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Page 1: Notes and News


Professor EGAS MONIZ

Sir Geoffrey Jefferson writes : °

In spite of the gout which had so much interfered with hishands and with his mobility for some years past, ProfessorEgas Moniz remained as alert intellectually and as interestedas at any time, so it seemed at the time of the Fifth Inter-national Congress of Neurology held in Lisbon under his

presidency in 1953. His famous hospitality and his friendlinesswere undiminished. One of his last publications was hisbeautifully reproduced history of playing-cards, Tratado dojogo do Boston, 1952.

His life, now that it has come to its end, can be seen inperspective, and the impression that it gives is that it was ahappy and unusually productive one. His name will live forhis two great contributions to medicine. Because both ofthese innovations were of a surgical nature, Professor EgasMoniz has often been referred to as a neurosurgeon. This hewas not. Dr. (now Professor) Almeida Lima had usuallyacted as his surgical hands. He was not only professor ofneurology in Lisbon but, by training, a neurologist of theParis school, a close friend of Babinski and, like Babinski’sbrother, a gourmet.. Certainly he looked to Paris always forits approval, it was before the French neurologists that hepreferred to test his ideas. His first tentatives in angio-graphy were given at a meeting of the Societe de Neurologiede Paris in 1927 and his first 20 cases of prefrontal leucotomywere reported to the Académie de Medicine in 1935.

Babinski in the preface which he wrote not long before hedied to Egas Moniz’s book in which the value of angiographywas first massively demonstrated (Diagnostic des turneurs’

cerebrales, Paris 1931) quoted Paul Valéry. Valéry hadsaid that scientific discovery is less important, or less interest-ing perhaps, because of what follows from it than is the

analysis of the intellectual processes which brought it to birth.This was a very apt quotation. No-one who was privileged towatch the development of Egas Moniz’s discoveries could helpbut admire the ways in which they were developed. He turnedto angiography because he was dissatisfied with the limitationsof neurology alone in brain-tumour localisation and especiallyits failure to distinguish between one kind and another.Although very many thousand angiograms have now beenmade, Egas Moniz, with the assistance of Almeida Lima, hadalready in 1931 observed and recorded all the basic facts-the bilateral filling obtained when one carotid is compressed,the elevation of the pericallosal vessels in hydrocepbalus, aswell as the displacements of vessels and tumour fillings which,though now commonplace, were twenty-five years agoexciting exhibits. ’Furthermore, he, Almeida Iima, andRui de Lacerda had in 1931 shown the first arteriographicallyproven cases of carotid thrombosis, a subject that EgasMoniz returned to in 1940 and 1947.To the general public Professor Egas Moniz was better

known no doubt because of prefrontal leucotomy, an operationfirst really popularised in Britain by Wilfred Willway atBristol with Professor Golla’s encouragement. Egas Moniztold how he was led to leucotomy through the description byJohn Fulton and Jacobsen of the disappearance of anxietybehaviour and temper tantrums in monkeys after bilateralfrontal ablations. He illustrated here better than in angio-graphy Paul Valery’s dictum. The Nobel prize which heshared with W. Hess of Zurich was the fitting crown. Lookingback, it is clear that just as many thought that Walter Dandy’sintroduction of pneumography was more important thananything that Harvey Cushing did (which is one of thosetruths which are mainly wrong) so Professor Egas Monizovertopped Dandy. Humanity has reason to pay its last

respects and express its gratitude to another very greatPortuguese explorer. The fullness of that personality can onlywholly be appreciated by those informed of his completehistory from his early political days when he led the Portuguesedelegation to the peace conference after World War I.Those of us who knew Egas Moniz personally and his"

charming wife will regret greatly that so intelligent, so

humane, and so charming a personality has gone from

amongst us.

Births, Marriages, and DeathsDEATHS

MONTGOMERY.-On Dec. 13. at the Royal Northern Hospital.London, James’Aitken Montgomery, M.I)., physician-superin-tendent, Coppetts Wood Hospital, London.

Notes and News


SoME two years ago the Society of Friends sent a teamto Kunsan, a port on the west coast of Korea, to help inrestoring the work of the civilian hospital there. Unlike themission hospitals organised on Western lines, Kunsan Hospitalhas retained much of its Korean character, with a Koreanmedical superintendent and staff ; but American and Britishdoctors and nurses have contributed modern Western

knowledge and experience in treatment.At the time of the team’s arrival Korean doctors had been

out of touch with modern medical practice for many years ;but, with the aid of their Western colleagues, they havebeen able to provide medical care of a good standard. Inthis they have been greatly helped by the visits, lasting threemonths, of a physician who gave a series of lectures andward rounds, and of a surgeon who demonstrated surgicaltechniques which Korean doctors were later able to practise.Full training programmes for nurses and laboratory tech-nicians have also been arranged. At present, 70% of thepatients in the hospital are on relief " and are non-paying.In accordance with Korean custom, patients’ relations helpwith their treatment and cook their meals ; there is a centralkitchen to provide meals for those patients who have no-oneto cook for them.

It is hoped that the hospital will be well staffed and runningefficiently by the time it is transferred completely to theKoreans in two years’ time. Much, however, remains to bedone and the Society of Friends are anxious to find a doctorwho is prepared to go to Kunsan Hospital for a period ofeighteen months. The services of a physician who will continuethe teaching for a period of three months would also bewelcome.

Inquiries about this valuable and rewarding work shouldbe addressed to Lewis E. Waddilove, Beverley House, ShiptonRoad, York.



ON Nov. 29 Dr. G. E. Godber, deputy chief medical officerof the Ministry of Health, opened a new occupational centrefor mentally handicapped children in Leeds. Leeds now hasfive centres catering for 453 people, and the new centre willtake 108 children under sixteen. It has been designed- bythe city architect, and the cost of the building was £44,000.It contains a large combined dining and assembly hall,administrative rooms, and nine class-room blocks set at

right-angles to the assembly hall. In opening the new centreDr. Godber said that Leeds has led the world in the care ofthe mentally handicapped. Dr. Z. P. Fernandez, chairmanof the mental health services subcommittee of the city council,said that Leeds spent more in this field than any other localauthority in the country, averaging £103 per thousand of

population as against ;E7 or we8 in other areas. The city hadthe highest ascertainment record in the country and in hisexperience incorrect certification was unknown.

University of LondonThe title of reader in biochemistry has been conferred on

Mr. A. L. Greenbaum, PH.D., in respect of his post at UniversityCollege.University of DurhamOn Dec. 17 the degrees of M.B., B.s. were conferred on

the following :J. W. Alderson, J. P. R. Campbell, * P. N. Cowen, Dorothy M. H.

Dickinson, Kathleen H. Fowler, B. R. Hayes, Sylvia J. Jayson,* D. M. H. Jones, Veronica Marr, M. B. Mummery, T. C. Nelson-Williams, J. 0. Odulate Wahab Olabode Oshodi, D. L. Pearson,G. A. Turnbull, Sheila M. Waterhouse. J. C. White, Jean C.Whitfield.

* In absentia.

University of BristolOn Dec. 19 degrees of M.B., CH.B. were conferred on the

following :Aboyomi Babbatunde Claudius-Cole, M. R. Clift, Izette R.

Coulton, Arurnmugam Ganendran, J. A. Hayes, W. G. R. Hobbs,D. I. D. Hodge. I. M. Joiner, F. J. M. Killick, Stella A. F. Maxted,Margaret E. C. Parke, R. P. Saundby, D. W. Seldon, J. A. CStrachan, M. T. White, J. H. Williams.

Page 2: Notes and News


University of ManchesterThe following have passed the final examination for the

degrees of M.B., CH.B. : ’

James Adams, E. S. Ainsworth, Norman Beenstock, J. N. Bowers,E. C. Cockings, R. P. Davis, A. W. Drummond, T. B. Edwards,Anne E. Evans, Joseph Glass, S. L. Goodman, Audrey W. Gostling,C. A. A. Haigh, Catherine E. Hall, Susan Hetherington, J. N.MacCaig, Anne Maclachlan, J. G. M. Maclachlan, J. D. Mason,Brian Peach, Sheila G. Quain, Gillian P. Roach, Raine E. I. Roberts,J. H. M. Robertson, Eric Rowley, Beryl Sephton, Anne E. Treharne.

University of LiverpoolAt recent examinations the following were successful:M.D.-F. G. Anderson, Cynthia J. Discombe, R. J. Fallon,

W. L. Sanders, J. K. Wilson.M.Ch. Orth.-M..Slms, Sheroo D. Bharucha, P. G. Brady, J. H. C.

Carrier, H. S. Y. Fang, P. Kilburn, H. Klein, 1. L. Macfarlane,I. K. Sharp, G. C. Slee, H. Thompson.

M.B., Ch.B.-J. R. Burrows, W.Caplan, Mary R. Daniel, P. VV.Davies, M. M. Gerassimos, R. G. Ingham, Audrey E. Jaques, C. D.Krasner, E. Lewis, G. S. Wilson, E. M. W. Wong.

University of BirminghamOn Dec. 16 the following degrees were conferred :M.D.-C. G. Berry, D. L. Crombie.Ch.M.-J. A. Mantle.

M.B., Ch.B.-Eric Anthony, George Atkins, J. E. Backhouse,Brian Baker, John Bennett, J. A. Binnie, A. H. Brittain, Brenda M.Browne, Nancy G. Campbell, R. H. Cawley, M. J. Daly, J. B. Davies,H. R. Dobson, J. D. Earp, R. I. Froment, Harrydewa Goriah,Daphne E. Mahabir, NI. E. T. D. R. Maigrot, Stanley Middleburgh,D. W. Millard, Helen W. Rogers, M. G. Saunders, L. W. Smith,M. P. Taylor.

University of SheffieldDr. S. K. R. Clarke has been appointed lecturer in bacteri-

ology and virus diseases.

University of EdinburghOn Dec. 16 the following degrees and diplomas were

conferred :M.D.-Margery A. Lawley, *J. A. H. Lee, *Rachel B. Mackay

(with honours), D. S. McLaren, J. B. Primmer, *J. D. Robertson,J. L. Stewart.

* Commended for thesis.D.Sc.-G. W. A. Dick.Ph.D. (in the faculty of medicine).-G. D. Forwell.J.11.B., Ch.B.-Catherine G. Butcher, C. S. Cairns, I. M. Campbell,

R. I. Davies, T. K. Hay, I. M. Hourston, J. Q. Jones, Thalia H.Lowe, R. T. McKay, J. C. Ramsay, M. D. Scott, P. M. Shaw, .J. R. M. Shepherd, Isobel M. Sinclair, Phyllis Watson, EvanWhittaker.D.P.H.-Ariane G. M. Wiseman.D.M.R.D.-J. K. Davidson, Lockhart Frain-Bell, K. W. M.

Grossart, M. W. M. Hadley, Hamish Innes.D.M.R.T.-J. T. Lamb, A. L. Meikle, William Muirhead.D.Psychiat.-Frank Badrock, P. G. McGrath, H. B. Milne.

Royal College of Physicians of LondonOn Tuesday, Jan. 10, Dr. R. T. Brain will deliver the

Watson Smith lecture. His subject will be the ClinicalVagaries of the Herpes Virus. The first Marc Daniels lecturewill be given by Sir Geoffrey Todd on Thursday, Jan. 12.He is to speak on Chemotherapeutic Control in the Treat-ment of Fibro-nodular Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Bothlectures will be given at 5 P.M. at the college, Pall Mall East,S.W.I.

Royal College of Surgeons of EdinburghAt a meeting of the college held on Dec. 14, with Prof.

Walter Mercer, the president, in the chair, the followingwere admitted to the fellowship :

Jayalakshmi Yegnanarayan Ayer, Shyam Kishinchand Bul-chandani, Remo Cantamessa, George Fahmy, N. P. G. FischerKizhakeveettil Idikula George, Jayashree Kirloskar, Agnes Kramer,E. V. Mackay, G. M. J. Mascarenhas, A. F. Masson, R. W. D.Middleton, R. R. Munro, T. D. Ness, Robert Nikhwa,Ramachandra Pararajasegaram, R. B.’ J. Peiris, E. R. Price,Tahir Abdel Rahman, Abdur Rashid, Royston Reed-Davis,Sunil Kumar Sarkar, Sohandal Sharma, Hiran Sirikantha Kirth,Singha, Peter Stemmler, David Tanne, W. A. Lisle Thompson,G. M. Thomson, W. G. Walker, G. A. Wall, T. E. C. Williamsz.

Child Psychiatry in GlasgowThe opening of a new department of child psychiatry

(the third of its kind to be established in Scotland) is describedin the Glasgow Herald of Dec. 16. Associated with the RoyalHospital for Sick Children, it is under the direction of Dr.Frederick Stone, and the permanent staff will include apsychiatrist, a psychiatric social worker, and a child therapist.Its special concern will be emotional health and developmentin childhood and adolescence, and it will provide a specialistservice for diagnosis and treatment. Plans are being madefor research and teaching, in cooperation with the depart-ments of child health and psychological medicine in GlasgowUniversity.

King Edward’s Hospital Fund for LondonThe Fund has .received a further instalment of £50,00’.

from the Nuffield Trust for the Special Areas. In foundingthis Trust, Lord Nuffield provided that any sums availableby way of repayment of loans or otherwise from his trustfor the special areas should pass to King Edward’s HospitalFund. In all £1,650,000 has now been received.

Scientific Film AssociationA meeting arranged by the medical committee of this

association is to be held on Tuesday, Jan. 17, at 6.30 P.M.,at the Mezzanine Cinema, Shell-Mex House, Strand, London,W.C.2, when Dr. Robert Ollerenshaw will discuss the use andabuse of film in medical illustration.

Common Cold Research UnitThis unit is asking for 600 volunteers during 1956 so that

there may be no hold-up in the work. They are anxious toenroll as soon as possible 100 volunteers for the trials fromthe middle of January till the middle of March. Comfortableliving quarters are provided for volunteers. Fares to andfrom Salisbury are paid up to a maximum of ;E3, and 3s. a daypocket-money is allowed. Volunteers should be between18 and 45 years of age and in normal health. Furtherinformation may be had from the medical director of theunit, Harvard Hospital, Salisbury.

CORRIGENDUM : Rowton Hoisses.-In one of the referencesto Rowton Houses that have recently appeared in our columns(Sept. 17, p. 572), they were described as lodging-houses.This was incorrect. From 1899 onwards legal rulings haveestablished that Rowton Houses do not belong to this categorybut are hotels or hostels for working-class people.

Diary of the Week


8 P.M. (11, Chandos Street, W.1.) Dr. A. A. Mason: Treatmentof Oral Disorders by Hypnosis.

Tuesday,3rdROYAL ARMY MEDICAL COLLEGE, Millbank, S.W.1

5 P.M. Sir William MacArthur : Mediaeval Leprosy in the BritishIsland-What Was It ?

INSTITUTE OF DERMATOLOGY, Lisle Street, W.C.25.30 P.M. Dr. P. D. Samman : Tuberculosis Cutis.

Wednesday, 4th _ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE, 1, Wimpole Street, W.1

8 P.M. Surgery. Dr. R. L. Holt, Mr. W. M. Capper, Prof.A. G. R. Lowdon : Surgical Management of UncomplicatedDuodenal Ulcer.

INSTITUTE OF DERMATOLOGY5.30 P.M. Dr. J. 0. Oliver : Mycobacteria in Skin Diseases.

Thursday, 5thROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, Lincoln’s Inn Fields,

London, W.C.25 P.M. Prof. Arnold Sorsby : Some Dominantly Inherited Central


8 P.M. Neurology. Dr. R. S. Allison, Dr. P. D. Bedford, Prof.A. Meyer : Clinical Consequences of Cerebral Anoxia.


5.15 P.M. (London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine,Keppel Street, W.C.1.) Prof. C. De Duve (Louvain):Intracellular Distribution Patterns of Enzymes. (First oftwo lectures.)

ROYAL SOCIETY OF MEDICINE5.30 P.M. Anœsthetics. Dr. A. A. Mason : Hypnosis.

INSTITUTE OF DERMATOLOGY5.30 P.M. Dr. G. B. Dowling : Skin Tuberculosis and Sarcoidosis.

ROYAL MEDICO-CHIRURGICAL SOCIETY OF GLASGOW8.30 P.M. (Royal Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons of Glasgow,

242, St. Vincent Street.) Prof. Graham Bull: Treatmentof Disturbances in Body Water and Electrolytes.

AppointmentsGILLIGAN, M. S., M.B. Belf., F.R.C.S.1. : surgeon, Louth county

council.HELLIWELL, PHILIP, M.B.Edin., IP.F.A.R.C.S., D.A.: consultant

aneasthetist, St. Peter’s, St. Paul’s, and St. Philip’s Hospitals,London.

HODGSON-JONES, 1. S., M.D. Camb., M.R.c.p. : consultant dermatolo-gist, Northampton and Kettering areas.

WILLIAMS, W. R., M.B. Wales, D.T.M. & H., D.P.H.: asst. M.o.H. andschool M.o., Merionethshire.

Appointed Factory Doctors :CuRRAN, D. V., L.R.C.P.E. : Shipley, Yorks.SHELDON, K. M. M., M.B. Camb. : Bradford East, Yorks.TURNER, R. E. S., m.R.c.s. : Bracknell, Berks.

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