 8o!"#t Re"derF p. &+0 (=@It i% as managers o *ie and sur+i+a*F o bodies and te raceF t"t %o many regimes a+e been ab*e to wage

    so many warsF causing so many-en to be (i**ed. And trog " trn t"t !#o%e% te !ir!#eF as te tecno*ogy

    o wars as caused tem to tend increasing*y toward a**:out trog te on:going pro!e%% o, reprod!tion.

    @"ntF 1? Bern"%!oniF &000? 1) E$en tog we -igt 2e#ie$e t"t !ert"in !"r"!teri%ti!% 2e#ong to p"rti!#"r

    grop% "nd not oter%F @"nt "rge% t"t e$er -"n 2eing dr"w% ,ro- te %"-e

    destructionF te decision tat initiates tem and te one tat terminates tem are in act increasing*y

    inormed by te na(ed uestion o sur+i+a*! $e atomic situation is now at te end point o tis process?

    te power to e>pose a wo*e popu*ation to deat is te underside o te power to guarantee an indi+idua*Qs

    continued e>istence. $e princip*e under*ying te tactics o batt*e:tat one as to be capab*e o (i**ing in

    order to go on *i+ing:as become te princip*e tat deines te strategy o states. But te e>istence in

    uestion is no *onger te Auridica* e>istence o so+ereigntyM at sta(e is te bio*ogica* e>istence o a

    popu*ation! I genocide is indeed te dream o modern powersF tis is not because o a recent return o te

    ancient rigt to (i**M it is because power is situated and e>ercised at te *e+e* o *ieF te speciesF te raceF

    and te *arge:sca*e penomena o popu*ation.

    http://msass.case.edu/faculty/jfloersch/foucaultreview.htmlhttp://msass.case.edu/faculty/jfloersch/foucaultreview.html
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    Biopower 1N%

    6ote negati+e to reAect te discip*inary power/(now*edge o te a:on*y tis persona*

    reAection can create an etica* subAect tat resists biopo*itica* contro*! #ac act o micro:

    resistance is (ey!

    Gabardi in 2(1W"neF (D in po#iti!"# %!ien!eF Negoti"ting (o%t-oderni%-F pg :9B"%ed on i% re%e"r! into "n!ient Greek eti!%F 8oucau*t identiied our interre#"ted modes o etica*practice tat ormed te basis o2ot a ramewor( o etica* ana*ysis and a mode* o reedom. Te

    were eti!"# %2%t"n!eF " -ode o, %2e!ti$"tionF eti!"# workF "nd te#o%.7] #tica* substance reers to tat

    aspect or p"rt o "n indi$id"#% bea+ior tat is deter-ined to 2e te -"in ocus or te pri-e -"teri"# o

    i% or er mora* conduct. Te -ode o, %2e!ti$"tion i% te ,or- wit wi! te di,,erent p"rt% or "%pe!t% o, one% %e#, "re"rr"nged. It i% te -ode# t"t ,"%ion% or -o#d% one% %e#, into " di%tin!ti$e %t#e o, e>i%ten!e. 8o!"#t% own -ode o, %2e!ti$"tion

    ,%ed "e%teti!% "nd po#iti!% into " -ode# o, !re"ti$e re%i%t"n!eF -"king one% #i,e into " work o, "rt ,or-ed ot o, %o!i"# "nd po#iti!"#

    %trgg#e.#tica* wor( in+o*+es te -e"n%F te metodsF and te tecniues by wic we cange ourse*+es

    into an etica* subAect. $e*os in+o*+es !o--itting one%e#, to " !ert"in -ode o, 2eing "nd stri+ing to

    !on%!io%# p*ace oneCs e$erd" actions witin a pattern o conduct. T"ken togeterF tese etica*

    practices inorm a conception o se*: ood in wic a person ta(es an acti+e ro*e in saping i% or er

    identityF rater tan conorming to e>isting e>tern"# %t"nd"rd% "nd systems o power/(now*edge. Te %e#,

    i% "n "%%e-2#"ge o, pr"!ti!e% r"ter t"n "n inn"te entit. Wi#e 2ot di%!ip#ined 2odie% "nd "!ti$e eti!"#

    %2e!t% "re ,orged witin te %"-e power en$iron-ent%F te "!ti$e re*e>i+e se* appropriates practices o

    conduct rom power/(now*edge ormations witout being dependent on teir discip*inary codes.

    8o!"#t 2"%ed ti% "!ti$it prin!ip"## on "n "e%teti! -ode# 2e!"%e it w"% i% !on$i!tion t"t "rt i% te

    -o%t potent -edi- o, r"di!"# re,#e>i$it "nd re%i%t"n!e. Art i% " potenti"## e>p#o%i$e tr"n%,or-"ti$e ,or!e.

    B #inking it to te pr%it o, "n eti!"# #i,eF 8oucau*t was ab*e to %t"2i#i3e "nd canne* it% energy into a

    re*ationsip were se*:careE and responsibi*ity or te oterE in,or- "nd enance te aestetic

    dri+e.Te inter$iew Te Eti! o, C"re ,or te Se#, "% " (r"!ti!e o, 8reedo- 19) i##-in"te% ow in i% ,in"# work 8o!"#t w"%

    rewe"$ing eti!%F "e%teti!%F "nd po#iti!% 2 -"king !onne!tion% 2etween powerF re%i%t"n!eF %e#,:!"reF #i2ertF "nd !"ring ,or oter%.t o *ie sty*ization ,rter reuires te cu*ti+ation o se*:

    discip*ine and "goni%ti! strugg*e to2ot resist discip*inary power matrices and car+e out a space or

    se*:empowerment and creati+e coice! In oter word%F reedom entai*s a mo+ement rom resistance toetics to po*itica* action. 'esistanceF te -o%t pri-"# e>pre%%ion o, ,reedo-F in+o*+es te re+o*t o te

    body against te norma*izing eects o discip*inary biopower. $is critica* resistanceF #"rge# re"!ti$e

    "nd de,en%i$eF is canne*ed into an airmati+e etica* proAect concerned wit se*:care. $e reAection o

    an imposed identity and a set o norms becomes te impetus or asioning oneCs own etica* code and

    conduct. $e etica* agent becomes a po*itica* actor in Aoining strugg*es tat see( to a*ter power

    re*ations %o t"t one !"n -ore ,ree# #i$e one% #i,e. $e batt*e is Aoined at te *oca* and micro*e+e*s bycountering norms wit norms and tecniues wit tecniues! I ,rter !on!#de t"t iF "% I "$e "rgedF

    ours is a time o cu*tura* postmodernizationF o, g#o2"#:#o!"# ,#ow% o, po%t-odern good% %er$i!e%F "ndidentitie%F o, gre"ter "e%teti!:re,#e>i$e indi$id"tionF and o te per+asi+e eects o inormation and

    mass media in our Li+esF ten ua*ity o *ie "nd #i,e%t#e issues sou*d ta(e "nd "$e t"ken on agreater importance in our dai*y socia* interactionsF e!ono-i! de!i%ion%F etica* considerationsF and

    po*itica* concerns. nder%tood in ti% w"F 8oucau*tCs idea o reedom as an aestetic:etica*:po*itica*

    practice o *iesty*e determination ta(es on greater signiicance! It is bot a product o our *ate

    modern/postmodern transition and a new mode o being and normati+e guide in negotiating tis

    condition.

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    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices

    Socia* Ser+ices in te guise o protecting uman rigts are o+ert*y biopo*itica*

    %and*erF -roessor o Internationa* 'e*ations at estminsterF 03D"$idF The International Human Rights Regime since 9/11: Transatlantic Perspectives, April 19,www.ucis.pitt.edu/euce/events/conferences/HR-PDF/Chandler.pdf) PMK

    In te 1990s uman rigts ad+ocates appeared to be ca**enging te power o states. Ti% p"per wi## "rge

    t"t c ritica* debate o+er uman rigts as in te 2000s been stood on its ead! $odayF r"di!"# !riti!% "rge

    t"t ni$er%"# uman rigts ramewor(s are a too* o powerF o biopo*itica* neo:*ibera* g*oba* go+ernance!

    c*usionary and di+isi+e. Tird#F bot radica* ad+ocates and critics argue

    tat te (ey site o te po*itica* is te internationa* spereF te dierence is mere*y in te po*itica* re*ation

    between te indi+idua* and te ;terF were te post:structura*ist approac is e+en *ess socia**y

    mediated tan te *ibera* re*ationsip o ad+ocacy! $e debates around uman rigts in te 2000sre+o*+e around acceptance tat te uman rigts ramewor( re*ects an immanent uni+ersa*ising power.8or te 1990% r"di!"#%F ti% ni$er%"#i%ing power wi! %ogt to nder-ine te power o, %t"te %o$ereignt "nd

    pri$i#ege te rigt% o, indi$id"#% w"% i-p#i!it# %een to 2e " progre%%i$e ,or!e. Ti% ni$er%"# w"% gronded in

    " $iew o, "n e-erging !o%-opo#it"n or ni$er%"#i%t or g#o2"# !on%!io%ne%% in te wa(e o te ending o te

    %o*d ar,or e>"-p#eF S"w 199). $e discourse o uman rigts was a uni+ersa* oneF tereore it was

    assumed tat states were not capab*e o originating and bearing tis discourseF te *eading agents o

    uman rigts approaces were assumed to be non:state actorsF primari*y NG;sF oten desc ribed as

    norm entrepreneursC8inne-ore "nd Sikkink 199. Te ri%e o, ti% ni$er%"#i%t di%!or%e w"% o,ten

    nder%tood in " %o!i"# !on%tr!ti$i%t ,r"-eworkF 2"%ed on te Mpower o, ide"% "nd te i-port"n!e o, g#o2"#

    in,or-"tion network% Ri%%eF Ropp "nd Sikkink 1999. 8or -"n rigt% "d$o!"te%F %! "% ="r @"#dorF since

    te end o te %o*d ar we a+e been witnessing a undamenta* po*itica* strugg*e between ci+i* society

    and state:based approaces@"#dor &00'F &00. 8or te 1990% r"di!"#%F te ni$er%"# di%!or%e w"% dri$en

    2 progre%%i$e "gen! M,ro- 2e#ow "nd tere,ore w"% " !"##enge to power. In or -ore di%i##%ioned &000%Fp"rti!#"r# %in!e 9/11F tere "% "ri%en "n "#tern"ti$e !riti!"# re"ding o, te di%!or%e o, ni$er%"#%. ;,ten te

    %t"rting point ,or te%e !riti!% i% te work o, Ger-"n #eg"# teori%t %ar* ScmittF woF writing in te mid 20 t

    %entury was ig*y critica* oS c*aims to upo*d uni+ersa* uman rigts in opposition to wat e saw

    as te #uropean +iew o internationa* *aw wic pri+i*eged so+ereign rigts%ee S!-itt &00'. S!-itt

    !#"i-ed ,"-o%# t"t Mowe$er in$oke% -"nit w"nt% to !e"t S!-itt 199+? 7). R"ter t"n " new

    progre%%i$e ni$er%"# %2e!t "ri%ing ,ro- 2e#owF !riti!"# teori%t% in te &000% %"w " new ni$er%"# %2e!t"ri%ing ,ro- "2o$e. =i!"e#

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    Lin( ) Socia* Ser+ices

    Socia* ser+ices are a mecanism o biopo*itica* contro*

    SmitF -roessorF 200Ann"F WELARE RE!RM A"D SE#$AL RE%$LA&I!":9:0 "!!e%%ed :9:09F NG

    ;icia* discourse pays *ip ser+ice to mora* instructionF up*itF and correctionF but its actua* materia*in+estment in wat 8oucau*t wou*d ca** discip*ine remains re*ati+e*y minima*. Ro2ert%% n"rr"ti$e

    ,oregrond% e>!#%ionF degr"d"tionF depri$"tionF "nd te in,#i!tion o, !orpore"# pni%-ent. By coming into

    contact wit te State in tese conte>tsF te targeted citizen e>periences a se+ere restriction o er

    reproducti+e rigtsF te in+asion o er pri+acy and bodi*y integrityF arbitrary detainmentF and te

    wito*ding o re*ie rom erse* and er destitute ami*yF e+en toug tey are a*ready e>treme*y

    +u*nerab*e were ood insecurity and ousing crises are concerned $e post:we*are State is

    witdrawing rom te poor on*y in te sense tat it is massi+e*y sca*ing bac( redistributi+e socia*rigt%.

    At te %"-e ti-eF te St"te i% "ggre%%i$e# inter$ening in te poor -oter% inti-"te #i,eF "nd t"t inter$ention i%

    2e!o-ing in!re"%ing# de,ined in " n"rrow -"nner wit re,eren!e to er kin%ip re#"tion% "nd reprod!ti$e2e"$ior. ;perating :: at tis pointF at *east :: in armony wit te *arger proAect o discip*ining &merican

    *aborF te StateF in te guise o we*are reormF is becoming an increasing*y eecti+e +eic*e o se>ua*

    po*icingF!"#i2r"ted "!!ording to " !#"%%:orientedF genderedF "nd r"!i"# pro,i#e.

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    Lin( ) tent not

    direct*y intended structures o contro*: and power:strategies in modern society!

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    Lin( ) istence o te natura* bodyF urter

    p*aying into te con*ict o power/resistanceF constructing urter regimes o trut ounded

    on non:resistant subAecti+itiesF suc as te sic( or menta**y i**!

    8o>F -ro! at London Scoo* o #con and -o*iSciF 93Ni!k J.F 08o!"#tF 8o!"#di"n%F "nd So!io#og,Te Briti% Jorn"


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