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Page 1: Responsible Service of Alcohol: A Trainer’s Guide · Responsible Service of Alcohol: A Trainer’s Guide ... of further education and private training organizations. ... Responsible

Responsible Service of Alcohol:A Trainer’s Guide

A Trainer’s Guide

Responsible Serviceof Alcohol

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IndexPlanning a Course Page 3

IdentifyingTrainingNeedsQuestionnaire Page4

The5W’s Page5

PlanningCourseTiming Page6

DesigningExercises Page7

SummaryofActivityTypes Page9

Course Content Page 10

Marketing a Course Page 21

Running a Course Page 22

Atmosphere Page22

RoomLayout Page23

UsingtheEquipment Page27

Communication Page28

Feedback Page29

Questions Page29

DealingwithDifficultLearners Page30

After the Course Page 33

ExampleofEndofCourseEvaluation Page34

Further Information Page 35

1 Trainer’s Guide

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Trainer’s Guide 2

IntroductionThisguideisforthosewhowishtoprovideacoursetoaccompanytheServer’sGuide.TheServer’sGuideisquitegeneralbecauseithastocoverwhatismostrelevanttothemajorityofpeople.However,thebesttrainingismorespecific,soitisyourjobtodosomeresearchandworkoutwhatismostrelevantforeachofthegroupsthatyouaretotrain.

Itisusuallybesttohavestudentsfromsimilarbackgrounds.Forexample:

• Retail(shops,supermarkets)

• Bar,café,restaurant

• Latenightpremises

Peopleareveryeasilyputoffiftheyfeelwhatisbeingcoveredisn’trelevanttothem!

Ifyoudon’thavepersonalexperienceofworkinginaparticulartypeofoperation,thenyouneedtospendsometimespeakingtopeoplewhodo.Findoutwhatthecommonproblemsareandhowpeopledealwiththem.Youneedtobuildupasetof“stories”oranecdotesabouttypicalsituationsandhowtheycanbehandled.Thesecanbeusedasformallyas“casestudies”duringatrainingsession,orjustdescribedatappropriatetimestohelplearnersunderstandapoint.

Duringtrainingtherewillbeopportunitiestoaddtoyour“bank”ofstories.Itisagoodideatokeepalogofkeyissues,solutions,frequentlyaskedquestionsandpossibleresponses.

Atthesametime,atrainingcourseisnotjustaboutcontent-thewayinformationiscoveredisjustasimportant.Forthemosteffectivelearning,peopleneedtobeactivelyinvolved.Thelearningprocessshouldbestimulatingand,asfaraspossible,enjoyable!Sothismeansyoushouldtrytouseavarietyofactivitiesand,ingeneral,askyourtraineesratherthantellthem!

Itisalsoimportanttorememberthatpeoplearenot“blankcanvases”.Theyalreadyhaveknowledgeandexperiences,and,iftheyhaveworkedinthehospitalityorretailtradesforawhile,muchofthismaybeusefultothecourse.Oneofyourkeyrolesistocreateacomfortable,relaxedatmospherewherelearnersfeelsafetoaskquestions,offerinformationorexperiencesanddiscusswhatmaybedifficultissues.Thisallowspeopletolearnfromeachotheraswellasfromthetrainer.Youmaylearnsomethingtoo!However,youdohavetomanagethetrainingsessiontoensurethateveryoneisencouragedtocontributeandnooneisallowedtodominate.Youalsohavetoworkhardtoensurethatallinformationandactivitiesarecoveredintheagreedtime.

Thisguideaimstotakeyouthroughallthekeystepsinplanning,designing,deliveringandmarketingcoursesforthehospitalityandretailtrades.Itwillasklotsofquestionsandgiveyouoptions.Youhavetodecidewhatismostappropriatefortheparticulargroupsyouaregoingtotrain.

Thisguidewillnotmakeyouatrainingexpert.Ifyouwishtodevelopyourknowledgeandskillsintheseareas,werecommendthatyoucontacttherelevantprofessionalbodiesforadviceandfurthertraining.Moreinformationonallthesetopicsisavailablefromspecialistpublications.Seepage35foralistofusefullinksandbooks.

This guide is for those who wish to provide a course to accompany the Server’s Guide.

A Trainer’s Guide

Responsible Serviceof Alcohol

Acknowledgements: This guide was drafted by a team from Alcohol Focus Scotland’s ServeWise program under contract to the International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) and the European Forum for Responsible Drinking (EFRD). ServeWise is the largest provider of social responsibility training for the licensed trade in Scotland. It works with a wide variety of stakeholders including licensing board members, solicitors, licensed trade organizations, police, alcohol action teams and training providers, such as local colleges of further education and private training organizations. The drafting team included Linda Bowie (ServeWise Manager), Joanne Worrall (ServeWise Training and Information Officer) and Mary Ellmers (National ServeWise Manager). This guide and the accompanying guide for Servers were peer-reviewed by Jim Peters (Responsible Hospitality Institute, USA) and Rob Eicholtz (Horeca Branche Instituut, Netherlands).

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Summary of the Planning Phase

Planning a Course

3 Trainer’s Guide

Beforeanytrainingbegins,itisimportantthatyoumeettheneedsofyourtargetaudience.Youmaywishtogather

yourinformationbyinterviewingtypicalcandidatesorsendingoutaquestionnaire.

Theaimistobuildagenericprogramwhichmeetstheneedsofthetypeofgroupthatyouwishtotrain,rather

thantheneedsoftheparticularindividualsinterviewed(thelatteriscustomizedtraining,whentheknowledgeand

experienceoftheparticulartraineeswouldbetakenintoaccount,andthetrainingdesignedoradaptedaccordingly).

1. Research• UsetheIdentifyingTrainingNeedsQuestionnaire(page4)

• Meetwithpeopleinthelicensedtrade

• Gather“harddata”onthelicensedtrade,suchasnumbersandtypesof

premises(fromyourlocallicensingauthorityoragovernmentstatisticsoffice).

2. Planning• Lookatthe5W’s(page5)

• Decidewhethertherewillbeonecourseforeveryoneorifthereshouldbe

differenttypesofcourses

• Decidethelengthofthecourse(shorterismoreattractivetothetrade).

3. Creating the Course

• Createacourseoutline.Allcoursesshouldhaveanintroductionandpresent

thecontentofthecourseinsections;useavariationofactivities(seepage9)

andendwitharecapandevaluationsection.

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Trainer’s Guide 4

Identifying Training Needs Questionnaire

Q1.Whattasksdoesyourjobinclude?(tickallthatapply)

Pouringalcoholicdrinks

Takingcustomerorders

Givingcustomersadviceaboutfoodordrinkchoices

Servingcustomersalcoholicdrinks

Refusingservicetocustomerswhenappropriate

Clearingup

Q2.Whatdoyouthinkyouneedtoknowinordertoservealcoholsafely?

Q3.Whatkeyareasshouldtrainingcovertohelpyoudothis?

Q4.Isthereanytopicorpieceofinformationthatyouthinkshouldbecoveredbutwhichhasn’talreadybeen

mentioned?Ifso,pleasestate:

Q5.Ifyouweretoattendthetrainingsession,whichofthefollowingformatswouldyoupreferittotake?

(tickone)

• Shortunits,deliveredover2ormoresessions

• One-daycourse

• Other(pleasestate)

(tickone)

• Deliveredbyindependenttrainers

• Deliveredbyyourmanagerusingapre-designedpack

• Deliveredbyalocalcollege

Thank you for taking the time to complete this questionnaire.

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Responsible Serviceof Alcohol

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• Test Youwillneedtodecidewhetherornotthereshouldbeatestattheendofthecourse.Somecoursesstartwith

trainingalone.Then,astheydevelopandbecomemorewellknown,atestisadded.

Ifyoudodecidetohaveatest,youarebesttoworkwithasuitableawardingbodytodevelopthis,ifpossible.In

anycase,mostparticipantswillappreciatereceivingacertificate,evenifitisjustacertificateofattendance.

Thesecantakemanyforms.Seewhatyourtargetmarketwouldlike:forsome,acardmaybemoreattractivethan

apapercertificate.

5 Trainer’s Guide

Thesuccessofatrainingcoursedependsonagreatnumberofvariables.Itisimportantthatyouhavedecidedexactly

whatyouwouldliketoachievewiththetraining.Tohelpwiththis,youshouldanswerfivequestions–the5W’s.

Why?-Askwhyyouaretrainingatall.Whatareyoutryingtoachieve?Whatshouldlearnersthinkordoattheend

ofthecourse?

What?-Askwhatthecoursecontentshouldbe.Whatcanyouputoverintheavailabletime?Atwhatexpertise

levelwillyoupitchyourteaching?Whatequipment,handoutsandmaterialswillyouneed?

Who?-Askatwhomisthecourseaimed.Whatsortofvariableswillyouneedtoconsider,suchaslevel,knowledge

andpriorexperience?Alsoconsiderlearners’expectationsandmindset.

When?-Askwhetherthetimingofthecourseisgoodforyourtargetaudiencesandforyou.Considerthetimeof

year,timeofweekandtimeofday.

Where?-Askaboutandpreparethecourseenvironment.Considertheroom,thelayout,breaks,interruptionsand

temperature.

The 5 W’s

Key Decisions

You’llneedtodecide:

• Target Group Whoyourkeytargetgroupis(e.g.,barstafformanagers,orstafffromaparticulartypeofpremises-suchas

staffofoff-salespremises)

• Type Whetheryouwillhavevariationsofthecoursefordifferenttypesofpremises(e.g.,off-sales,bars,latenight

premises)

• Length Howlongthecourseshouldlastandwhetheritshouldbeinonesessionormore.Mostservertraining

programslastonedayorless.Coursesjustforstafftendtobeshorter(e.g.,4hourscomparedto6hoursfor

amanagers’course).Somepeopleprefertodoacoursein2or3sessions(e.g.,2x3hoursor3x2hours).Itis

possibletohaveacoursethatcanberuneitherasshortsessionsorasonelongsession.

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Trainer’s Guide 6

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Hints and Tips: Planning Course Timing

Whenplanningacourse,alwaysallowtimeforthingssuchas:

• Peoplearrivinglateatthestartofthesession

• Breaksover-runningbyacoupleofminutes

• Movingintosmallgroupsandreconveningthewholegroup

• Learnersgoingoverthetimeallowedfortasksorsmall-groupwork

Someofthiscanbeminimized:

• Beclearwhengivinginstructionsabouttiming

• Haveaclockintheroomthateveryonecanseeandusetojudgethelengthoftimeleftforan

exercise/break/etc.

• Givetimechecks,e.g.,“5minutesleft”

• Insistthatlearnersstopthetaskwhentheallottedtimehaspassed

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Designing the Exercises to be Used in a Course

What are you trying to achieve with the course?

Is it to give people facts?

Is it to change people’s opinions or behavior?

Is it to give them skills?

Probably,it’sabitofallthree.Youwillneedtogivepeoplefactsaboutthelawsgoverningthesaleofalcoholin

theircountryandaboutalcoholasasubstance.Youwillneedtoensurethateveryonesharesthesameopinion:that

alcoholshouldbeservedresponsibly.Youwantpeopletoimprovetheirpracticeandchangethewaytheydothings

inordertoensurethattheyservealcoholresponsiblyintheirpremises.

Gettingpeopletolearnfacts,influencingtheiropinionsorbehaviorandgivingthemskillsrequiredifferentmethods

oftraining.

Youneedtoplanhowbesttopresentinformationsothatparticipantsunderstand,learnandrememberit.Thereare

somekeypointstoconsider.

1. Retain learners’ interest throughout the course:

Thebraincanonlyfocusononethingforabout10-15minutes.Afterthis,itneedstobestimulatedagain.Asa

Trainer,thismeansthatyoushouldaimtochangesomethingevery10or15minutes.

• Changethetopic(e.g.,moveontoadifferentsubject/takeabreak)

• Changethetypeofexercise(e.g.,quiz/discussion/lecture/video/grouptask/small-groupwork)

• Changepeople’spositionsintheroom(e.g.,makethemmoveseatsorstand/geteveryonetostandup

andstretch/takeabreak)

• Changethewayinwhichinformationispresented(e.g.,PowerPoint/flipchart/video/picture/flowchart/list/

anecdoteorstory)

Trainersshouldalsovarytheirowntoneofvoiceandposition(e.g.,sitting,standing)tofitwiththeexerciseandto

avoidbecomingboringormonotonous.

7 Trainer’s Guide

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When a message is given once, the brain remembers 10% one year later; when it is given six times, recall rises to 90%.

2. Five main factors in how the brain recalls:

• Wearemorelikelytorememberthebeginningofeventsorthefirstinaseriesofevents

• Equally,wearemorelikelytoremembertheendofeventsorthelastinaseriesofevents

• Recallfallsrapidlyafter24hourswithoutreview

• Werememberunusualthingsexceedinglywell

• Recallishighforthingslinkedbyastoryorobviouspattern

Itisthereforeimportantthatweuseactivitiesthattakethisintoconsideration.

3. Review is important:

Weknowthat,intheshortterm,recallfallsrapidlywithoutreview.Thisalsoaffectslong-termmemory.Whena

messageisgivenonce,thebrainremembers10%oneyearlater;whenitisgivensixtimes,recallrisesto90%.

Trainingmustincluderecap,repeatandreview.

4. Use Multimedia:

Eachsideofthebrain-leftandright-respondstoandstoresdifferentsortsofinformation.Theleftbraindealswith

logic,andtherightbrainwithartisticorcreativeactivities.Peoplecanstorevisual,hearingandfeelinginformation.

Trainersshouldaimtouseavarietyofexercisesandactivitiesandsoengagedifferentpartsofthebrain.Becausethe

informationwillbestoredinmorethanonepartofthebrain,theTrainerhasmultipliedthechancesofthelearners

rememberingthemessage.

Visual-Pictures,scenes,images,logos,diagrams,graphs,charts,photos,drawings

Hearing-Words,music,sounds,accents,conversations

Feeling-Emotions,smells,tastes,tactileexperiments,pain/comfort

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9 Trainer’s Guide

Summary of Activity Types

Type of activity How it can be used

Good for:

facts influencingopinion

andbehavior

giving skills

Anecdotes (stories)

Throughout history and across all cultures, humans have learned from stories.

These can be funny or unusual stories – the brain finds it easier to remember unusual things and things that we can relate to our own experiences.

Questions Questions can be used to establish current levels of knowledge; to check that new information has been understood; to review learned material.

Questions to which learners have to work out the answer engage their interest and thought processes more, meaning they are more likely to remember the answers.

Short, closed questions can be used to get agreement and establish a logical argument to influence opinion.

Lectures / Presentations

Lectures can be used to give facts. Little participation is required from learners. Learners may be encouraged to make their own notes during the lecture and / or the information can be backed up with handouts. Best accompanied by a visual aid (see page 27).

Written quizzes Written quizzes can be used in the same way as verbal questioning. Written quizzes ensure that all candidates have the opportunity to come up with answers. Quizzes are best done in small groups, where learners will benefit from discussion with their partners, and there is less risk of them feeling anxious if they don’t know the answer.

Discussion Discussion can either be in small groups or involve the class as a whole.

Video / DVD Video clips can be used to present information or to illustrate a type of scenario or skill.

Pictures / Diagrams It is said, “A picture can say a thousand words”. Pictures can help make key points clear and tend to be more easily remembered.

Role-play Role-play should be used to practise situations in a safe environment. Care should be taken to ensure that feedback deals with the character that was being portrayed, and is not personal.

Recap / Summarize It is important to emphasize the key points – repeating is important for memory.

Recapping topics learned earlier gives the Trainer the opportunity to relate it to the current topic under discussion and reinforce earlier topics in the context of the new things you’re talking about.

Case studies Case studies can be used to illustrate various points and processes. The Trainer must be clear about all information and be able to answer questions as required.

Action plans These can help to provide a “bridge” to get the learning back to the workplace.

Games Games must have clear learning objectives. They are often used as an “ice breaker” at the beginning of the course to get people used to working together and for waking people up.

Assignments Learners have to find out information or skills for themselves.

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Anycourseshouldhaveanintroduction,amiddle(whenthecontentisdelivered)andanend.

Course Plan

Course Content

1. Introduction

• Givetraineestheaimsofthecourse

• Givetraineesthetimingsofthecourse(start,finish,breaks,etc.)

• Allowpeopletheopportunitytogettoknoweachotherandyou

• Createthe“rules”underwhichthecoursewillrun(e.g.,arephonestobe

switchedoff?).

3. End • Recapthekeypointsofthecourse

• Givepeoplethechancetogivefeedback(evaluation).

• Coverthecontentofthecourse,e.g.:

•Licensinglaw

•Alcohol

•Creatingtherightatmosphere

•Peopleskills

• Trytouseavarietyofexercises(withnooneexerciselastingtoolong)

• Youmaywishtochangetheorderofthesections(thoughtheorderproposed

hereismuchtestedandgenerallyworkswell).

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11 Trainer’s Guide

Suggestions for Activities:

• Useslidesorhandoutstocoveranoutlineofthecourse,includingthebasictimings,thekeyaimsofthe

courseandthebenefitsfortheparticipants

• Useanintroductoryexercisetoallowpeopletogettoknoweachotherandbegintorelax(rememberto

includeyourselfinthis)

• Doagroundrulesexercisewherepeoplecomeupwithandagreeonthetypesofrulestheywouldlikefortheday

(e.g.,everyonetobebackontimeafterbreaks,phonestobeswitchedoff,etc.).

Introduction

Examples of Games:

Theseareparticularlygoodforwarmingpeopleupatthebeginningofthedayorenergizingwhenlevelsdip.

Example1,“TalkingWall”.Traineeswritedownthoughtsonaparticulartopiconapost-it.Thesearethenstuckon

awall,withparticulartopicsgroupedtogether.Thiscanbeagamewhichintroducesadiscussionexercise.

Example2,“WordAssociation”.TheTrainershoutsoutorrecallswordsonanoverheadandtraineessay/write

otherwordsorissuesthatareassociatedwiththeword,ascoveredduringthecourse.

Example3,“Catch”.Thegroupstandsinacirclefacingeachother.Askeachlearnertothinkofaquestionbased

onwhathasbeencoveredduringthecoursesofar.YouastheTrainershouldstartbyaskingaquestionandthen

choosingwhichlearnershouldansweritbythrowingabeanbagorasoftballtothatlearner.Youmaywishtoalso

saytherespondent’snametomakeitclearforwhomthebeanbag/ballisintended.

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Youwillneedtochooseavarietyofdifferenttypesofactivitiestodelivereachpartofthecourse.Thefollowing

givesarangeofsuggestionsforeachsectionoftheServer’sGuide.Asummaryofthekeylearningpointsforeach

sectionisalsoprovided.Youshouldensurethatallofthesetopicsarealwayscoveredduringthecourse.

Section 1: Licensing Law

Suggested Activities to Cover the Content of Server’s Guide

Key Learning Points

1.Thesaleandconsumptionofalcoholisrestrictedbylawinmanycountries.Thiscanincluderestrictions

onthehoursofsaleandtheageatwhichpeoplecanbuyordrinkalcohol.

2.Mostcountriessaythatdrunkcustomersshouldnotbeservedanymorealcohol.Thisisbecausedrunk

customerscausemoreproblemsforthemselves,forthebusinessandforothercustomers.

3.Youshouldhavesystemsinplacetomakesurethatyoudonotbreakalaw.

MuchofSection1isaboutfacts.Thediscussiononbestpracticeaimstoinfluencebehavior.

Suggestions for Activities:

• Setlearnersanassignmenttodobeforethecoursetofindoutwhatthelawsareinyourcountryorlocalarea.

Duringthecourse,gothroughwhattheyfoundout,correctanymistakesandaddinanybitstheymayhavemissed.

• Givealectureonwhatthelawsareinlicensedpremises,possiblybackedupbyhandouts.

• Giveaquiztoseehowmuchlearnersalreadyknow.Gothroughtheanswersandfillinanygaps.

• Useavideoorpictures/diagramsshowingcommoneffectsofalcohol,whichlearnershavetospot.Gothrough

theanswersandfillinanygaps.

• Leadadiscussiononwhatsystemslearnersalreadyhaveintheirworkenvironmenttoensuretheykeepwithinthe

law.

• GetlearnerstowriteaStore/HousePolicyfortheirownpremiseseitherduringthecourseorasapost-course

assignment.Thisshouldcoverwhatsystemstheyhaveorcouldputinplacetomakesurethattheydon’tbreak

thelaw.

• Usestoriestoillustratethelearningpoints.

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13 Trainer’s Guide

Example Activities for Licensing Law Section

Example of an Anecdote (or Story):

Thisexamplecanbeusedtoexplainthat,althoughsomethingmaybelegal,itmaynotbesociallyresponsible.

InScotlandunderthecurrentlaw,younormallyhavetobe18tobuyalcohol.Thereisanexceptionallowing

16-and17-year-oldstobuyalcoholwithamealinarestaurantareaofabar.Onlylimitedamountsofalcoholare

allowed,andonlycertainkindsofalcohol.

Thelocal16-and17-year-oldschoolchildrenfoundthisoutandbegantogotoalocalbarforlunch.Somehad

alcoholwiththeirlunch.Theteachersfoundthat,whenthechildrenreturnedtoschoolfortheafternoon,theywere

verysleepyandunabletoconcentrateinclass.

Althoughnoonewasbreakingthelaw,itwasfeltthatthemanagerwasnotbeingsociallyresponsibletoserve

alcoholtotheyoungpeopleatlunchtimeandsohewasaskedtostop.Whentheproblemwasexplainedtothe

manager,hewashappytostopservingalcoholtoyoungpeople.

Example of a Written Quiz:

Thesecantakeseveraldifferentformsfrommultiplechoicetoexplanatoryanswers.Itiseasiertocheckknowledge

and,indeed,quickertomarkandtoprovidefeedbackifthequestionsaresuchthattheyareclearlyrightorwrong.

Example of Multiple Choice Questions:

Goodpracticeforclosingtimecouldinclude:

(a)Shoutatcustomerstogetout–you’refedupwiththemandwanttogohomenow?

(b)Servecustomersdoubleroundsatlastorders?

(c)Remainfriendlyandnicetocustomersandaskthempolitelytodrinkupandleave?

(d)Letcustomerstakeaslongastheywanttodrinkup?

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Section 2: Alcohol

Key Learning Points

1.Alcoholaffectsthewaythebrainfunctions.

2.Thereisaprogressiverangeofsignsthatcanbeobservedwhenpeopledrinktoomuch.Serversmustbe

awareofthesesignsandknowwhentostopservingcustomersmorealcohol.

3.Levelsofdrunkennesscanbeaffectedbygender,foodconsumption,toleranceandbodysize.

4.Alcoholmisusecanleadtoawiderangeofhealthandsocialproblems.

5.Thestrengthofalcoholbeveragesvariessignificantly.Tohelpuscompare,weneedtolookatthe

numberofgramsofpurealcohol(ethanol)containedinagivendrink.

SomeofSection2isaboutfacts,butthereisalsoalotofinfluencingopinionandbehavior.

Suggestions for Activities:

• Giveaquiztoseehowmuchlearnersalreadyknow.Gothroughtheanswersandfillinanygaps.

• Givethefactsaboutalcoholinalecture,possiblybackedupbyhandouts.Itmaybepossibletogethandoutsfrom

specialistorganizationsoncertaintopics–e.g.,healthagenciesmaybeabletogivealcoholinformationorthe

policemaybeabletogivedrink-drivinginformation.

• Useavideoorpictures/diagramsshowingcommoneffectsofalcohol.Youmaywishtoshowapersonbecoming

moreandmoredrunkandasklearnerstoselectwhentheywouldstopservingthatpersonmorealcohol.You

maywishtouseapicture/diagramofthebodyandaskcandidatestoshowhowtheythinkthealcoholis

processedorwhatpartsofthebodytheythinkareaffectedbyalcohol.

• Asklearnerstoname/pouracommondrink.Howstrongisit?Whatmeasuresareusedtoserveit? Usingthe

formula,workouthowmanygramsofalcoholareinthedrink.

• Leadadiscussiononwhatsystemslearnersalreadyhaveintheirworkenvironmentformeasuringdrinks.

• Usestoriestoillustratethelearningpoints,ordrawonpeople’sownexperience(e.g.,discusswhatsignsof

drunkennesslearnershaveobservedintheircustomers).

• Givelearnersthestatisticsaboutalcohol-relatedproblems(e.g.,health,accidentsandcrime)eitherinalecture

orasahandout.Youcouldpossiblygetexperts,suchasthelocalpoliceorstafffromtheAccidentandEmergency

departmentofthehospital,togiveatalkontheeffectsofalcohol.

• Leadadiscussion,backedupwithapresentationofthefacts,abouthowmuchalcoholittakestoaffecta

person’sabilitytodrive.

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Example of Discussion:

Ifyouchoosetousediscussionasatrainingtool,prepareanopeningquestion,someleadingorfocusing

questionsandaclosingremark.

Forexample:Discussionaboutwhywehavelicensinglaws

Start:Whydowehavelicensinglaws?

(Possibleanswer:“tocontrolalcoholsale”...)

Focusing Question:Isitappropriateforustodrinkallday,everyday?

Leading Question:Whydojurisdictionsregulatealcoholsale?

Variousanswersmaybegiven(youarelookingforsomeonetorecognizealcoholasapsychoactive

substance)

End:Alcoholisapsychoactivesubstancethataffectsthewayyourbrainworksandthewaypeoplebehave;

therefore,anysaleofalcoholneedstoberesponsible.

15 Trainer’s Guide

Examples of Questions:

Questionscanbeeither“open”or“closed”.

Closedquestionsallowtherespondenttoanswereither“yes”or“no”.

Shortclosedquestionscanbeusedtogetagreementandestablishalogicalargumenttoinfluenceopinion.For

example,“Doyouagreethattoomuchalcoholisbadforaperson?”

Openquestionsrequirealongeranswerandwouldbeusedinmostothercircumstances(e.g.,toestablishcurrent

levelsofknowledgeandtocheckunderstanding).Openquestionsoftenbeginwithwhat,how,who,when,etc.

Example of Pictures / Diagrams

Pictures/Diagramscanbeusedtoillustratetheprogressiverangeofsignsthatareobservedwhenapersondrinks

alcohol.

LooseningUp

Relaxed Wobbly Legless ComaMemory Loss

Example Activities for Alcohol Section

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Section 3: Creating the Right Atmosphere

Key Learning Points

1.Environmenthasabiginfluenceonhowcustomersfeelaboutaplaceandthereforeonhowthey

behave.Thisincludesstandardsofcustomerserviceandhousekeeping.

2.AHouseorStorePolicynotonlyprovidesaclearsummaryofthelawsstaffandcustomershavetoabide

by,butitcanalsoincludeguidanceonwhattheycaneachexpectinapremises.

3.Thereisarangeoffactorsthatmakeaggressionandbadbehaviorlesslikelyinlicensedpremises;there

isalsoarangeoffactorsthatmakecustomerbehaviorworse.Premisesshouldhavesystemsinplaceto

minimizetheriskfactorsandpromotegoodpractice.

4.Itisparticularlyimportanttomanageclosingtimeresponsiblytopreventproblemsforthebusiness,the

staff,customersandneighbors.

MostofSection3isaboutinfluencingopinionandbehaviorandgivinglearnerstheskillstodotheirjobswith

confidence.Somefactsarealsoincluded.

Suggestions for Activities:

• Setlearnersanassignmenttodobeforeorafterthecourselookingatatmosphereinlicensedpremises,customer

serviceandinteractionsandthengothroughwhattheyfoundout.Thesecouldbediscussedduringthecourseor

learnerscouldbeaskedtodrawtheirownconclusions.

• Asklearnerstolistwhatannoysthemwhentheyarecustomersanddiscusshowtheseproblemscanbeminimized

orprevented.

• Givethefactsaboutwhatcaninfluencealcohol-relatedbehaviorinlicensedpremises,possiblybacked-upby

handouts.

• GetlearnerstowriteaStore/HousePolicyfortheirownpremises,eitherduringthecourseorasapost-course

assignment.

• Leadadiscussiononwhatsystemslearnersalreadyhaveintheirworkenvironmentforminimizingproblems.This

couldfocusonparticularareas,suchasclosingtime.

• Useacasestudyorasklearnersforstoriesfromtheirownexperienceofdealingwithcustomers.

• Asklearnerstowriteanactionplanforthepointstheywishtoputinpracticeattheirpremises(particularlygood

formanagers).

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Example of an Assignment:

Anassignmentwouldusuallybedonebeforeorafteratrainingsession;itcouldbegatheringinformationor

applyingwhathasbeenlearnt.Theassignmentmaybepractical(e.g.,gobacktoyourbarandputinplacea

certainpolicy)oritcouldbewritten(e.g.,writedownthelawssurroundingdrunkennessthatapplyinyourarea).

Example Activities for the Section on Creating the Right Atmosphere

Example of a Case Study:

Casestudiesofreal-lifeexamplesareusefultobringintothetraining.

Girls’ Night Out

It’sWednesdaynight,andit’sJulie’sbirthday.Sheisoutwithagroupoffriendsshehasknownsinceher

collegedays.TheyareinafunbarintownthathasaDJplayingthelatesttunes,andtheyaremakingspirits

andmixers.Thereisaspecialofferoninthebar:ifyoumakeitadoublemeasure,it’sonlyasmallextracost.

Julieandherfriendsquicklyworkoutthatitisjust1/3ofthepriceofawholeseconddrink,sotheychoose

totaketheofferanddoubleup.Asthenightprogresses,theystarttoshowthesignsofdrunkennessand

theyallseemtobehavingagreatlaughtogether.Keri,Julie’sfriend,asksherifshewantsanotherdrink.

Juliedeclines,sayingshewantstotakeiteasyandfeelsquitedrunkalready.WhenJulievisitsthetoilet,

herfriendstakeherdrinktothebar,wheretheyaskthestafftostickanothervodkainit.Thestaffdoso,

andthishappensseveraltimesthroughouttheevening.Justbeforeclosing,amemberofstaffnoticesJulie

slumpedagainstawall;amanwhoisnotfromheroriginalgroupoffriendsiskissingherandsupportingher.

Julie’sfriendsarenowgettingreadytoleave;oneofthemmakesacommentaboutJulie“gettinglucky”on

herbirthday.

Readthecasestudyaboveandthendiscussthesequestions:

1.Haveanylawsbeenbroken?

2.Whatarethedangersoftheabovesituation?

3.Whatpoliciescouldthebarhaveinplacetopreventthissituationfromarising?

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Description of Action

Specific(Howwillyouachievethis?)

Measurable(Howwillyoujudgehowwellyou

aredoing?)

Achievable?

Realistic?

Time-bound(specifyatimescale)

Write a Store / House Policy for Premises

Iwilllistthekeypointsofthelawandgoodpractice.

Foreachpoint,Iwillwriteguidanceforallstaffto

showwhatwewilldotomakesurewestaywithinthe

requirementsofthelaw.Iwillgiveacopyofthepolicy

toeachmemberofstaffanddiscussitwiththem.

Iwillcheckwithstaffthattheyarefollowingthe

guidancebyaskingthemquestionsandbyobserving

howtheydealwithcustomers.

Yes

Yes

Iwillwritethepolicyandgiveittoeachmember

ofstaffwithin1week.Iwillaskstaffquestionsand

observehowtheydealwithcustomersin3weeks,and

againin6weeks.

Example of an Action Plan:

Askparticipantstowritedownoneortwothingstheycandowhentheygetbacktotheirpremises,whichwill

helptoensurethattheykeepwithinthelaw.Thiswouldworkwellifitisdonefollowingthediscussionaboutwhat

systemstheotherlearnersalreadyhaveinplace–theycansharebestpractice.

Anyactionplanshouldbe“SMART”,thatis,Specific,Measurable,Achievable,RealisticandTime-bound.

Itwouldhelpifyoucouldgivelearnersanexampletofollow.

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19 Trainer’s Guide

Section 4: People Skills

Key Learning Points

1.Knowinghowtospottheearlysignsoftroubleallowsserverstointerveneandpreventthesituation

fromescalating.

2.Handlingcustomercomplaintsandrefusalofservicewellisaskillandcanpreventconflictfromarising.

3.Premisesshouldhaveaplanforhandlingcertaintypesofsituationsthathaveahigherriskofconflict.

4.Serversneedtoknowhowtoactinconflictsituationstocalmcustomersdown.

MostofSection4isaboutinfluencingopinionandbehaviorandgivinglearnerstheskillstodotheirjobswith

confidence.Therearesomefactsincluded.

Suggestions for Activities:

• Setlearnersanassignmenttodobeforeorafterthecourselookingatcustomercomplaints,howthesewere

handledandwhattheoutcomewas.Thesecouldbediscussedduringthecourseorlearnerscouldbeaskedto

drawtheirownconclusions.

• Userole-playtopracticehowtodealwithdifferentsituations.Thiscouldfocusonparticularhigh-risksituations,

suchaspartyinginlargegroups.

• Userole-play/dramaorpictures/diagramstodemonstrategoodandbadbodylanguage.

• Useavideoorpictures/diagramstodiscussdifficultorcommonsituations.Lookatwhatthewarningsignsare;

wheninterventionscanbemade;whatgoodpracticecouldbeforagivensituation;whatserversshouldavoid

doing;whatsortofback-uptheservermightneed.

• Leadadiscussiononwhatsystemslearnersalreadyhaveintheirworkenvironmentforminimizingproblems.

• Asklearnersforstoriesfromtheirownexperienceofdealingwithcustomers.

• Discusswhatworkswellwhendealingwithcustomersandwhatdoesnotwork.

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Video / DVD:

Theseareparticularlygoodatshowingreal-lifescenariosorexamplesofgood/badpractice.

Someexamplesoftraininginformationandresourcesaregivenonthefollowingwebsite-www.efrd.org.

Example of a Role-play Exercise:

Role-playcanbecarriedoutasasmall-groupexercise,witheveryonetakingpartinthegroupatthesametime,

ratherthanleavingtwoorthreepeople“acting”infrontofanaudience,whichcanbeveryuncomfortableformany

learners.Iftherole-playisdoneinsmallgroups,itisgoodtoincludeonepersonasanobserverineachgroup.Each

observercanthenreporttothemaingrouponthekeythingstheyobserved(e.g.,bodylanguage,keyphrases,etc).

Youcoulduserole-playasanexercisetohelpwithsection4oftheServer’sGuide.Forexample,onepersoncould

pretendtobeabaremployee,anotheradrunkencustomerandthethirdcanobservehowthebaremployee

handlesthesituation.

Example Activities for the Section on People Skills

Recap Section

Itisimportanttorecapthemainpointsofthecourse.Itisalsogoodtoallowpeopletimetoreflectonwhatthey

havelearnedandtogivethemtheopportunitytoprovidefeedback.

Youmaychoosetodoanevaluationquestionnaireduringthisperiod.Youmayalsowishtodofurtherevaluation,

suchasfollowingupasampleofthelearnersafteraperiodoftimehaspassed(e.g.,2-3months).Thischecks

whetherlearninghasactuallybeenimplementedintheworkplace.

Example of recap: Quick-firequestions,summarypointsusingoverheads.

Seepages33and34fortheexamplesofevaluationafterthecourse.

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Afterdesigningacourse,youneedtomarketanddeliverit.

Togettherightpeopleonyourcourse,itisimportanttomarketiteffectively.

Youneedtoensurethatpeopleturnupfortraining,havethecorrectinformationandfindanymaterialsdescribing

thecoursesufficientlyinterestingtoencouragethemtoattend.Thefollowingpointsareusefulinhelpingyoutodo

this:

• Target Market-Understandthetargetmarketandtheirneeds.

• Benefits-Stressthebenefitsofstafftrainingforpremises-howisitrelevant,howcanithelpthem?

Possiblepointstoincludeare:

•helpstoprotectthelicenseandreducesthelikelihoodofalawbeingbroken

•helpstoraisestandardsandincreasesprofessionalism

•reducesstaffturnover.

Evidenceshowsthat,wherethereishighstaffturnover,trainingcanmakepeoplefeelmorevaluedandmore

confident,makingthemlesslikelytoleave.

• Segment and target appropriately-e.g.,bytypeofpremises,geographicalarea,experienceofstaffmember.

Differentmarketsegmentswillhavedifferentneedsandthereforerequireatailoredapproach.

• Competition-Recognizethecompetitiontothecourse,e.g.,otherformsoftraining,time,money,apathy.Tryto

makeyourofferingmoreattractive.

• Ensurethattheproductispriced,distributedandpromotedinthemostappropriatewayforyourchosentarget

market.

• Wherepossible,ensurethatyourmail-outsarepersonalizedandalwaysfollowup;dothisbyphone,ifpossible.

• Continuallymonitorandevaluatethesuccessofyourapproachandmodifyifnecessary.

21 Trainer’s Guide

Marketing a Course

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Inrunningacourse,anumberoftrainerskillsareessential.

Atmosphere

TheTrainerisaimingtocreateanatmosphereintheroomthatfromthestarthelpstoputlearnersatease.You

shouldrecognizethatsomepeoplemaynothavebeeninalearningsituationforalongtime,sotheyarelikelytobe

anxiousandmayneedreassurance.

Physical Atmosphere

• Roomlayoutispartoftheatmospherebecauseofthewayitinfluenceslearnerinteraction(seepages23-25).

• Temperatureshouldbeneithertoohotnortoocold.

• Regularbreaksshouldbescheduled.

• Disruptionsshouldbeminimized–e.g.,noisefromoutsideorpeoplecominginwithmessagesfortheTraineror

learners.

• Lightingshouldbeadequate–neithertoodullnortoobright.

• Itishelpfultohavesignsdirectingpeopletotherightroomforthecourseandalsoasignintheroom

welcomingpeopletothecourse–thisreassuresthemthattheyareinthecorrectroom.

Emotional Atmosphere

• Provideinformationinadvance–e.g.,timingsfortheday,venue,dresscode,whatwillbeprovided,course

content,assessment.

• Welcomeeachlearnerandpreferablyhaveabriefchatastheycomein.Thisshowsinterestinthelearners,makesthe

Trainerappearmoreapproachableandhelpstobreaktheice.

• Thebeginningofthecourseisespeciallyimportant,astheemotionalatmosphereatthestartinfluencesthebehavior

fortherestofthecourse.

• TheTrainershouldsmile–thiswillmakehimorherseemmoreapproachableandwillhelpparticipantsfeel

welcome.

• Prepareagoodintroduction.TheTrainershouldintroducehim/herself,getlearnerstointroducethemselves;

discussanoutlineofthecourse,whatparticipantscanexpect,timings,rulesandanyadministrativedetails–such

aswherethetoiletsare,whenbreakswillbe.Knowingwhattoexpectwillhelptopreventlearneranxietyand

helpthemrelax.

• Usearangeoftechniquestoencourageeveryonetocontributetothecourse–moredetailsarelistedinthenext

fewpages.

• Bewaryofallowingpeopletoworkwiththeirfriendsorinexclusivegroups,astheyarelikelytopaylessattention

tolearning.

Use a range of techniques to encourage everyone to contribute.

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23 Trainer’s Guide

Room Layout

Eye Contact with Trainer

Small Groups

Therearevariousoptionsforlayingouttheroom,eachwithadvantagesanddisadvantages,dependingonwhatyou’re

tryingtoachieve.

Theater Style

Boardroom Style

Horseshoe / “U” Shape

Small Groups Theuseoftables,whileconvenientforanydesk-basedwork,separatesthelearners.Groupswillfindithardertosee

eachotherwhentheywanttoreportbackonactivities.

Room Layout Easy to See Encourages Interaction Open Environment Trainer Moves Easily in Room

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Thereisnoeyecontactbetweenlearners.Thiswould

notencouragediscussion,movementorasenseof

equality.

Theater Style

Large-groupdiscussions.Thisisarigidseatingplan,whichmakessmall-groupworkdifficult.Ifthereisenoughspace

intheroom,itcanbehelpfultohavesmallerbreakoutareasatthebackorinthecornersoftheroomthatcanbeused

forsmall-groupwork.

Boardroom Style

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Eye Contact and Where Learners Sit

Asageneralrule,eyecontactisthekeytocommunication.ThemoreeyecontactalearnerhaswiththeTraineror

therestofthegroup,themorethatlearnerwillcontribute.Theoppositeisalsotrue.Wherelearnersdonothavea

lotofeyecontactwiththeTrainer,theywillcontributeless.

TheTrainercanidentifylouder/moreconfidentlearnersandquieter/shylearnersfromwheretheychoosetosit

intheroomwithreferencetotheTrainer.(Obviously,thismightbeinfluencedbythelearnerbeingpartofagroup

andsittingwithhisorherfriends.)Thisiseasiesttoseeifthetablesaresetinahorseshoeor“U”shape.Thelouder

learnerswilltendtositatthetopoftheU–atthebackoftheroomanddirectlyfacingtheTrainerortheywillsitat

theendofeitherarmoftheU,besidetheTrainer.Thequieterpeoplewillsitatthebackcorners,atthetopoftheU,

whereitisdifficultfortheTrainertogeteyecontactwiththem.

TheTrainerhaseyecontactwithalllearnersandcan

moveintothemiddletospeaktoindividuals.

Horseshoe or “U” Shape

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Where Learners Sit and Movement

Learnerswillnormallysitwithpeopletheyknow.Thiscanmean:

• smallexclusivegroups

• ifonepersoncomesonhis/herown,he/shewillhavenoonetotalkto

• onegroupcandominatethelearningenvironment.

Peoplenaturallyreturntothesameseatallofthetime,andpeoplemaythinkoftheseatthattheyoriginally

pickedas“theirs”.Itishelpfultomovepeoplearound:

• toencouragethemtoworkwithothers

• toensurethatnopersoncan“hide”ordominate

• toensurethateveryonecontributesequally.

Movement

Physicalactivityhelpstokeepthebrainactiveandstopslearnersfromfeelingsleepy.Givingregularopportunitiesto

getupandmovearoundwillbebeneficialtolearning.Thiscanbedoneinavarietyofways:

• givingregularbreaks

• havingtea/coffee/juiceinadifferentarea,sothatlearnershavetostandupandmovetogetadrink

• havingexercisesthatincludemovingaroundtheroomorbuildingtofindoutinformation

• gettinglearnerstostandupandmoveseatsfordifferentexercises.

Trainersshouldbeclearaboutwhentheywantlearnerstomove,forhowlongandwhattheyshouldtakewith

them(pen,paper,drink,everything).Itcanbehelpfultohaveaseparateareaforcoatsand/orbags.

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General Points

• Ensurethatalllearnerscanseethepresentation.

• Donotstandinfrontofthepresentation.

• Givehandoutsorasklearnerstotakenotes.

• Donotturnaroundandreadfromthescreenorpresentation(means,theTrainerhaslosteyecontactwiththe

learners,andlearnerscan’theartheTrainerproperly).

• Donotreadthepresentation-itgivesnofurtherexplanationandlearnerscanreaditforthemselves.Instead,try

toprovideadditionalinformationthathelpstomakesenseofthepointsinthepresentation.

• Thepresentationshouldbebigenoughforalllearnerstoseeeasily,sothiscandependonthenumberoflearners,

sizeofroom,etc.

• Checkthatpeoplecanseeandhearyoubyaskingthepersonfurthestaway.

Varioustypesofpresentationscanbeused.

Using the Equipment

Giving lectures/Making

presentations

Flipchart

Whiteboard / Blackboard

PowerPoint

Overhead Projector (OHP)

Desktop Publisher

Type of Presentation

Benefits

Recording discussion

For learners’

use

Size increase to suit room

Can be prepared in

advance

Spell check

Reveal separate points

Show previous & current

points

Switched off, hidden from view when not used

Bepreparedfordifficultieswithequipmentbyhavinganalternativeavailable,suchasprintedhandouts.

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It’snotonlywhatyousaybuthowyousayitthatcounts.Researchhasshownthat,whensomeonegivesa

spokenmessage,thelistener’sunderstandingandjudgementofthatmessagecomesfrom:

7% words-listenersputtheirowninterpretationonspeakers’words

38% paralinguistics-thewayinwhichsomethingissaid(i.e.,accent,tone,inflectionareveryimportantto

alistener’sunderstanding)

55% facial expressions-whataspeakerlookslikewhiledeliveringamessageaffectsthelistener’s

understandingthemost.

Verbal Communication

Do

• Speakclearly.

• Usequestionstocheckthatlearnershaveunderstood.

• Usequestionstocheckthatlearnersarepaying

attention.

• Makesurethatalllearnerscanhear–possiblyuse

questionstocheck.

• Soundinterestedinwhatyouaresaying–thiswill

helpthelearnerstofinditinteresting.

Do not

• Usejargon,regionalmeaningsofphrasesorbigwords

oracronymsthatmightnotbeunderstoodbylearners.

• Mumble.

• Speaktooquickly.

• Useasarcasticorboredtoneofvoice–thiswillmake

itsoundasifyoudonotbelieveoragreewithwhat

youaresayingandthereforethelearnerswillnot

believeiteither.

• Speakinamonotone.

Do

• Useopenbodylanguage.

• Smileappropriately.

• Lookinterestedinwhatyouaresaying.

• Lookinterestedinwhatlearnerssaytoyou.

• Useeyecontacttoencouragecontributions.

• Haveequaleyecontactwithalllearnerstoensurethat

everyonefeelsincluded.

• Observelearners’bodylanguageandfacial

expressionstocheckforunderstandingandinterest.

• Usesmallgesturestoencouragecontributions,such

aslisteningnoises(“hm-hmm”,“yes”),hand

gestures,nodding.

Do not

• Keepabarrier(suchasadesk)betweenyouandthe

learners.

• Lookawayorreadwhensomeoneisgivingananswer

oraskingaquestion.

• Makefacialgesturesthatcouldberudetoanylearner

oranypartofthecourse(e.g.,rollingyoureyes,

tutting).

Non-verbal Communication

Verbal versus Non-verbal Communication

* Reference: Trainer’s Pocketbook 10th Edition (2004) John Townsend

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Do

Remember,feedbackisatwo-wayprocess,fromlearnertoyouandyoutolearner.

• Givepositivefeedbacktolearners,suchas“welldone”,“that’sright”,“yes”.

• Ifthewholeanswerisnotcorrect,confirmthepointsthatlearnershavegottencorrect,e.g.,“Youareright thatxxx”.Itmaybehelpfultoalsohighlightthepartsoftheanswerthatarenotcorrect,e.g.,“Youare rightaboutxxx,butperhapsyoucouldreconsideryyy”.

• Acceptfeedbackfromlearners,butkeepitincontext–e.g.,“Thecoursewasboring–Iknoweverything already”isacriticismofthecoursecontentandisnotacriticismofyouoryourtrainingskills.

• Asklearnersforfeedbackonthecoursecontent,thestyleoftheexercises,thetrainingvenue,yourtrainer skillsandanythingelsethatcanbechangedorimproved.

• Doatestercoursewithcolleaguesaskingthemforfeedbackonthecoursecontent,thestyleofthe exercises,thetrainingvenue,yourtrainerskillsandanythingelsethatcanbechangedorimproved.

Do not

• Benegative.

• Becriticaloflearnersiftheygetsomethingwrong,e.g.“You’rewrong”,“Thatwasastupidanswer”.

• Laughatthemwhenthey’retryinghard.

Feedback

Do

• Encouragequestions–itshowsthatlearnersarepayingattentionandshowinganinterestinthetopic.

• Answerthequestionfully.

• Checkthatyouranswersatisfiesthelearner.

• Haveatechniquefordealingwithdifficultquestions,e.g.,onepersonaskingtoomanyquestionsorquestions thataremoredetailedthanyouneedtocover.

Usephrasessuchas:

• “That’sagoodquestionandwe’llcomebacktoitlaterifwehaveenoughtime”

• “Whydon’tyouandIhaveadiscussionaboutthatatthecoffeebreak?”

• “IfIunderstandcorrectly,you’reasking...”

• “Howdotherestofthegroupfeel?”

• “Hasanyoneelsehadasimilarproblem?”

• ”You’veobviouslydonesomethinkingonthis.What’syourview?”

• Passthequestiontoanotherlearnerwithexperienceinthesubject,“Bob,you’reanexpertonthis.”

• Usequestionstocheckwhetherlearnershaveunderstoodwhatyou’vetoldthem.

• Usequestionstore-capinformationcoveredearlier.

• Saythatyouwillfindoutifyoudon’tknowtheanswer.

Do not

• Makeupanswersorguessifyoudonotknow.

• Dismissquestionsasirrelevantorstupid.

• Forgettoanswerthequestion.

Questions

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Learners’backgrounds,currentlevelsofknowledgeandskillsandtheirlearningcapabilitiesarelikelytobe

varied.

Do

• Findouteachperson’sskill/knowledgelevelbeforethecoursebyaskingabasicquestionabout

experiencewhentakingthecourseregistration.Ifthisisnotpossible,thenaskthembeforethecourse

startsorduringtheintroductionsexercise.

• Acknowledgethedifferentlevelsand,ifpossible,encouragethemoreexperiencedlearnerstohelp

theothers.

• Haveanadditionalexerciseprepared,sothatyouradvancedpeoplearen’tgrowingboredorfrustrated

waitingfortheslowerpeopletofinishtheirexercises.

• Allowopportunitieswhenplanningexercisestoprovideone-on-onecoaching,shoulditberequired.

• Rememberthatpeoplelearnindifferentways.Thisrelatestotheleftandrightbrain.Using

avarietyofexercisesandactivitiesthatengagedifferentpartsofthebrainwillensurethatyou

includealllearningstyles.

• Provideadditionalsummaryinformationinavarietyofformats,suchaslists,pictures,flowchartsand

examples.

Do not

• Pickaspecificskill/knowledgelevelandteachtothat.

• Ignoretheneedsofthosewhoareslowerormoreadvanced.

• Assumethat,becauseonepersongaveyouthecorrectanswer,everyoneunderstandstheinformation.

Delivering a Course to a Group with Mixed Levels of Skills and Knowledge

Dealing with Difficult LearnersTherewillalwaysbesomelearnerswhoaremoredifficulttoengagethanothers.Somegeneralguidelinesaregiven

below.

Don’t forget, all learners:

• areadults–youmusttreatthemassuch

• areresponsiblefortheirownlearning–youaretheretofacilitatetheirlearningexperience

• haveexperience–youmustacknowledgethis,givethemcreditforthisandrememberTrainerscanlearnfrom

participantsaswell

• havedifferentpreferencesinthewaytheylearn–don’tassumeeveryoneneedstotakenotesorhastoask

questionstoshowthey’repayingattention.

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“I’ve got 10 years’ experience; I don’t need to be here. What are you going to teach me?”

• TellsuchlearnersthattheirexperiencewillbeofusetoyouastheTrainerandtootherpeopleonthecourse.

• Asktheselearners’opinionontopicsthatarebeingdiscussedoraskthemiftheyhaveanexamplefrom

theirexperiencethatwouldillustratethepointyou’retryingtomake.

• Trytogetthemtoacknowledgewhentheyhavelearnedsomethingnew.

• Discussthereasonswhythey’rehere(e.g.,theyneedtohavecompletedtraininginordertobegranteda

license).

• Promotethemutualbenefits.Theymightaswellrelaxandgetwhattheycanoutoftheday;ifyou

allworktogether,thenyou’llbeabletogetthrougheverythingabitquicker.

Dealing with Difficult Learners

Learner who doesn’t agree with what you’re saying

Thiscancomeupinanumberofcontexts.Whenthefactsgivenonthecoursedonotfitwiththelearner’sown

experienceorviewofwhatisrightandwrong,thisiscalled“cognitivedissonance”.Thiswillmakelearnersfeel

uncomfortableandtheywilleitheraltertheircurrentbeliefstomakethenewinformationfitortheywilljustifytheir

currentbeliefsorbehavior.

Wemuststartfromtheirpointofview.Helplearnerstojustifychangingtheirbehavior,knowledgeorattitudesby

providingarealneedtodoso.

Forexample,duringacourseontheresponsibleserviceofalcohol,youmayhavesomelearnerswhodonotthink

thatthereisaproblemwithallowingcustomerstobecomedrunk.

• Askthemtoexplaintheirpointofview.

• Giveanyrelevantfactsaboutthesubject.

• Trytofindwayswheretheyalreadymeetthestandardsbeingdiscussedonthecourseandthebenefitsofdoingso.

• Explainotherbenefitsofmeetingthestandardsandgivethemarangeofalternativesthatwouldhelpthemto

meetthestandards.

Dealing with Difficult Learners

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Shy / Nervous learners

Trytofindoutwhatismakingthemnervous.

If they are nervous because they’re not sure what to expect:

• Tellthemasmuchaboutthecourseaspossible–content,approximatetimings,typesofexercises,

whatwillbeexpectedoflearners,anyassessments,breaksallowed,etc.

If they are nervous because there is a test or exam:

• Tellthemthedetailsabouttheassessment,howmuchinformationthey’llbeexpectedtoknow,

whetherthecoursewillincludeamockassessmentoranopportunitytopracticethestyleofquestions,

howmuchdetailtheywillbeexpectedtogiveintheiranswers(e.g.,multiplechoice,bulletpoint/

onewordanswers,shortwrittenanswers,essayanswers),howmarkswillbeawarded,passmark,how

quicklythey’lllearntheirresults,re-sitopportunities.

If they are nervous because they think it will be like school:

• Tellthemwhatwillbeexpectedoflearnersandhowthecoursewillrun–e.g.,askquestionswhenyou

want,uselotsofdiscussionratherthantheTrainertellinglearnerswhattodo,everyone’sexperienceisvalid.

In general:

• Askthemquestionsthatyouknowtheycananswerinordertobuildtheirconfidence.

• Praise/thankthemforcontributionsinordertobuildconfidence.

• Useeyecontactandnamestoencouragecontributions.

• Insmall-groupexercises,pairthemwithamoreconfidentperson.Thismeansthatthemoreconfident

personcangiveanyanswersorfeedbackandtheshypersonwillnothavetospeakinfrontofthe

wholegroup.

Dealing with Difficult Learners

Loud / Dominating learners

• Avoideyecontacttodiscouragecontributions.

• Askotherpeople,directquestionsbyname.

• Usephraseslike“Thankyouforthatcontribution,let’sseewhateveryoneelsethinks”,andaskforfurther

contributions,or“You’veansweredthelastcoupleofquestions,let’shearfromsomeoneelsethistime”.

• Haveachatwiththemawayfromthegroup.Itmaybethattheircontributionsarenotappropriate,e.g.,too

manyjokesandwastingtime.Itmaybethatyouhavetoaskthemtobequietandletotherscontribute.

• Ifthelearnerisparticularlydisruptive,youcanaskhimorhertoleave.Remember,othersaretheretolearn!

Dealing with Difficult Learners

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33 Trainer’s Guide

After the Course

1. Evaluation at the end of the course

allowslearnerstocommentwhileit’sstillfreshintheirminds

ensuresyougetfeedbackfromeverylearner

couldgivevaluablefeedbackonhowtoimprovethecourse

thecourseisfinished;learnerswanttogohomeandmaytrytocompletetheevaluationasquicklyaspossible

ratherthanastruthfullyaspossible

thelearnersmayhaveenjoyedthemselvesandtheirevaluationreflectsthisratherthantheamounttheyhave

learnedorthecontentofthecourse(“happysheets”)

learnersmayliketheTrainerandwishtopleasehim/her(“happysheets”)

learnersmaybeintimidatedbytheTrainerandnotwishtoaddtoanimosity/conflict.

2. Follow-up evaluation after a period of time

getmoreaccuratereflectionofwhatwaslearnedinrelationtotheroletheycurrentlydo

opportunitytoansweranyqueriesthatmayhavecomeupsincethecourse

ifevaluationisdonebyaneutralperson,thenlearnerswillnotfeelanyconstraintsaboutexpressingtheirtrue

opinions

maybedifficulttogetholdoflearnersortogetthemtoparticipateintheevaluation

learnersmayhaveforgottenthedetailofthecourse(whichactuallyreflectstherelevancyofthecontent)

learners’opinionsmayhavebeeninfluencedbypost-coursediscussionswiththeirpeers.

3. Research into effectiveness of the course

resultswouldbeofinteresttoalargeinternationalaudience

couldgivevaluablefeedbackonhowtoimprovethecourse

wouldneedtobeastudydevisedbytrainedresearcher,withcarefulplanningoverthekeyareasthecourseis

attemptingtoimprove.

+++

+++

++

Importance of EvaluationIt’snotenoughtothinkyou’vewrittenagoodcourse,youneedtoseekfeedbackandevaluatethecourseproperly.

Inmostcases,toencouragethecandidatestobehonestintheirresponses,itisbestfortheevaluationsheetstobe

anonymous(thatiswithoutthecandidate’sname).

Thereareanumberofwaysthatyoucanevaluate,eachwithadvantagesanddisadvantages.Asummaryisgiven

below.

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Trainer’s Guide 34

Example of End of Course Evaluation

Please take the time to complete all questions below. Your views are important to us.

Thank you for completing this evaluation. We hope you found your course both informative and effective. Please hand your completed Evaluation Form to your Trainer.

About the Course (Please circle your response)

1. What do you think of the course overall?

2. Do you think the course was

3. In summary, did you learn anything new about

LicensingLaw?

Alcohol?

CreatingtheRightAtmosphere?

PeopleSkills?

4. Would you recommend this course to others?

5. Thinking of the course sections below, how useful to your job was the information you learned?

LicensingLaw

Alcohol

CreatingtheRightAtmosphere

PeopleSkills

About the Trainer (Please circle your response)

6. How would you rate the presentation and delivery in each section of the course?

LicensingLaw

Alcohol

CreatingtheRightAtmosphere

PeopleSkills

About the Venue (Please circle your response)

7. How would you rate the training venue overall?

Details?

Any other comments?

Good Fair Poor

Therightlengthoftime? Toolong? Tooshort?

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Yes No

Veryuseful Didn’tdothisUseful Notpersonallyuseful

Veryuseful Didn’tdothisUseful Notpersonallyuseful

Veryuseful Didn’tdothisUseful Notpersonallyuseful

Veryuseful Didn’tdothisUseful Notpersonallyuseful

Good Fair Poor

Good Fair Poor

Good Fair Poor

Good Fair Poor

Good Fair Poor

A Trainer’s Guide

Responsible Serviceof Alcohol

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35 Trainer’s Guide

ThesamefurtherinformationthatislistedatthebackoftheServer’sGuideisrelevantforTrainers.However,the

followinglinksandpublicationsarealsousefulfromatrainingperspective:

www.aerc.org.uk

www.ntis.gov.au

www.cipd.co.uk

www.ihra.net

Designing&DeliveringTraining,DavidSimmons,CIPD(2003)

PromotingLearning,KateMalone(2003)

Trainer’sPocketbook10thEd.,JohnTownsend(2004)

Further Information

Suggested citation: International Center for Alcohol Policies (ICAP) & European Forum for Responsible Drinking (EFRD). (2008). Responsible service of alcohol: A trainer’s guide. Washington, DC: International Center for Alcohol Policies.


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