• 1. Technology Transfer Changes in the materials and containers used tostore and transport wine Janine Bevege

2. Timeline

  • 6000BC - Archeologists discover ancient jars made from clay that contained fermented juices.
  • 79AD - First evidence of barrel.Pliney the Elder noted that Romans stored their wine in wooden containers held together with loops.
  • 1600s - New glass making techniques in England allow for wine to be stored properly.
  • 1600s - Monk Dom Perignon takes giant step from using wooden plugs to cork as a wine closure.

3. Timeline

  • 1965 - Thomas Angove, South Australia, invents the first Bag-in-Box wine cask.
  • 2001- New Zealand begins bottling and exporting wines with metal screw caps.

4. Amphora

  • Chemical analysis reveals fermented fruit juice.
  • Earliest evidence of use in Northern China.

5. Amphora chosen because.

  • Impermeable
  • Non-reactive
  • Strong

6. Wine protected from spoilage by

  • A layer of olive oil
  • And a soft clay stopper.
  • Stopper would be marked with contents and other info

7. OakBarrels

  • Traced back to the Celts during the Iron age.
  • Barrels were lighter and easier to craft than amphora.
  • Chance discovery that French oak was the best timber for barrels.

8. Oak Barrels cont

  • Oak imparts interesting aromas to the wine.
  • Easy for Coopers to work.
  • Less susceptible to wood diseases.

9. American Oak

  • Popular for some time in Spain, Portugal, South Africa and Australia.
  • French believe impact on wine is too strong.
  • Less expensive and fewer tannins.

10. Barrel Making in a nutshell

  • Split wood is passed through bandsaw..
  • Metal ring is used to hold the staves..
  • When circle is complete a third loop is hammered
  • Staves heated to bend..
  • Oak is toasted to different degrees
  • Barrel is tightened

11. Then finally

  • The bung-hole is drilled into the side of the barrel.
  • The outside is given its final planing before the bottom and lid are fitted.

12. Maturation

  • Rule of thumb, the more structure a wine has the better it will withstand oak aging.
  • Refines tannins in reds and adds tannic elements to whites.
  • Batonnage - leaving wine on lees.
  • Some wine evaporates - the Angels Share.

13. Bottling 14. What thecorkare you on about?

  • First recorded use in Egypt.
  • First cork factory 1750 in Spain.
  • Production boomed in 19th century.Now universal stopper.
  • Portugal is leading supplier.

15. To screw or not to screw?

  • Prevent risk of Cork Taint
  • NZ leads the industry in capped wine.
  • Caps are cheap.
  • Maintain freshness.
  • Reduce oxidation.
  • But..!

16. Silencing the Pop!

  • Wheres the romance?
  • Wheres the drama?
  • Can we really be taken seriously as a wine producing country without cork?

17. The futurethinking inside the box

  • 54% less energy than glass.
  • 92% less packaging.
  • 80% less green house gases.
  • 30-40% less trucks to transport the same amount as bottled wine.

18. Crack open a cold one?

  • Can is lined to prevent tinny taste.
  • Light-weight.
  • Easy to consume.
  • Perfect for Camping/ Boating.
  • When you just wantoneglass of bubbly!

19. References

  • Domine, A (2004).Wine: 5th Edition Completely Revised . Germany: Konemann
  • T, Greg (2009).Wine Storage The Early Days . Retrieved July 29, 2010,
  • Nivela, D (2010) Oak Wine Barrels A Short History. Retrieved July 29, 2010,
  • The Natural Choice(2010). Retrieved July 29, 2010,
  • Tetrapak(2010). Retrieved August 11, 2010,
  • Barokes (2010). Retrieved August 11, 2010,
  • Pics
  • An inside look at barrel business(1985). Retrieved August 10, 2010,
  • The Coopers (2010). Retrieved August 10, 2010,
  • Neeley, Z.(2010) Oak Barrels, French or American?. Retrieved August 11, 2010,
  • Our name is blog (2010) Retrieved August 11, 2010,
  • Chua, J (2010) Send in the Cork. Retrievec August 11, 2010

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