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Page 1: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Life Cycle Well to Wheels Assessment of GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils

Ian Moore – Jacobs Consultancy

Workshop Comparing Approaches to Life Cycle Analysis of Crude Oil

Centre for European Policy Studies Brussels

March 21, 2011

Page 2: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 2

Premise

• GHG regulations will impact crude choice for producing transportation fuels

• Crudes are different

• GHG associated with crude production depends on reservoir and production methods

• GHG from refining depends on crude properties and refining intensity

Page 3: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 3

Agenda

• 2009 AERI Study – Background and project objectives– Methodology– Life Cycle analysis

• Crude production • Upgrading and refining• Life Cycle well-to-wheels fuel cycle

– Observations• New developments

– Changes in worldwide flaring– Advancements in bitumen production technology– EU crude oil pathway LCA

Page 4: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 4

2009 Project Objectives – Fair and Balanced Assessment of Oil Sands vs. Conventional Crude Oils

• Sponsor: Alberta Energy Research Institute – now called Alberta Innovates Energy and Environment Solutions (AI-EES) (part of the Government of Alberta, Canada)

• Steering team – Industry– Academia– Government

• Develop a robust life cycle analysis comparison of oil sands versus conventional crudes processed in US

• Address limitations in prior life cycle work by using subject matter expertise and sound technical / engineering approach

• Vet results publicly

Page 5: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 5

Well‐to‐Wheels Life Cycle Assessment

WTW Life Cycle Emissions = WTT + TTW

DefinitionsWell-to-Wheels (WTW)Well-to-Tank (WTT) Tank-to-Wheels (TTW)

WTT TTW

Page 6: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 6

Limitations of Some Prior Life Cycle Analyses

A Low-Carbon Fuel Standard for California Part 1: Technical Analysis, Project Directors: Alexander E. Farrell, UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling, UC Davis, 2007

Prior Life Cycle Analyses of Oil Sands vs. Conventional Crude

Prior work shows 14-41% higher WTW emissions for oil sands vs.

“conventional” oil

• Incomplete and out-dated information

• Simplified, generic model representations

• Incomplete well-to-wheels analysis

• Excessive aggregation– No differentiation on crude

properties – No differentiation on refinery

configuration

• Inconsistent boundary conditions

Crudes and refineries are not created equal

0

50

100

150

Conv Crude Oil Oil SandsMining

Oil SandsSAGD

g C

O2e

q / M

J R

efin

ed P

rodu

ct

Fuel ProductionFuel Combustion

Page 7: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 7

Tank to Wheel 78%

Crude Transport

1% Crude Refining

13%

Product Transport

< 0.5%

Crude Production

8%

GHG Contributions from Well‐to‐Wheels Life Cycle Analysis

Source: CARB – Detailed California-Modified GREET Pathway forUltra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) from Average Crude Refined in California, January 2009

Study emphasis is on areas significantly

affected by crude source, type and

quality

Focus of Our Work

Page 8: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 8

Study Focus – Enhance Life Cycle Modeling with Crude Specific Estimates of Energy / GHG Emissions

Incorporate results from rigorous engineering analysis into GREET*

Use ISO 14040 Methodology

Upgrading and Refining• Reflect crude and product variations• Jacobs experience• Rigorous modeling

Crude & Bitumen Production• Specific crudes evaluated• Public & Jacobs data• Rigorous modeling

*GREET: Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation

Page 9: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 9

Crude & Bitumen Systems Considered

Upgrading toSynthetic

CrudeRefining

Finished Gasoline &

Diesel

Bitumen Production• Mining• In-situ

TransportTransport Transport

BitumenProduction• Mining• In-situ

DiluentDiluted Bitumen

Refining Finished Gasoline &

DieselTransport Transport

CrudeProduction Refining

Finished Gasoline &

DieselTransport Transport

Page 10: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 10

Key Crude Production Issues

• Wide variation in specific crude and bitumen production GHG emissions– Crude / bitumen properties– Reservoir characteristics

• Depth • Water to oil ratio• Gas to oil ratio

– Flaring and venting of produced gas– Treatment of produced water and gas– Production method and technology

primary, secondary, tertiary

Public availability of accurate, comprehensive production data is often limited

Page 11: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 11

Crudes Considered Reflect Typical US Basket

Study Crudes• Bachaquero – Venezuela • Maya – Mexico • Arab Medium – Saudi Arabia• Mars – US Gulf Coast • Bonny Light – Nigeria • Kirkuk – Iraq• Kern River – California• Oil Sands Bitumen – Canada

Source: EIA

2007 Average US Crude Basket

Other US17%

Nigeria7%

Mexico9%

Canada11%

US Gulf Coast17%

California4%Saudi

Arabia9%

Venezuela7%

Rest of World13%

Angola3%Iraq

3%

Page 12: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 12

Concept 1 – Crude Oil and Bitumen Properties Lie on a Continuum

• Bitumen is another type of crude oil

• Properties fall on a continuum

• Less light components

• More resid and carbonDusseault, M.B. and Shafiei, A. 2011. Oil Sands. Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry,

Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Viscosity, cP API° Oil Type

Density, g/cm3

Condensate

45 Light Oil 0.802

>100 20 Heavy Oil Viscous Oil 0.934

10,000 10 Extra Heavy Oil 1.000

>10,000 0 Bitumen/Oil Sands 1.076

Page 13: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 13

Address Key Issues by Modeling Crude Production 

FIGURE: RESERVOIR PRODUCTION PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

ENERGY CONSUMERS FOR RECOVERY OF: Gas Re-injection CompressorOILOIL + WATEROIL + WATER + GAS

ReboilerReboilerReboiler

Water Re-injection PumpDeaeration Water Re-injection PumpDeaeration

Downhole Pump

Dehydration

Separator

Stabilizer

Filtration / Bacteria Removal

Water Re-injection

To LNG Plant

Gas Re-injection

To Stock Tanks

From Oil Reservoir

H2S Processing Claus Plant

CO2 Removal Flare

Sulfur

CO2

SalesFuelEngines

Deaeration

Desalination

Disposal

Gas Lift

Lifing

Separation

Treating

Treating

Reinjection

Reinjection

Disposal

Disposal

FIGURE: RESERVOIR PRODUCTION PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM

ENERGY CONSUMERS FOR RECOVERY OF: Gas Re-injection CompressorOILOIL + WATEROIL + WATER + GAS

ReboilerReboilerReboiler

Water Re-injection PumpDeaeration Water Re-injection PumpDeaeration

Downhole Pump

Dehydration

Separator

Stabilizer

Filtration / Bacteria Removal

Water Re-injection

To LNG Plant

Gas Re-injection

To Stock Tanks

From Oil Reservoir

H2S Processing Claus Plant

CO2 Removal Flare

Sulfur

CO2

SalesFuelEngines

Deaeration

Desalination

Disposal

Gas Lift

Lifing

Separation

Treating

Treating

Reinjection

Reinjection

Disposal

Disposal

Lifing

Separation

Treating

Treating

Reinjection

Reinjection

Disposal

Disposal

Crude Description

Crude Name Generic

Production Rate bpd 545

Properties

API 30.0SG 0.8762

Sulfur wt% 2.0

Heating value LHV

Crude Heating Value GJ/Bbl 5.82

Reservoir CharacteristicsReservoir Pressure psi 3,000Reservoir Temperature °F 200Reservoir Depth ft 5,000

Production CharacteristicsGas/Oil Ratio scf/bbl 1,000Water/Oil Ratio bbl/bbl 10.0Gas Lift NoGas Lift Rate SCFB 0.0Diluent Lift - Use if API below: 25.0

Produced Gas Composition (mol%)Source for Gas Composition DefaultInput Gas Compositon

CH4 mol% 79.74%C2H6 mol% 14.95%C3H8 mol% 4.98%CO2 mol% 0.00%H20 mol% 0.33%

Gas Heating Value - LHV BTU/SCF 1,082Gas Heating Value - LHV w/o CO2 BTU/SCF 1,086

Venting of Produced GasVent Loss % 0.5%Fugitive Loss % 0.5%

Reinjection of Gas and WaterGas Reinjection: % of Gas After Vent/Fugitive % 50.00%CO2 Separaton NoCO2 Reinjection: % % 100.00%Water Reinjection: % of Produced Water % 100.00%Treatment of Reinjected Water YesTreatment of Discharged Water Yes

Disposal of Non-Reinjected GasAmount of Non-Reinjected Gas scf/bbl 500.0

Proportion of Gas to Flare % 1.0%Proportion of CO2 to Flare/Vent % 50.0%

Flaring of Produced Gas% Combusted % 99%% Non-Combusted % 1%

Fuel for Drivers and HeatersDownhole Pump Driver Natural GasWater Reinjection Pump Driver Natural GasCompressor Driver Natural GasFired Heaters Natural GasWater Treatment Natural GasAmine Treater - Fired Heaters Natural GasAmine Treater - Drivers for Motors Natural Gas

• Jacobs crude oil production model used to predict GHG emissions for specific crudes

• Public data supplemented with Jacobs in-house knowledge

• Allows user to evaluate impact of key variables and carry out sensitivities

Variable InputsJacobs Crude Production Model

Water Reinjection

49%

Gas Reinjection

7%

Water Treatment

9%

Gas Treatment

16%

Venting10%

Flaring1%

Misc Energy8%

Lifting0%

CO2e Outputs by Category

Page 14: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 14

Reservoir Characteristics for Conventional Crude Basket in Study

Reservoir Source: Pennwell- Published in Oil & Gas Journal, December 24, 2007 GOR and reservoir pressure, WOR from literatureFlaring data from World Bank: Gas flaring data from A Twelve Year Record of National and Global Gas Flaring Volumes Estimated Using Satellite Data, Final Report to the World Bank, May 30, 2007, and Global Gas Flaring Estimates, NOAA, 2007,

Using World Bank Report Table 4 in this study

From Reservoir Data

Assumed

Petroleum Reservoir

Avg Depth,

Pressure, Thermal Steam to

Oil

Water to Oil

Produced Gas,

Flared Gas(Wrld Bnk Rpt

Table 4)

N2 Injection

ft psi bbl /bbl bbl /bbl scf / bbl (m3 gas/bbl) scf / bbl

Bachaquero 5,100 500 0.5 0.25 90 2.0 -Maya 9,500 1,600 - 3 340 0.6 1,200 Arab Medium 6,100 3,000 - 2.3 650 0.8 -Mars 14,500 5,500 - 5.5 1,040 0.6 -Bonny Light 8,700 4,300 - 2 840 27.0 -Kirkuk 7,500 3,000 - 2 600 11.0 -

Page 15: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 15

Crude Oil Production Carbon Intensity – Before Accounting for Flaring

0

5

10

15

20

Bachaq

uero Maya

ArabMed

MarsBonny L

tKirk

uk Blen

d

Tota

l CO

2e, g

/MJ

of C

rude Nitrogen

Steam

Misc Energy

Gas Treatment

Water Treatment

Gas Reinjection

Water Reinjection

Lifting

Page 16: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 16

Gas Flaring in Crude Production

Nigeria

Iraq

VenezuelaUSAMexicoSaudi Arabia

0 5 10 15 20

CO2e, g/MJ of Crude

Saudi ArabiaMexicoUSAVenezuelaChinaUKKuwaitMalaysiaEgyptIndonesiaLibyaRussiaIranAlgeria QatarOmanIraqKazakhstanAngolaNigeriaGabonUzbekistan

A Twelve Year Record of National and Global Gas Flaring Volumes Estimated Using Satellite Data - Final Report to the World Bank - May 30, 2007

Page 17: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 17

Emissions With Flaring

Using World Bank Report Table 4 for this figure

0

5

10

15

20

Bachaq

uero Maya

ArabMed

MarsBonny L

tKirk

uk Blen

d

Tota

l CO

2e, g

/MJ

of C

rude Nitrogen

Steam

Misc Energy

Flaring

Venting

Gas Treatment

Water Treatment

Gas Reinjection

Water Reinjection

Lifting

Page 18: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 18

Heavy Crude Production Methods

• Bitumen – SAGD – steam assisted gravity drainage

• Primary energy is natural gas to generate steam for injection

• Key parameter is steam to oil ratio: bbls of cold water/bbl of oil

– Mining• Primary energy is diesel fuel to power

equipment• Natural gas and electricity are used to

separate bitumen from clay• Study does not include land use or methane

release in mine preparation– May import or self-generate electricity and

export electricity to the grid• California heavy crude oil

– Uses an older somewhat less efficient thermal method than SAGD

– Primary energy is natural gas

SAGD

CAThermal

Page 19: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 19

Canadian Bitumen Production in 2008

• 1.31 MM BPD total bitumen• 0.73 MM BPD mined bitumen all to upgraders • 0.58 MM BPD in situ (mainly thermal)

production ~ 92% to refining

ERCB - Alberta's Reserves 2008 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2009-2018 – June 10, 2009

Page 20: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 20

Bitumen Range of Steam to Oil Ratio (SOR)

0

2

4

6

8

10

Nexen, Long Lake

CNRL Primrose & W

olf Lake

Shell Peace Rive

r

IMO, Cold Lake

Suncor, F

irebag

JACOS, Hangin

gstone

Petro-Canada, McKay

EnCana, Foster Creek &

Christina Lake

Stea

m to

Oil,

bbl

/ bb

l

Source: EnCana Investor Presentation October 5, 2006 -Original data: EUB Public Domain Data, Jan. 2006 – June 2006

Typical SOR in Canada

Pilot data

Page 21: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 21

Concept 2 ‐ Crude Oil and Bitumen Production Carbon Intensities Overlap

Emission range for heavy crudes overlaps range for some conventional crudes

0

5

10

15

20

Bachaq

uero

Maya

Arab M

edium Mars

Bonny L

ightKirk

ukCA TE

ORBitu

men-S

AGDBitu

men-M

ining

GH

G, g

CO

2e/M

J of

Cru

de/B

it

Venting and FlaringProduction

5 SOR3 SOR

Page 22: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 22

Key Upgrading & Refining Issues

• Crude quality and product requirements impact– Processing complexity– Hydrogen addition– Energy consumption– Product yield and quality– Co-products such as coke

• Refinery configuration and technology – Level of conversion– Product slate

Crude Quality Varies

Hydroskimming Refinery Cracking Refinery

Refining Configurations Vary

0

20

40

60

80

100

Bachaq

ueroKern

Rive

rMay

aArab

MedMarsKirk

ukBonny

LtSCO

Yiel

d on

Cru

de, w

t%

510152025303540

API

C4-NaphthaDistillateGas oilResidAPI

Page 23: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 23

Concept 3 ‐ Refining GHG tracks with API Gravity

• Refining GHG emissions highly dependent on crude gravity

(API = 141.5/density – 131.5)

• Emissions depend on conversion – line will shift up or down depending on conversion

GHG Emissions from High Conversion Refinery

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40Crude API

Car

bon

Inte

nsity

, g/M

J of

Cru

de

Page 24: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 24

Concept 4 – Each Product Pays It’s Fair Share of GHG

• Track utilities to intermediate products in each step of refining

• Ensures that products “pay” their fair share of GHG emissions

• Carbon intensity (CI) depends on processing intensity

Product GHG from Refining

Crude: Arab Medium Refinery: High conversion

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

C3 C4Ga

solin

eDi

esel

Coke

GHG, g CO2e

/MJ of Produ

ct

FCC Coke

H2 Plant NaturalGasNatural Gas Fuel

Fuel Gas

Electric Power

Page 25: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 25

Concept 5 – CI of Transport Fuel from  Heavy Crude Oils are within 10% ‐ 12% of Those from Conventional Crude Oils

97.0 97.193.3

98.4101.7

96.7

109.5 107.5

102.8

70

80

90

100

110

120

Bachaq

uero Maya

Arab M

edium

MarsBonny

LightKirk

uk B

lend

CA TEORSAGD B

itumen

Mining S

CO - Ckr

Tota

l GH

G, g

CO

2e /

MJ

Gas

olin

e +

Die

sel

Product Substitution

Production

Venting and Flaring

Upgrading

Transport

Refining

Delivery

Vehicle CO2, CH4, N2O

Min

edConventional Crude Thermal

Conventional Crude Range

Page 26: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 26

Observations from 2009 Study

• Rigorous and detailed Life Cycle analysis provides a better understanding of differences between crude oils

• GHG burden for bitumen derived transport fuels is smaller than shown in previous studies

• Life Cycle GHG emissions between bitumen and some conventional crudes overlap

• Continuing effort to reduce GHG burden of bitumen production and refining

Page 27: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 27

Agenda

• 2009 AERI Study – Background and project objectives– Methodology– Life Cycle analysis

• Crude production • Upgrading and refining• Life Cycle well-to-wheels fuel cycle

– Observations• New developments

– Changes in worldwide flaring– Advancements in bitumen production technology– EU crude oil pathway LCA

Page 28: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 28

Flaring Trend is Downward ‐ But Not Everywhere

Russia_Combined

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

Year

Estimated

 Gas Flared (BCM

)

Nigeria

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Estimated

 Gas Flared (BCM

)

Iraq

012345678910

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Estimated

 Gas Flared (BCM

)

Angola

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

2006

2008

Estimated

 Gas Flared (BCM

)

NOAA - http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/dmsp/interest/flare_docs/

Convert flaring to CO2e, andDivide by crude production to get flaring in terms of CO2e/MJ of Crude

Page 29: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 29

Canadian Bitumen Forecast

CAPP – Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers – June 2010

Growth Case - Western Canada Oil Sands & Conventional Production

KB

PD

• Forecast to exceed 3.5 MM BPD in 2025

• Bitumen production methods continually improving

Page 30: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 30

Improvements in Bitumen Production

• SAGD– Better heat integration reduces energy use– Fast SAGD makes better use of heat injected into reservoir– Improved lift technology – use of mechanical lift instead of gas

lift– Better reservoir pressure management – Use of solvents reduces steam required – Improved recovery with polymer flooding– Water reduction and reuse reducing environmental burden

• Mining– Paraffin froth treatment at mine removes significant carbon resid

which improves refining yield and reduces energy and GHG – Mature fine tailings recovery is reducing tailing ponds

Page 31: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 31

Continued Development Driving Down GHG from SAGD

1,500

DownholePumps

(LP SAGD)Minimizing Glycol

Minimizing Stack Loss

Organic Rankine

Cycle

Carbon Capture and

Storage

500 1,000 2,000 2,500

MT CO2 / day

$/MT CO2

$20

Cost

Return

$40

$60

$80

$100

$20

$40

$60

Additional Energy

Reductions to achieve

“Ideal”

$100

$80 4%5%

28%38%

Reductions using improved

Energy Efficiency

New designs reduce SAGD GHG by ~20-25%

Page 32: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 32

Commercial SAGD Production with < 3 SOR Demonstrated

After 9 Months of Operation In 2010

Project Date SOR SORFoster Creek 1998 4.0 2.5Surmont Pilot 1998 5.2 3.5MacKay 2003 3.4 2.5Christina Lake 2003 2.8 2.0Long Lake 2003 11.4 6.9Firebag 2004 7.3 3.3

• SOR depends on reservoir conditions, good design and operation

• SOR below 3 have been demonstrated in commercial practice

• Reducing SOR from 4 to 2 cuts GHG in half

Page 33: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 33

What Next

 Former USSR  39%

 Angola  2%

 Iraq  4%

 United Kingdom  

4%

 Algeria  2%

Other11%

 Norway  13%

 Libya  9%

 Iran  5% Saudi 

Arabia  5%

 Other Africa2  

2% Nigeria  

4%

EU Crude Supply in 2009

Gas Flaring in Crude Production

Nigeria

Iraq

Saudi ArabiaMexicoUSAVenezuela

Angola

Algeria IranRussia

Libya

0 5 10 15 20

CO2e, g/MJ of Crude

Saudi ArabiaMexicoUSAVenezuelaChinaUKKuwaitMalaysiaEgyptIndonesiaLibyaRussiaIranAlgeria QatarOmanIraqKazakhstanAngolaNigeriaGabonUzbekistan

• ~50% of EU crude supply is from regions defined by California Air Resources Board as being high carbon intensity regions

• Forthcoming LCA study for Alberta Energy to provide a transparent view of bitumen and other crudes in an EU context– Define crude oil production GHG

for typical crudes including flaring– Define refining GHG using EU

refining configurations– Define oil transport and product

distribution to the EU– Use EU vehicle emissions

• Goal – similar detail and transparency as 2009 AI-EES LCA study

Page 34: Life Cycle Well Wheels GHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude · PDF fileGHG Emissions from North American and Imported Crude Oils ... UC Berkeley and Daniel Sperling,

Slide 34

Thank You


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