Medicinalwesen) composed of professors of Berlin Uni-
versity only. The professional -opinions given by the
authority last named have a great influence on the decisionsof the courts, for the judges believe that no expert is more
competent in medical questions than this board and its
opinion is very seldom disregarded. Since the Duhrssentrial, however, some medical journals have pointed out thatalthough the board is composed of the leading medical menof Berlin its formally expressed opinions nevertheless donot possess the weight and importance with which theyare usually credited. When in a given case the opinionof the board is asked by a public prosecutor or bya court of justice the president of the board, as a
rule, entrusts the matter to a member who is a
specialist in that department. If, for instance, a surgicalcase is under consideration it is one of the surgeons or if itis a gynaecological ca-e it is the gynaecologist who draws upthe. report. There is no discussion of the matter by thewhole board ; when the report is prepared it is signed bythe other members but in reality the opinion of the boardis only the opinion of one member whose views may some-times be out of date and who is by, no means superiorto other specialists who may be called by the otherside. Moreover, the opinion of the board or of themember who acts in its name has to be based on writtenstatements, for the patient is very seldom examined witha view to the preparation of the report. It is also quiteunusual for members of the boards to attend a court aswitnesses or to undergo cross-examination ; a member ofthe provincial board was present at the trial of ProfessorDuhrssen but the central board was not represented at all.Some medical journals now propose that this system shouldbe altered by abolishing the boards and that in cases of con-siderable importance the opinions of the most competentmen in the respective branches of medicine should be asked,as they would be required to appear in court and after beingsworn as experts might be cross-examined like otherwitnesses.
Tlte Congress of Naturalists and Jfedical Men.The seventy-fourth congress of the German Association of
Naturalists and Medical Men will this year be held beyondthe borders of the German Empire-namely, in Carlsbad, thefamous mineral water resort in the Austrian province ofBohemia. The congress will meet in two principal sections-amedical one with 17 subdivisions and a scientific one with 11subdivisions. The medical subdivisions are as follows : (1)anatomy, histology, and physiology ; (2) general pathologyand pathological anatomy ; (3) clinical medicine, pharma-cology, balneology, and hydrotherapeutics ; (4) history of
(medicine ; (5) surgery ; (6) obstetrics and diseases of
women ; (7) diseases of children ; (8) nervous and mentaldiseases ; (9) ophthalmology; (10) diseases of the larynx,nose, and ear ; (11) dermatology and syphilis ; (12) odonto-logy ; (13) military medicine ; (14) forensic medicine ;(15) hygiene; (16) veterinary medicine ; and (17) pharmacy.In the medical section the official subject of discussion willbe physiological albuminuria and in the scientific section itwill be the circulation of nitrogen.
,- Christian Science."
The fantastic doctrines known by the name of " Christianscience," with which the name of Mrs. Eddy is associated,continue to occupy the attention of the public, and it is saidthat they have made more progress, especially amongfemales, than is generally supposed. Believers abound in
Potsdam, where the Emperor’s summer residence is situated,and many of the nobility and court officials engage in theexercises prescribed by Mrs. Eddy. The Emperor has
expressed strong disapproval of these proceedings, and hascaused it to be announced that persons who attend the
meetings or in any other way encourage the new system willnot be admitted to Court.March 24th.
THE EXAMINER IN PHYSICS AT EDINBURGHUNIVERSITY.-The Edinburgh University Court, which meton March 17th, appointed Mr. Dawson F. D. Turner, M.D.,F.R C.P. Edin., examiner in Experimental Physics to the
University. We believe that this university is the first tohave recognised the importance of having an examiner whohas received a medical training to examine medical studentsin physics.
Obituary.WILLIAM TOWLSON KAY, M.R.C.S. ExG.,
THE death is announced of Mr. W. Towlson Kay, late ofGateshead, which occurred at Eastbourne on March 9th.Mr. Kay was born in 1849 and was a student at the
Newcastle-on-Tyne College of Medicine, where he hada distinguished career. After securing his diplomas hewas appointed medical tutor to his college for a
time when he joined the late Dr. Dixon of Gates-head in partnership. Later he practised on his own
account and soon secured a large and good practice.He was apoointed surgeon to the Gateshead police, a
post which he held for 25 years. Three or four years agohis health began to fail and in October, 1900, he retiredfrom practice and went to live at Eastbourne. For a timehis health improved but in the autumn of last year hehad a relapse which ended fatally on March 9th. Mr.
Kay was a great favourite with his patients owing to hisgenial manner and assiduous attention to them. He took no
part in public life but was a member of the local medicalsocieties. He leaves a widow but no children.
JOHN BARCLAY, M.D., C.M. ABERD.DR. BARCLAY of Banff died at his residence there on
March llth, after a lingering illness. He received hismedical education at the University of Aberdeen, where hegraduated in 1862, and was then appointed assistant pro-fessor of materia medica and medical jurisprudence. 30
years ago he commenced practice in Banff and built up oneof the largest medical practices in the county of that name.He held many public and official appointments in Banff.Dr. Barclay acted as an examiner at Aberdeen Universityfrom 1880 to 1883. His wife, who was a daughter of thelate Provost Coutts of Banff, predeceased him several yearsago. He leaves two sons and two daughters.
HUGH FRASER, M.B., C.M. ABERD.A CABLEGRAM was received in Aberdeen on March llth
stating that Dr. Hugh Fraser had died from enteric fever at
Bethulie, South Africa, on March 4th. After graduating at
Aberdeen University Dr. Fraser came to England, and somefour years ago he proceeded to King Williamstown, CapeColony, where he was stationed until a few months ago, whenhe accepted the position of medical officer in the camp atBethulie. Dr. Fraser was the youngest son of the late Dr.George Innes Fraser of Aberdeen. The deepest sympathy isfelt for Dr. Fraser’s mother in her sudden and unexpectedbereavement.
Medical News.SOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES OF LONDON. -In
March the following candidates passed in the subjectsindicated :-
Surgery.-C. R. Braclley (Section I.), St. George’s Hospital; S. J.H. M. Eastwick Field, Royal Free Hospital; J. W. Elliott(Section I.), St. Mary’s Hospital; H. S. French (Sections I. andII.), Oxford and Guy’s Hospital; K. Heanley (Section I.). RoyalFree Hospital; E. 0. Libbey, Leeds; and S. C. Wilkinson (SectionsI. and II.). Leeds.
Medicine.-F. G. Bennett (Section II.). University College Hospital;W. T. Colyer, Cambridge; H. S. French (Sections J. and 11.),Oxford and Guy’s Hospital; R. Gautd (Sections I. and II.). LondonHospital; K. Heanley (Section I.), Royal Free Hospital; W.St. A. F Hubhard (Sections 1. and 11.), Charing Cross Hospital;0. Millauro (Section I.), Westminster Hospital; H. H. Sloane(Section 11.), St. Bartholomew’s Hospital; W. P. Taylor, Sheffieldand Bristol; J. E. Turle (Section I.), University College Hospital;and A. F. Van Dijk (Sections I. and II.), St. Bartholomew’sHospital.
Forensic Medicine.-H. S. French, Oxford and Guy’s Hospital ;W. St. A. F. Hubbard, Charing Cross Hospital; W. P. Taylor,Sheffield and Bristol; J. E. Turle, University College Hospital;A. F. Van Dijk, St. Bartholomew’s Hospital; and J. H Williams,London Hospital.
Midwifery.-D. Cotes-Preedy, Cambridge and St,. George’s Hospital;G. M. Crockett, Royal Free Hospital; E. F. Fcrjett, Edinburgh ;H. S. French, Oxford and Guv’s Hospital : H. M Jones, RoyalFree Hospital; J. A. Kilpatrick. King’s College Hospital; Tvl. E.Martin, Royal Free Hospital; H. II. Sloane, St. Bartholomew’sJlospital; G. B. S. Soper, Guy’s Hospital; and S. Zweiback,Konigsberg.
The diploma of the Society was granted to the following candidates,entitling them to practise medicine, surgery, and midwifery W. T.Colyer, S. J. H. M. Eastwick Field, H. S. French, E. 0. Libbey, S. C.Wilkinson, and J. H. Williams.
THE Dawlish and Teignmouth District Councilshave decided to erect a joint isolation hospital.
LARYNGOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.-Theordinary meeting of this society has been postponed to
Friday, April llth, at 5 P.M.
VACCINATION GRANT.-Mr. David T. Key,M.lt.C. S. Eng., L. S.A., public vaccinator for Wyke Regis, hasreceived for the first time the Government grant for success- ful vaccination. ’.AT a public meeting at Peterbo ough last
week it was decided to commemorate the Coronation of KingEdward VII. by raising by voluntary subscription a sufficientsum to add a new wing to the hospital presented to the cityby the late Earl Fitzwilliam.
KING EDWARD’S HOSPITAL FOND FOR LONDON.-The Organising Committee of King Edward’s Hospital Fundfor London, 81, Cheapside, E. C., has signified that ithas much pleasure in accepting an offer which has beenmade to it with regard to Mr. Percy Godfrey’s CoronationMarch." " This proposal is to the effect that 6d. derivedfrom the sale of each copy of the march shall be devoted tothe "coronation gift" and that all sums derived fromlicences to perform the march and collections made atconcerts shall be given to the same object. Mr. Godfrey’scomposition gained the prize recently offered by the
Worshipful Company of Musicians for the best coronationmarch, the adjudicators being Sir Frederick Bridge, SirWalter Parratt, and Sir Hubert Parry.
THE ROYAL INSTITUTION.-In a lecture on SomeElectrical Developments delivered at the Royal Institutionon March 22nd Lord Rayleigh said that although the
Roentgen rays were so easily produced and were capable ofgiving such remarkable effects, their essential nature was inseveral respects unknown. They travelled in straight linesand could neither be refracted nor reflected, from which itnecessarily followed that they could not be polarised.Diffraction experiments made with great care by Dutchinvestigators had led to no result beyond proving that if the
rays had an undulatory character their wave length could notexceed the one-hundredth of that of light. As was wellknown, they produced photographic effects by the decom-position of silver salts and rendered certain fluorescent sub-stances luminous ; the only other respect in which they werefound to resemble ordinary light was that both the Roentgenrays and the ultra-violet rays of the luminous spectrumcaused electric leakage of gases. At one time it was
supposed that the Roentgen rays admitted of partialreflection but it was now considered that the apparenteffect was probably due to some secondary emission.There were many points of resemblance between
Becquerel rays and Roentgen rays. Becquerel formerlybelieved that the rays discovered by him could be
polarised but this view was now abandoned. Roentgenrays could be deflected by magnets and experiments wereshown in which the rays passing through a hole in an
aluminium plate and falling on a fluorescent screen were bymeans of magnets displaced both in straight lines and incurved lines. Changes produced in jets of steam and waterby electrification were also shown. In another experimentcommon air was blown through a Woulfe’s bottle con-
taining sulphuric acid which did not cover the end of theinlet tube, so that the air did not bubble through the acidbut merely passed over its surface. A jet of steam cast onlya faint shadow on a screen when a beam of electric lightwas turned on it, but when the air from the Woulfe’s bottlewas directed against the jet of steam the shadow becamemuch darker. When nitric acid was substituted for thesulphuric acid the effect did not take place. Lord Rayleighsaid that the cause of this phenomenon was quite unknownand he recommended it to the notice of young experimentersbecause of the simplicity of the apparatus required.
NOTIFICATION OF CHICKEN Pox. - The BathRural District Council on March 12th decided to include
chicken-pox in the list of notifiable diseases.
BRIDGWATER INFIRMARY.-On March 20thColonel W. Barratt, the president of the BridgwaterInfirmary, formally opened the new operation room whichhas been provided by means of a bequest of £300 left forthat purpose by the late Mr. George England.ROYAL HOSPITAL FOR INCURABLES, DUBLIN.-A
meeting of the board of governors of this hospital was heldon March 18th, when six new patients were elected. Thehospital is entirely unsectarian and provides accommodationfor 212 patients, including separate wards for the treatmentof 72 patients suffering from cancer and consumption, inaddition to 140 inmates atHicted with various other incurablemaladies, all of whom are disqualified for admission into thegeneral hospitals. The average daily number of beds
occupied throughout last year was 203 and further financialassistance is urgently needed to reduce a debt of .6974.
BIRMINGHAM AND MIDLAND HOSPITAL FOR
WOMEN.-During the past year 3285 new out-patients haveattended at this hospital, showing a decrease of 38 as com-pared with last year’s figures. The total number of new andold cases treated during the year was 17,174, being 570 lessthan last year. 440 patients were admitted to the in-patientdepartment, an increase of 13 on last year and the totalnumber of operations was 422, an increase of 12. Thenumber of operations involving abdominal section was 213-that is, nine more than last,year; of these nine patients havedied, giving a death-rate of 4’2 per cent. This compareswith 2’94 per cent. on 204 operations in 1900.
DOWN DISTRICT LUNATIC ASYLUM.-OnMarch 15th at a meeting of the committee of manage-ment of the Down District Lunatic Asylum the fol-
lowing motion with reference to the necessity for theestablishment of a central laboratory in Ireland for the
investigation of the pathology of insanity was unanimouslycarried : "That we, the committee of management of DownDistrict Asylum, desire to express our warm approval of theproposed central laboratory for research in the pathologyof insanity ; we hereby state our readiness to affiliate thisinstitution with such an undertaking when it assumes a
practical shape and to contribute towards its maintenancea sum of .625 per annum. We are of opinion that the pro-ject is deserving of general support, believing, as we do, thatthe prevention and the most effective treatment of mentaldisease must be largely aided by an accurate knowledgeof the morbid physical conditions associated with it, andfeeling that any step that tends to promote such knowledgemust ultimately prove an important factor in the reductionof the burden of the lunacy charges of the country."DONATIONS AND BEQUESTS TO HOSPITALS.-The
Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of London have contributed 20guineas to the Royal Hospital for Diseases of the Chest, City-road, London, towards the fund now being raised to buildand to furnish a home for the nursing staff.-The committeeof the Hospital for Consumption, Brompton, has received.61000 from the Goldsmiths’ Company and £105 from theMercers’ Company for the country branch of the hospital atBagshot where the open-air treatment of phthisis is to becarried out.-By the will of Miss Frances Hester Robinsonof Richmond £2000 are bequeathed to the British Home forIncurables at Streatham, C2000 to the Deaf and Dumb
Asylum in the Old Kent-road, £2000 to the School for theIndigent Blind (for the Junior Branch at Wandsworth),£2000 to the Society for Granting Annuities to the PoorAdult Blind, .61000 to the Charing-cross Hospital, and £1000to the Hospitai for Consumption and Diseases of the Chest,Fulham-road.-Under the will of the late Miss OliviaAtherton of Everton the Royal Infirmary (Liverpool),Northern Hospital (Liverpool), Southern Hospital (Liver-pool), and Liverpool Country Hospital for Chronic Diseasesreceive £1000 each ; the Hospital for Women (Liverpool),the Eye and Ear Infirmary (Liverpool), the Liverpool Dis-pensaries, Liverpool Children’s Infirmary, Bootle Hospital,and Stanley Hospital receive E500 each : the Children’sConvalescent Home at West Kirby, Wirral Children’s Hos-pital, Home for Incurables, Cancer Hospital (Liverpool),and Liverpool Hospital for Consumption receive £250 each ;and the Wallasey Cottage Hospital (Liverpool) receives £200.
HEALTH OF TlVEKTON RURAL DISTICT.-Mr.J. R. R Pollock, the medical officer of health, reports thatduring 1901 the birth-rate in this Devonshire rural districtwas 25-51 per 1000, and the death-rate was 14 -81 per 1000.
DEFECTIVE DRAINS.-At the Bristol County,Court on March 18th a tenant claimed from the owner of ahouse £50 damages for alleged breach of warranty respectingthe drains. The plaintiff stated that when he took thehouse from the defendant he was assured that the drainswere in perfect condition. After a few months members ofthe family were constantly ill and one child died from diph-theria. Eventually the plaintiff communicated with the
sanitary authority and the drains were found to be defective.The defendant stated that he gave no warranty; all he saidwas that to the best of his belief the drains were all right..Judgment was given for the plaintiff for .625, with costs.CHELTENHAM GENERAL HOSPITAL.-The annual
meeting of the subscribers to this institution was held onMarch 18th under the presidency of Colonel Croker-King.The medical report stated that 896 in-patients had beenadmitted during 1901, against 871 in 1900, and there hadbeen 8867 out-patients treated compared with 7936 in thepreceding year. The financial statement showed that therewas a small increase in church collections and HospitalSaturday collections and the legacies received amounted to2250, but the excess of expenditure over income never-theless amounted to .62419. Colonel Croker-King was
re-elected president..ToRBAY HOSPITAL, TORQUAY.-There is some
difficulty at Torbay Hospital with respect to a rule which wasadopted by the committee last year providing for the annualelection of the honorary medical staff. At the recent electiontwo of the physicians, who were originally appointed for life,were not re-elected although they were thanked for their past.services. The board of management then advertised for twogentlemen to fill the vacancies. The members of the pro-fession in Torquay at a meeting agreed that none of theirnumber should apply for the appointments and consequentlyno applications were received. The honorary medical staffof the hospital feel strongly on the subject of the rulealluded to and six influential governors have requisitioneda special meeting with the object of getting the rule altered.WINSLEY SANATORIUM.-A public meeting in
aid of the proposed sanatorium for consumptives forSomerret. Wilts, Gloucestershire, and Bristol was held atBath on March 13th under the presidency of the Mayor (Mr.E. E. Phillips, L.R.CP.Edin., M R.C.S. Eng.). Dr. L.
Weatherly mentioned that the members of His Majesty’sAdvisory Board who recently visited the Winsley Sanatorium,although they regarded it as an admirable spot for such aninstitution, found that the space would be too small for theerection of the King’s Sanatorium for which Sir E Cassellhad given £200.000. It was stated that E20,000 would beneeded for the erection of the proposed sanatorium ; £5000had only been received at present, and it has been resolvedthat the foundation-stone shall not be laid until one half ofthe required sum has been raised.
BIRMINGHAM GENERAL HOSPITAL.-The reportof this institution for 1901 states that the old hospital whichwas sold to the corporation has now been pulled down anda building which for 130 years did so much for the reliefof the sick and suffering passes away in all but memory.The demand on the beds, though great in previous years, hasbeen even greater during the past year, the list of ca-.es
awaiting admissicn often exceeding 200 and it has rarelydropped to 100. The number of in-patients was 5170, adecrease of 41 as compared with the previous year. The dailyaverage of patients in the hospital was 278, again-t 28H in1900. Of the in-patients admitted 902 were children under 12years of age, of whom 138 were under the age of two years.The out-patients numbered 62,643, or 1778 more than in theprevious year. The amount accruing from subscriptions, &c.,was e7747 17s. 8d., or £469 3s. 8d. more than in the previousyear. Donations amounted to £582 Os. 5d and specialcongregational collections to 652 Os. 5d. E2973 6s. 8d. wereplaced to the credit of the current account as the moiety oflegacies received during the year. The ordinary expenditurewas £24,411 9s. lld. and the extraordinary expensesamounted to E812 17s. 2d., while the sum of £276 3s. 5d.was transferred to the Jaffray branch account to meet thedeficit at that institution. An adverse balance of
£5110 19s. ld. remained at the end of the year, the
surplus of £1180 5s. 10d. shown on the year’s workingbeing applied to the reduction of the deficit of E6291 4s. lld.brought over from last year.HEALTH OF LAUNCESTON.-Dr. C. G. Gibson, the
medical officer of health of Launceston (Cornwall), in hisannual report for 1901 states that during the year the birthsnumbered 59 and the deaths 48. The birth-rate was 14’5per 1000 and the death-rate was 11-84 per 1000. Dr. Gibson
urged the town council to provide an isolation hospital forsmall-pox cases.DORSET COUNTY HOSPITAL, DORCHESTER.-The
sixty-first annual report of this institution which has justbeen issued states that 299 in-patients were admitted during1901, against 311 in 1900. The out-patients numbered 961compared with 996 in the previous year. The average dailynumber of in-patients was 33 ; the average cost per patientweekly amounted to .B1 Os. 2d. The financial statementshows that the receipts for the year amounted to .S2165 andthe expenditure to E2284. The deficit balance at the end of1900 amounted to £18 and this has now been increased to£137. During the present year it is hoped to provide thehospital with a new operation room, and owing to munificentdonations from the Earl of Eldon and the Earl of Ilchesterthe committee hope that the work will be completed withoutany call being made on the general funds of the institution.
Parliamentary Intelligence.NOTES ON CURRENT TOPICS.
IN anticipation of the report stage of the Midwives Bill severalamendments have been prepared and put down on the notice paper of,he House of Commons. Mr. Griffith-Boscawen and Mr. RobertAmbrose propose to raise once more the question of the scope of theegislation by moving amendments to make it apply to all women wholabitually and for gain attend midwifery cases. while Mr. GeorgeElarwood has put down a notice to strike out the subsection insertedit the instance of Sir John Batty Tuke in the Grand Committee whichproposes that no woman shall be entitled to recover fees in the courtsunless she is certified under the Act. In Clause 2 Mr. T. P. O’Connorwill move to strike out the words which give special recognition to thecertificates in midwifery of the Royal College of Physicians ofIreland and the Obstetrical Society of London. Several amendments
appear in the notice paper with reference to Clause 3, the clause deal-ing with the constitution and duties of the Central Midwives Board.Mr. Patrick White proposes that the General Medical Council andnot the Lord President of the Privy Council shall take the steps for theformation of the Board; Mr. McGovern that the four registeredmedical practitioners shall be appointed by the General MedicalCouncil instead of by the Royal College of Physicians of London, theRoyal College of Surgeons of England, the Society of Apothecaries, andthe Incorporated Midwives Institute; and Mr. Griffith-Boscawen thatthe Royal British Nurses Association shall have a nominee on the
Board. With this substantial body of amendments on the notice paperthe Bill cannot be taken as unopposed business after midnight. In all
probability, therefore, it will have to wait its turn with other privateMembers’ Bills for consideration on a, Wednesday after Whitsuntide,unless, of course, the Government arranges to give specia facilities.
HOUSE OF COMMONS
TUESDAY, MARCH 18TH.Vacc2natioaz in Government Departments.
MR. CHANNING asked the Vice-President of the Committee of Councilon Education whether he was aware that on Feb. 19th a general orderwas issued on behalf of the Board of Education and signed by SirWilliam Abney inviting the officers of the department at SouthKensington to submit themselves for vaccination and revaccinationby the public vaccinator on Feb. 25th and 26th, and desiringthose who did not wish to do so to send in their names tothe heads of their sections; whether there had been issuedsince then a further minute, signed by Sir William Abney, invitingofficers who still remained unwilling to reconsider the matter beforethe Board proceeded to decide what further steps should be taken;whether any similar action had been taken on the elementary side atWhitehall and in other Government departments ; whether the orderand minute were issued by Sir William Abney with the sanction ofthe Lord President and Sir George Kekewich ; and. if so, under whatpowers, statutory or by regulation, any further steps to compel theofficers to be vaccinated or revaccinated could be taken.-Mr. GRANTLAWSON, replying for Sir JOHN GORST, said : Notices relating to thevaccination of persons in the employ of the Board of Education haveby the authority of the Board been issued both at Whitehall and SouthKensington. Similar notices have, I am informed, been issued byother Government departments. No person can be compelled by theBoard of Education to be vaccinated or revaccinated.