Home > Documents > 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

Date post: 14-Apr-2018
Category:
Author: victor-lozano
View: 220 times
Download: 0 times
Share this document with a friend
Embed Size (px)

of 49

Transcript
  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    1/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    17. CHILE DE ARBOL (fresh and dried)

    Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and diversification of theCapsicum annuum chile variety; these plants are woody-stalked and shrub-like. Their flowers are usually white, sometimes greenish. Fruits vary in size,color and flavor, depending on soil type, climate, etc.

    Chile de arbol belongs to this species, and is also known as a chile alfilerillo,bravo, cola de rata,pico de paloma or sanjuanero.

    It is elongated and thin, and can measure up to 7 centimeters; is green in colorwhen fresh, and red when ripe; dried it is called chile de arbol seco. Both whenfresh and dried, they are extremely spicy, making them ideal for both raw andcooked salsas, and as an ingredient in antojitos, soups and stews. They arealmost always used without removing seeds or veins.

    The name chile de arboltree chiledoes not mean they grow on trees; theheight of the shrub that bears them is simply larger than that of other relatedspecies. Chile de arbol production and consumption is concentrated in thenorthern highlands (Chihuahua and Nuevo Len) as well as throughout theCentral Highlands, and the Central Pacific region (Nayarit).

    freshWakabakki

    driedRed pozoleShrimp stew

    1

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    2/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    18. GUAJILLO (COSTEO) CHILE

    Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and diversification of theCapsicum annuum chile variety; these plants are woody-stalked and shrub-like. Their flowers are usually white, sometimes greenish. Fruits vary in size,color and flavor, depending on soil type, climate, etc.

    The guajillo chile belongs to this species and is one of several varieties ofmirasol chile.

    Mirasol chiles bear fruits of varying size, color and flavor; when fresh, theircolor ranges from red to crimson; when dried, the chile receives differentnames: cascabel,guajillo, costeo and catarino, among others.

    Guajillo chiles names correspond to each varietys level of piquancy: guajilloancho or guajillo dulce chiles are the least spicy; guajillo chicos are subtlypiquant; guajillo puyas, also known as guajillo que pica chiles are the hottest.

    All feature an elongated, triangular shape and deep red color; sizes vary, butgenerally range from 8 to 10 centimeters long. Guajillos are frequently usedfor color in traditional cuisines and are essential to pozoles, menudos andadobos.

    This chile is also an ingredient in moles and salsas that accompany antojitos;they lend color and flavor to chileatoles and tamal sauces.

    Guajillo production and consumption is centered in the Northern Highlands(Zacatecas and Durango) as well as the Central Highlands region.

    The costeo chile is related to the guajillo and is also known as a bandeochile. When fresh, it is green in color, cylindrical or elongated, triangular inshape, and measures up to 7 centimeters; when dried, its color ranges fromyellow to light red; its flavor is spicy.

    Costeo chile production and consumption is centered in the South PacificRegion (Guerrero and Oaxaca); the chiles are used in soups, sauces, stews,broths and certain moles.

    Enchiladas potosinasRed pozoleAtpakua de ayocotesRabbit XimbEnchiladas de molitoMole de ollaPazkal

    2

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    3/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    3

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    4/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    19. GERO CHILE

    Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and diversification of theCapsicum annuum chile variety; these plants are woody-stalked and shrub-like. Their flowers are usually white, sometimes greenish. Fruits vary in size,color and flavor, depending on soil type, climate, etc.

    Gero is the name applied to several Mexican chiles, yellow or yellowish-greenin color, that belonging to the Capsicum annuum species.

    Generally their fruits are long and slender, can be crooked, and vary in size,color, flavor and piquancy.

    Each regional cuisine puts them to a specific use. When roasted, with the skinand seeds removed, they can be stuffed or cut into slices as a garnish forstews and rice; whole, they are pickled in brine or escabeche for commercialor home canning to preserve their use life. Some bear regional names, such ascristal, cristalino, carricillo, caribe, or x-cat-ikin the Yucatanor chile deagua in the Southern Highlands (Oaxaca).

    Sardine tostadasFish Veracruz-style

    4

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    5/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    20. HABANERO AND MANZANO CHILES

    Capsicum annuum is the species to which all Mexican-grown chiles belong,except for habaneros (Capsicum chinense) and manzanos (Capsicumpubescens).

    The habanero comes from the Amazon basin, from which it spread toVenezuela and the Caribbean (Jamaica), where it ripened into different hues. Itmay have come to Mexico via Cuba in the nineteenth century, then largely tothe Yucatn. There is no name for habaneros in Maya, but that has notstopped them from becoming an essential ingredient in the regions traditionalcuisine.

    The chile is formed not unlike a childrens top; fresh and tender it is green; asit ripens, it changes to yellow or orange; aroma and flavor change in additionto color. Among chiles grown and consumed in Mexico, it is considered to thespiciest.

    Years ago it was found only in the Yucatn; today cultivation and consumptionare on the rise in other parts of the country. Yucatn state enjoys designationof origin (DOC) status for habanero chiles and thus it is the largest producer,followed by regions such as the Northern Highlands (San Luis Potos), theCentral and Southern Gulf regions and Mexicos Southern Highlands (Chiapas).

    Most are produced for fresh consumption; a smaller percentage goes toindustrial salsa processing; the remainder are used for seed harvest.

    In traditional Yucatecan cuisine, habaneros are eaten fresh. Sliced or chopped,they are combined with other ingredients to make salsas; roasted and ground,they are used in extremely spicy salsas; both preparations are used asgarnishes for different antojitos and other emblematic Yucatecan dishes.

    Frijol con puercoPapadzulesFish tikin xik style

    Manzano chiles come from the Andean region of South America and reachedMexico in the early twentieth century, where they found acceptance in theCentral Plateau region (Mexico State and Michoacn) as well as the SouthernHighlands (Chiapas). The greatest production and consumption occurs in theseregions, where manzanos are prepared in a similar fashion to habaneros, orare blended with spicy pickled vegetables.

    A unique characteristic of the manzano are its black seeds and wrinkledappearance, and a shape not unlike a small apple; when fresh its color is

    5

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    6/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    green, and as it ripens it turns red, yellow or orange. They are quite spicy,second in piquancy only to habanero chiles.

    The manzano chile receives different names depending its area of cultivationand/or consumption, specifically ciruelo chile (in Quertaro), pern chile orcera chile (in Michoacn), manzano chile (in Mexico State) and cera chile (in

    Veracruz and Guerrero), etc.

    6

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    7/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    21. JALAPEO CHILES (CHIPOTLE OR MORITA CHILES)

    Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and diversification of theCapsicum annuum chile variety; these plants are woody-stalked and shrub-like. Their flowers are usually white, sometimes greenish. Fruits vary in size,color and flavor, depending on soil type, climate, etc.

    The jalapeo belongs to this species. In various regions it is known as chilecuaresmeo, tornachile, acorchado, rayado, tres lomos, candelaria,espinalteco orpinalteco, gordo, g(h)uachinango and jarocho.

    The jalapeo takes its name from the city of Jalapa (in the Central Gulf Region)where it was grown in large quantities and marketed to the rest of the country.The region produces them to date though it is no longer the most importantcenter of production.

    The alternate name of chile cuaresmeo, according to Dr. Janet Long, wasconferred by mexico City-area residents of the Central Highlands region,because tey were served stuffed with cheese and traditionally served onmeatless days during Lent.

    Jalapeos are conical and elongated; fresh, their color ranges from green todark green; ripe they are red; and some varieties develop stripes as theyripen. According to Dr. Janet Long, in certain areas, due to a resemblance toscaly fish, the fruits became known as guachinangos or huachinangostheSpanish word for snapper species. They range in size from 5-8 centimeters andsome can grow to twelve; spiciness varies from subtle to intense piquancy.

    Freshjalapeos, with or without seeds, are chopped, prepared martajado-styleor ground for salsas that accompany antojitos, and certain meat dishes;roasted, boiled, martajados or ground, they are used in salsas, light moles oras a base for chileatoles; roasted (with skin and seeds removed) they arestuffed; whole or sliced, they are cooked or escabeche-pickled in vinegar forindustrial and domestic canning, as a means of extending use-life.

    Jalapeo production and consumption is centered in the Northern Highlands(Chihuahua), the Central Highlands and North Pacific (Sinaloa) regions.

    Most production leads to picking (for domestic and export markets) and, to alesser extent, for fresh consumption; the remainder are used to makechipotles.

    Pescado zarandeadoEnchiladas verdesArroz verdeArroz rojo

    7

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    8/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    GuacamoleArroz a la tumbadaTamales de pescado

    Chipotle chiles (also known as chipocle, chilpocle, chilpotle, chilpote) are driedand smokedjalapeos. In some communitiesand since pre-Hispanic times

    drying and smoking are carried out by hand, but most production now takesplace in industrial ovens that dry and smoke in a single operation. Regardless,chipotles feature a dark, wrinkled appearance, and are highly spicy.They are sold at markets in the Central Highlands Region for use as the mainingredient of both savory and sweet salsas, served hot or cold, as well as instews; they can be prepared in both escabeche and adobo marinades.Artisanally as well as industrially prepared chipotles are an ingredient innumerous other dishes.

    Atn en costra de amarantoChilpachole de jaibaCoctel de mezcal

    Mora and morita chiles are jalapeo varieties. They differ from the latter insize; moritas are the smallest variety. Both peppers are prepared in the sameway as chipotle, but are even spicier. Their use and consumption are similar tothat of the chipotle as well.

    Ximb de conejoBocolesCoctel con mezcal

    8

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    9/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    22. POBLANO CHILES (ANCHO AND MULATO CHILES)

    Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and diversification of theCapsicum annuum chile variety; these plants are woody-stalked and shrub-like. Their flowers are usually white, sometimes greenish. Fruits vary in size,color and flavor, depending on soil type, climate, etc.

    The poblano chile corresponds to this species. The name likely comes fromtheir having first been grown in various valleys located in the state of Puebla.They are also the key ingredient to an emblematic Puebla dish: chiles ennogada. In numerous traditional Mexican regional cuisines, the poblano is thestuffed chile, fresh or dried,par excellence.

    Poblanos feature an elongated conical shape; their size ranges from 8 to 15centimeters; fresh they are dark green (lighter green in some varieties); theyredden or blacken when ripe. The fruits have a subtly spicy flavor thatbecomes spicier at certain times of the year, according to Dr. Janet Long. It isone of the most widely eaten chiles in Mexico, largely in the Central Highlands.

    The greatest fresh poblano chile production takes place in the NorthernHighlands (Chihuahua) as well as the Central Highlands. Prime season runsfrom January to February and from May to October.

    Mexicans use roasted poblanos, skin and seeds removed and cut into stripscalled rajas to fill tacos and tamales or as an ingredient in stews; ground theyare used in sauces, as a base or to season chileatoles, broths, soups, rice,pasta or stews; cut open they are stuffed.

    In Chihuahua,poblanos undergo a unique conservationprocess. First the chilesare roasted to remove the skin, then they are left to dry in the sun. Thisvariety is known as chile pasado and plays a major role in the local cuisine.

    Arroz verdeQuelite and mushroom chileatole

    Ancho chiles are a variety ofpoblano that take on a deep red color when ripe.Dried, they retain this shade or even darken slightly.

    Anchos are produced and consumed in the Central Highlands, particularly as abase for salsas, soups, stews, adobos and some of the regions most renownedmoles; they can also be stuffed.

    Asado de bodaEnchiladas potosinasRed pozoleRabbit Ximb

    9

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    10/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    Enchiladas de molitoMole de ollaPazkalShrimp stewTurkey in mole de Chiapas

    Mulato chiles area a variety of poblano that turn blackish brown when theyripen; their color intensifies when they are dried.

    Mulatos are eaten in dishes that are similar to those made with anchos.Importantly, though both varieties come from poblanos; they are notinterchangeable in terms of flavor or color.

    Asado de bodaEnchiladas de molitoTurkey in mole de Chiapas

    23. SERRANO CHILE

    Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and diversification of theCapsicum annuum chile variety; these plants are woody-stalked and shrub-like. Their flowers are usually white, sometimes greenish. Fruits vary in size,color and flavor, depending on soil type, climate, etc.

    Serrano chiles belong to this species, and are generally called chiles verdes.Dr. Janet Long notes that in certain regions they may be known as serranito,baln,corriente or criollo, chiles etc.

    The name serrano may come from the fact that these chiles are mostly grownin hilly zones called sierras in Spanish.

    In general, serranos are cylindrical; and/or conical and elongated; small in size(3-6 cm); when fresh their color ranges from green to dark green; they reddenas they ripen and are intensely spicy.

    Serrano production and consumption centers in the Northern Highlands(Chihuahua being their largest producer), the Central Highlands, the Gulf andthe Central Pacific (Nayarit and Jalisco).

    Prime season extends from February to April and August to October.

    10

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    11/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    Fresh serranos, with or without seeds, are chopped or ground for martajada-style salsas that go with antojitos and certain meat dishes; roasted, boiled,ground or prepared martajado-style, they are an ingredient in salsas, lightmoles or as a base for chileatoles; fried, they are known as toreado chiles;whole or sliced, they are prepared with escabeche marinade or in vinegar forindustrial or home canning as a means of extending their use life.

    Scallpos with pico de galloShrimps in aguachile verde marinadeFrijoles charrosHuatape de langostinosChilapitas con salpicn de calamarGreen pozoleEnchiladas rojasMole de ollaWhite riceRed riceGuacamole

    11

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    12/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    24. RABBIT

    Rabbits and hares are Lagomorpha, (Lagus, rabbit, morpha, form) ordermammals. Rabbits are typically smaller than hares.

    Mexico home to the the largest variety of lagomorphs: nine rabbit species

    eight pertaining to the Sylvilagus family and one to the Romerolagus familyplus five varieties ofLepus-family hares. Most are endemic to Mexico and livein burrows, hollow trees, in pastures or milpa fields.

    Three hare varieties are unique to Mexico: tordas (Lepus callotis), that ranhefrom the Northern to the Southern Highlands (Chihuahua to Oaxaca). They aremedium-sized animals, light gray to brown in color. The tropical hare (Lepusflavigularis) is similar to the torda and resides in the Southern Highlands(Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca). So-called black hares (Lepus insularis), ofmoderate size, live only in Baja California (Isla Espritu Santo, Gulf ofCalifornia).

    Sylvilagus rabbits live only in the Western Hemisphere. The Castilian rabbit(Sylvilagus floridanus) is Mexicos most common wild rabbit. Additionalvarieties include the desert rabbit (Sylvilagus auduboni), tropical rabbit(Sylvilagus brasitensis) and matorralero rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani); theMexican wild rabbit (Sylvilagus cunicularius) is noted for its size.

    Zacatuche or teporingo (Romerolagus Diaz) rabbits are considered primitivedue to their bone structure. That said, some researchers relate them moreclosely to hares. The teporingo is currently a protected species; hunting oreating it is illegal.

    Rabbits and hares play an important role in ecosystems as food for otheranimals (coyotes, weasels, cacomiztles, hawks, eagles, owls and somesnakes). In turn, they consume grasses, herbs, shrubs and tender tree parts atthe same time they contribute to different plant species dispersal, ingestingseeds in one place and defecating them elsewhere. Nevertheless, they canbecome pests in cultivated fields.

    They are also fit for human consumption. Rabbits and hares I fact are the mostwidely hunted such mammals. Rabbit and hare hunting dates to pre-Hispanictimes; ancient names for the animals include tochtli (from the Nahuatl), t'ul(Maya) andjua (Otom). Nowadays, rabbits and hares can be farmed for meat.

    The Aztecs as well as the Maya associated rabbits and hares with the moon.The former used a rabbit glyph to designate the eighth day of the week, andthe animals were also related to the southern compass point. The rabbit godOmetochtli was the deity who oversaw drunkenness, and made as well as soldpulque.

    12

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    13/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    Mexicans eat rabbit and hare meat grilled or roasted; marinate it in variousadobos or sauces, and cook them in pits or gas ovens. The meat, divided intocuts pieces and cooked, can be added to stews, moles, pepianes and allmanner of salsas; raw cuts, dressed in salsa and other ingredients andwrapped in maguey or banana leaves, is subsequently cooked in pits or gas

    ovens.

    Rabbit Ximb

    13

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    14/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    25. RUNNER BEANS (AYOCOTE)

    The genus Phaseolus is endemic of the American Continent, it has about 70species, five of which have been domesticated.The bean is an herbaceous and climbing plant offering pods for immediateconsumption (green beans and tender beans), dry seeds for storage and later

    consumption (beans).

    The runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus), also called ayacote, ayecote, yegua,patole or just ayocote is a species that was domesticated in Mexico.We've consumed it since pre-Hispanic times, data provided by seeds found inarchaeological sites in Oaxaca and Puebla.The runner bean is the largest in size in our country; it varies in color (white,red, yellow, brown, black, purple, black or pinto) and also in shape, dependingon the weather (tolerates lower temperatures than other beans) and type ofsoil in which it is planted. Furthermore, it is cultivated on large land extensionsto obtain string beans (frijol ejotero), as a vegetable.It has a high volume of tryptophan, an essential amino acid to promote therelease of the neurotransmitter serotonin, involved in the sleeping andpleasure regulation.The production and consumption regions are found in the Northern Highlands,Central Highlands and Southern Highlands regions. The best fruits areobtained in the season from February to March and in November.We consume the foliage and red flowers as quelite to be served accompanyingbroths and stews, or complement tamales and tacos. The pod is tender andcooked as a vegetable as a side dish including soups and soupy stews. Tenderseeds, raw or cooked, complementing tamales and stews with sauces. Theseeds mature and dry, are cooked to make multiple preparations or stewsaccompaniments. The runner bean is preferably consumed whole and notground or martajado. We also use the root as a condiment, and in the pulqueproducing zones, it participates in the preparation of this beverage.

    Atpakua de ayocotes

    14

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    15/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    26. SULFUR BEANS

    The genus Phaseolus is endemic of the American Continent; it has about 70species, five of which have been domesticated.The bean is an herbaceous and climbing plant offering pods for immediateconsumption (green beans and tender beans), dry seeds for storage and later

    consumption (beans).

    Sulfur, garbancillo, amarillo or canario (Peruvian or Mayocoba) andmantequilla beans belong to the genus Phaseolus vulgaris. All these varietiesare yellow in color (from dark to light); they have regular size.Canario beans are distinguished by their soft texture and the pleasant flavor ofits seeds; these qualities make it highly demanded, in addition to their highprotein content, is an important source of minerals (potassium, iron and folicacid).Increased consumption of canario beans is located mainly in the north ofMexico and Central Highlands. It is produced in the following regions: NorthPacific (Sinaloa being the largest producer), Central Pacific (Nayarit and Jalisco)and Central Highlands. The best fruits are obtained in the season fromFebruary to March and in November. We consume the foliage and flowersas quelite accompanying broths and stews or as a complement of tamales andtacos. The pod is tender and cooked as a vegetable and included as a side dishfor soups and soupy stews. The tender seeds raw or cooked, complementingtamales and stews with sauces. The seeds mature and dry, are cooked tomake multiple preparations or as an accompaniment to stews; cooked, withsome of the cooking liquid (caldosas -soupy) are used in preparations such assome kind of meat or sausage, refried, martajadas or ground as a base forsauces or soups.

    Frijoles charros

    15

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    16/49

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    17/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    28. BLACK BEAN

    The genus Phaseolus is endemic of the American Continent; it has about 70species, five of which have been domesticated.The bean is an herbaceous and climbing plant offering pods for immediateconsumption (green beans and tender beans), dry seeds for storage and later

    consumption (beans).

    The black bean and its varieties belong to the genus Phaseolus vulgaris. All areglossy black beans. They have different sizes, but the smallest is the moreappreciated, some are longer or wider.It contains large amounts of vitamins and minerals, antioxidants, flavonoidsand Omega-3 fatty acids, which improve skin, reduce blood pressure andimprove brain function.The largest consumption of black bean varieties is mainly located in CentralGulf, Gulf South, Central Highlands (in smaller amounts), Southern Highlandsand Yucatan regions. But the largest production is found in the North Pacificregion (Sinaloa and Nayarit) and Central Highlands (Zacatecas), to be taken tothe preferred consumption zones. The best season runs from October toNovember.We consume the foliage and flowers (white) to be served as a queliteaccompanying broths and stews or as a complement of tamales and tacos. Thetender pod is cooked as a vegetable, as a side dish including soups and soupystews. The tender seeds raw or cooked, complementing tamales and stewswith sauces. The seeds mature and dry, are cooked to make multiplepreparations or as an accompaniment to stews, cooked, with some of thecooking liquid (caldosas - soupy) are used in preparations including some kindof meat or sausage, refried, martajadas or ground as a base for sauces orsoups.

    Frijol con puercoJoroch' con flor de calabaza

    17

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    18/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    29. TURKEY

    The two species of turkey that exist in Mexico are native to the AmericanContinent: the domestic (Meleagris gallopavo Linnaeus) and the pavo demonte, also calledpavo ocelado or guajolote ocelado (Meleagris ocellata), thisis a large bird endemic to the Yucatan Region (Yucatan). Notwithstanding its

    biological value, they are still exploited as traditionally by the ruralcommunities as subsistence hunting.The turkey has a strong, robust and large body; with blackish with copperyhighlighted feathers, except for the head and neck that are bared and with redand blue wattles. In the Northern Highlands Region some turkeys are found inthe wild.Also called turkey, gilo, cocono, choncho, chumpipe, gallo de la tierra,gallado de papada,pipila and totollin. Guajolote derives from the Nahuatl wordhuexolotl, huey big, Xolotl a term that in the first place designated amonstrous being.Pre-Hispanic peoples consumed it and appreciated them not only as food, butalso within the mythology associated with fire.The species was domesticated 4000 years ago or more, in some space withinthe temperate forests surrounding the southern part of the Central HighlandsRegion. The earliest domestic exemplars bound to food purposes are between2300 and 3000 years old, in various locations in the Basin of Mexico (Tlatilco,Cuanalan and Temamatla, State of Mexico). From this area began its spread inall directions 1500 years ago. In the year 1000 AD, had reached the Zapotecand the far north, and by the late pre-Hispanic times throughout the Mayanzone.Since then and up to this date, indigenous communities use turkeys as anatural pesticide in the milpas. They live in the backyards to be fatten andcooked for the holidays. In the northern part of the country huachichiles andhuamares respect the turkey, because it led them to other food sources, byreason that their main activity was harvesting.These birds had its first encounter with the Old World in 1517, when explorerFrancisco Hernandez de Cordoba reached the coast of Yucatan, and saw alarge number of them. Later Juan de Grijalva also found them, further east ofthe abovemention coast, and then Hernan Cortes learned about the guajolote,when he landed in Veracruz.Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo took it to Europe in 1523. The high cost causedthe Council of Venice decreed that turkey meat was reserved only for the tableof the great lords, and in response gradually farms were established, in such aform that some years latter this bird meat became cheaper. France was thesecond European country that developed a preference for the consumption ofthis species.Spaniards called the huexolotl pavo (turkey) for their resemblance to Europeanpeacock. The English called it turkey, because at that time they believed thateverything that was exotic came from Turkey. In other countries it was calledgallo de Indias orpollo de Calicut.

    18

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    19/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    These birds were chosen in Europe, as the traditional Christmas preparationinstead of lamb, by the softness and tastiness of their flesh, and a greatereasiness to cook them.The largest production of the so called double breast turkeys is located in theNorthern Highlands Region (Chihuahua and Sonora), which is intended tosupply the market for the end of the year holidays (Christmas and New Year).

    And the production of called backyard turkeys is done in the Central HighlandsRegion: being Michoacan the largest producer, followed by Texcoco, State ofMexico (organic product).In Mexico, we consume them for Christmas and in all sorts of celebrations(patronal and family). The meat is cut into pieces, cooked and combined todifferent moles or pipianes; whole it is marinated or adobado in differentsauces and then be baked. Leftover are prepared as stuff for tortas anttostadas.

    PazkalMole de Chiapas con guajolote

    19

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    20/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    30. GUAVA

    Guava and its varieties belong to the genus Psidium guajava spp., Composedof about 100 species of small trees in the family Myrtaceae, native to theCaribbean (guava) and generally from warm and temperate zones of theAmericas. The plant was domesticated in Mexico.

    The Mexica considered guava one of most effective remedies to curedysentery, to make an infusion from the leaves of the tree xalxcotl (Nahuatl)or sandy fruit tree, as a reference to fruits, which contain abundant small, hardseeds.The guava tree grows up to 5 to 6 meters in height, with leaves elliptic to oval,white flowers and round fruit, slightly flattened, the color of guava is lightgreen when not ripe and yellow when ripe, soft skin, thin and edible; its pulp isof a cream or pink color, according to the variety, sweet and fragrant,containing a large number of small, hard seeds.Guavas stand out for their high content of vitamin C.The best fruits are obtained in season from September to February,with most production located in the Central Highlands Region, and the largestproducer is the State of Aguascalientes.The advantage Mexican guavas, placed in the offering of the Day of the Dead,are boiled in water, accompanied by other fruits and spices in traditionalDecember ponches; fresh, they are consumed as dessert: ground, inpreparation for sorbets, popsicles, agua fresca and milk shakes; it is cooked asa base for porridge, sweets and spicy sauces, breads (empanadas) and stuffedtamales. To extend their season, they are cooked in syrup or elaborate jelly,ate and marmelades. They are important in industry nectars, juices and softdrinks.In traditional medicine, the leaves, branches or bark infusion is prepared, andserved as an astringent against intestinal or stomach aches, as an infusion isan effective treatment for inflamed or ulcerated gums, and can be used incompress for wound healing or other skin conditions.

    Empanaditas de guayaba

    20

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    21/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    31. SNAPPER

    The name of snapper (huachinango, huauchinango, guachinango,guauchinango), includes different types of fish that belong to the familyLutjanus, several of them located on both coasts of Mexico.A large size maritime fish with a characteristic profile, dorsal fin and laterally

    compressed body; short and sharp teeth, slightly pink in color, with intensepigmentation on the back; rough and big rows of scales, white flesh of a firmconsistency and mild flavor.Younger fish have dark spots on the sides that disappear with age. Snappersare gregarious fish and tend to form large schools around wrecks and reefs.Snapper consume small fish, but prefers crustaceans. It is from this type offood that it obtains the characteristic coloring that distinguishes all varieties.Among the important species in the Gulf of Mexico are:The Lutjanus campechanus known as pargo del Golfo, or pargo huachinango.The fishery and largest abundance of this species occurs throughout theyear in the corresponding regions of the Gulf of Mexico. There outstands theCentral Gulf Region.The Lutjanus purpureus, called Caribbean snapper or pata, is a kind of brightred snapper.The most productive fishery is that of the Northern Gulf Region, and rangesfrom October to May.On the coast of the Pacific Ocean are:The Lutjanus peru and Lutjanus colorado, also called pargo colorado, pargo delPacifico, pargo rojo.The fishery and largest abundance of this species occurs throughout the yearin the corresponding regions of the Pacific Ocean. Highlighting the BajaCalifornia (Baja California Sur), North Pacific (Sonora), Central Pacific Centre(Guerrero and Michoacan) and South Pacific (Oaxaca) regions.We prepare snappers in ceviches; whole are roasted, grilled on a rack orcooked in the oven, can be adobados or marinated and then cooked, sliced inbroths, soups, soupy stews or accompanied by various sauces; they are usedas a complement in preparations based on rice, pasta and stews with sauces;cooked and shredded are stuffed in tamales and antojitos. Besides they arewrapped in banana leaves and roasted, cut into steaks, roasts, breaded andthen fried or battered (capeados).

    Pescado zarandeadoPescado a la veracruzanaCebiche blancoPescado tikin xik

    21

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    22/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    32. CRAB

    The blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) and its varieties belong to the genusCallinectes. They are crustaceans that live in the sea in shallow waters. Theyhave five pairs of legs (eight legs and two pincers, which serve them as adefense against predators), the body is covered by a large carapace wider

    than long, of a color that varies according tow the species (gray, blue orgreen). They have a reduced abdomen; the head and thorax are united in astructure called the cephalo-torax. They use their pincers or chelipeds to catchand eat tiny snails and some other small decaying animals and otherinvertebrates.The species being abundant on both coasts of Mexico is the blue crab.Crabs may be obtained from fishery activities or from aquaculture. Among theformer there are crabs that live in tropical and temperate coasts, in bays,coastal lagoons, estuaries and river mouths.The cultivation is carried out in floating cages of wood, placed in naturalwaters near to those areas where they hide; also in concrete pools or ponds.Through this practice you can get the so-called soft crabs or soft shell crabs,fresh specimens that have matured or changed their hard shell protectingthem.The crab fishery is more developed in the North Pacific, Northern Gulf, CentralGulf, South Gulf and Yucatan (Campeche) regions.The fishery can be performed from spring to summer, but the bestspecimens are obtained in the period from May to September.They contain a low level of cholesterol, high in proteins, vitamins A and D,phosphorus, calcium, iodine and a slightly sweet taste.The crabs are offered in whole; fresh and frozen (with or without shell, only thepulp). If whole crabs are a supplement to elaborations based on rice, pasta andsoupy stews, or served as a base for broths and soups. The pulp is used incocktails along with other seafood, in addition or complement to salads or tgebase for stuffing antojitos, chiles and wheat flour patties; they are sold alsocanned. The soft crab can be breaded, then battered (capeadas) and thenfried.

    Chilpachole de jaibaArroz a la tumbada

    22

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    23/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    33. TOMATO (COMMON, SALADET AND CHERRY)

    The tomatoes are native of South America and were domesticated inMesoamerica. Plants belong to the family Solanaceae. The most commonspecies in Mexico are the ball (Lycopersicon esculentum), and guajillo orSaladet tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Peryforme).The word jitomate is only applied to tomato at the center of the country torefer to this product, in the rest of Spain, they name it tomate, as in othercountries.

    The common tomato is a fruit of herbaceous plants, both wild anddomesticated, which grow well in almost all climates and terrains. They areclimbing plants with stiff stems and yellow hermaphrodite flowers, globosefruits with a rounded but flattened form, of small size when wild, and largerwhen in cultivated varieties, of a green color that gradually changes to yellowtones during its development, until red when ripe; fleshy and juicy and aslightly acid taste although somewhat sweet, containing numerous flattenedand yellow edible seeds.The common tomato is produced and consumed all around the world, eitherfresh or incorporated to a wide production of various sauces, in puree, juice,tomato concentrate, as well as dehydrated or canned.

    The Saladettomato is an elongated fruit somewhat oval to resemble a guaje,from where also the name guajillo as it is known in some areas of the country;it is smaller than the common tomato but with the same characteristics.

    Sinaloa is the largest producer of these fruits in the North Pacific Region; to alesser extent, the Central Pacific (Jalisco and Nayarit) and Central Highlandregions (Morelos, Tlaxcala and Mexico City).

    23

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    24/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    Their harvest seasons changes in accordance with the climate zone and eachtomato variety; the largest production and the best results areobtained from February to April and from October to December.The ball and Saladet tomatoes contain a low amount of calories; most of itsweight is water, added simple sugars and organic acids that confer totomatoes their characteristic sour taste; they are an important source of

    potassium and magnesium, vitamins B1, B2, B5 and C.In Mexico, in the Gulf region and in other zones of the country, this product isreferred to as red tomato to differentiate it from the green tomato or tomatillo(tomate con cascara), as this latter species is named. They are consumedfresh, as in salads; as a garnish or complement of ceviches and cocktailsbased on fish and seafood; other preparations are served cold; they can bescooped out and filled-in or stuffed. Boiled or roasted, or ground and flattened,there are countless bases for sauces, broths, soups, stews, soupy recipes andvarious moles and seasonings of rice and pasta. They are also used in theproduction of jam, flavor bases, concentrates, or otherwise processed to beconsumed as fresh juice.

    The cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), is a small variety of thisspecies, so named because of the red color and their look similar to cherries(1-3 inches, and weighing between 10 and 15 grams). The flavor is less acidicand sweeter than larger tomatoes.They are consumed all year, and they represent an important alternate meansof production, because they can be grown both in greenhouses and in thetraditional manner.

    jitomate bola jitomate saladet cherryTostadas con sardinas Frijoles charros Callo de hacha conpico de galloChilpachole de jaiba Arroz rojoChilapitas con salpicn de calamar Guacamole con jitomateEnchiladas rojas Arroz a la tumbadaEncacahuatado Caldo de camarnPescado a la veracruzana Cegueza con espinazo de cerdoPapadzules Tamales de pescadoFrijol con puerco

    24

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    25/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    34. LOBSTER

    The name langosta we apply to the lobster species of the Palinuridae family,also known as spiny lobsters, which are the only species subject to commercialharvest in Mexico.The high value of lobsters and their easy availability compared with other

    marine fisheries, turn them into an important resource for our country, and inmany fishing communities, this activity is the basis of their economies. Thiscrustacean means the second largest generator of foreign currency incomearising from fishing.Spiny lobsters of the genus Panulirus, are located in tropical and subtropicalwaters of the coast of Mexico. On the coast of the Pacific Ocean, Panulirusinterruptus is found (spiny lobster or red lobster of California, at the BajaCalifornia region); P. inflatus (blue lobster, langosta cabezona o langosta deroca) from the Baja California Region down to the South Pacific Region inOaxaca), P. gracilis (green lobster or langosta de playa, from the North PacificRegion, in Sinaloa to the South Pacific Region in Chiapas) and P. Penicillatus(lobster of the Socorro Island, in the Central Pacific Region, in Colima).In the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean, Panulirus argus can be found(langosta espinosa o langosta de Florida; Yucatan Region, in Quintana Roo andYucatan).Lobster fishery is performed along the two littorals when these organismsapproach to shallow zones, and it can be performed between the monthsof October to March, March to May and August to October, dependingon the species.Spiny lobsters are omnivorous. They live in rocky areas at depths of up to 30meters. Small and medium size specimens are usually grouped; the largerspecies live alone.The dimensions of these crustaceans range from 30 to 50 centimeters long(without the antennas). They have a sturdy shell, with a strong thorny bristlingsurface, the head also has a thorny protuberance that they use for theirdefense, two pairs of long antennas on the sides, which sometimes exceedtheir size and which have strong spines at their bases; their meat is consistent,white, delicate and has a distinctive flavor.Lobsters are a rich source of iodine, with a high level of zinc.Species outstanding for their importance as to consumption and the economicactivities they deploy are the red lobster or langosta de California (Panulirusinterruptus), and spiny lobster or langosta de Florida (Panulirus argus).The former has a shell whose color ranges from reddish brown, orange(yellowish) to dark red; these lobster is also named langosta roja caballn oburro. The best specimens are captured from October to March.The fishery of the spiny lobster (Panulirus interruptus) of the peninsula of BajaCalifornia in Mexico has been recertified, following the independent evaluationunder the standard for sustainable and well-administered fisheries of the MSC(The Marine Stewardship Council). This fishery was certified as sustainablefrom 2004 until 2009, and again at present said fishery products have the

    25

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    26/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    right to bear the blue eco-label of the MSC. As part of the recertification, thegeographical area covered has been expanded. The Certification Unitoriginally extended from the Isla de Cedros in Baja California to the PuntaAbreojos in Baja California Sur, and now it also includes the Isla Guadalupe,located 250 km west of the coast of Baja California.The latter, the spiny lobster, has a shell that goes from green to reddish

    brown, purple, greenish or bluish. The best specimens are obtained fromJuly to March and from August to September.Small-scale lobster fisheries, which mean an artisanal activity within theBiosphere Reserves of Sian Ka'an and Banco Chinchorro, in the Mexicanportion of the Mesoamerican reef, are now eligible to bear the blue eco-labelfrom the MSC. This fishery engaged in spiny lobster production (Panulirusargus) was certified following an independent assessment conducted by theMRAG Americas under the MSC standard for sustainable and well-managedfisheries.Lobsters are offered live, whole, or only their tails, fresh, frozen or cooked.Whole and fresh, can be roasted or fried; boiled are supplements topreparations based on rice, pasta or salads, soup bases, and they can bemarinated and then cooked.

    Tacos de langosta de Puerto Nuevo

    26

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    27/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    35. CRAWFISH

    The Macrobrachium is a genus of freshwater shrimp belonging to thePalaemonidae family, the main characteristic of which is the extremeextension of their second pair of pereiopods (with legs beginning at thethorax).

    The distribution of crawfish or prawns (langostino as we know this type ofcrustacean) and its varieties is deployed in both coasts of Mexico.Langostino in our country receives different names according to the zoneswhere they are located, but also because they belong to different species:langostino, freshwater shrimp o langostino de ro, langostino de agua dulce,Acamaya, pigua, camarn moya, Cauque, chacal, camarn prieto, amongothers.According to each species, their size and color may vary, some measuring upto 25 centimeters. The langostinos are more robust crustaceans than shrimps,because their shell is harder and thicker, in tones or shades ranging fromgrayish brown to bluish gray color. They consist of a cephalo-thorax (head) andof an abdomen. Their legs are of different size and configuration, the firstcouple to serve as tweezers to grab and shred their preys, and the remaininglegs to be used for locomotion; their antennas and beards are utilized tonavigate and communicate; they have hand-type articulations, and theirextremities end with pincers like those of crabs.They can be obtained from fisheries or from aquaculture activities. Wildlangostinos exist in rivers, lakes and freshwater streams, and also in estuaries.Within the country they prosper in the marine slopes of the Gulf of Mexico,some species are the Macrobrachium Carcinus, Macrobrachium tenellum,Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Macrobrachium acanthurus. In regions of thePacific Ocean some species are the Macrobrachium americanum and theMacrobrachium rosenbergii.Species distinguished by their relevance as to consumption and economicactivity are:Macrobrachium americanum, located in rivers, lakes and ponds, white flesh,juicy and a delicious taste. The best specimens are collected from July toDecember.Macrobrachium rosenbergii, an Asian shrimp adapted to freshwater sites in ourcountry, white flesh, juicy, with a tasty flavor being between shrimp andlobster. Most production is obtained through aquaculture, allowing for thisspecies to be available all year long.Macrobrachium Carcinus and acanthurus, langostinos de ro (freshwaterprawns), acamayas or piguas. These have a yellow carapace with bluetonalities, white flesh, juicy and delicious taste. These species are found infresh or brackish waters and in river mouths. The best specimens are capturedduring the rainy season; ifproduction is obtained from cultivated ponds,then these species are available all year.Most of langostinos are a food rich in iodine, with a high quantity of protein.

    27

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    28/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    They are offered in whole for consumption; also fresh and frozen (with orwithout shells and / or heads), raw, cooked or precooked.We consume them whole and fresh. They can be roasted; when boiled, theyare a supplement for preparations based on rice, pasta and soupy stews; theycan be pickled or marinated, then cooked; they are base for broths and soups.They are also consumed by simple boiling, peeled and with lemon drops, salt

    and hot sauce added.

    Huatape de langostinos

    28

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    29/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    36. Maguey (leaves, pulque)

    Magueyis the name by which various types of agave plants are known.Mexico is the center of origin, domestication and widespread of the maguey.Pre-Hispanic ancestors called these plants metl or mexcametl (Nahuatl),tocamba (Purepecha) and guada (Otomi). The use that has brought them into

    fame is the production of beverage: mead (neutli) and fermented pulque(octli), later and deriving from distilled beverages, the mescal (mezcal, tequilaand bacanora). The Sixteenth-century Spaniard conquerors named it maguey,a word adopted in its passage through the Antilles.The maguey plants have characterized the landscapes of the arid and semi-arid zones with scarce rain, with temperate and cold temperatures and withthe dry and hard land soils of our country. They contribute to the soilconservation and retention; in certain regions they delimit levees or terracesto prevent erosion and run-offs of land. Their culture renders it possible theexpansion of agricultural productivity in hot and cold zones.Plant with leaves in rosette, thick and fleshy, having a terminal straight thornand several lateral hooked thorns. The leaves are arranged on a short stemthe lower part of which, called the cone, generally does not protrude to thesurface of the ground.The method to spread the cactus is achieved through springs.After it blossoms, the plant begins to die. Flowers are called gualumbos orhualumbos, also known as patas de gallina de cerro; they are small, lightyellow, edible; the collection of which is made during the dry seasons, and areused in soups, soupy stews, or as stuffing for antojitos and tamales. Amongthe leaves of the maguey, grows the maguey fungus, which is also edible; it isprepared roasted, sauted, boiled or fried. It can be served as a complementto atole, stuffing for antojitos and tamales, as a base for soups, stews withsauce, garnishes or escabeche.In the trunk and leaves of the maguey grow two types of larvae known asgusanos de maguey, some red or chinicuiles (Cossus redtenbacheri) and otherwhite in color (Aegiale hesperiaris), which are harvested in April and May. Bothcan be grilled on the griddle or fried, and served as stuffing for antojitos; redworms roasted and ground are the base for hot salsas.The agave is a plant that surprised all outsiders, as from the Sixteenth century,for its variety of uses. Several of them survive: the leaves are used as fuel;building material (tiles of maguey); roasted as food; when dried they allow forthe extraction of fibers (ixtle) capable of being woven, and as wrapping whencooking barbecue and other dishes. The cuticle of the leaves are used as coveron certain preparations (mixiotes). The tines of the stalk as pins or needles.The quiote is cooked as barbecue to make sweet preparations; its stem as fuelor construction beams. The maguey baba is a binder for wall paint.Besides pulque maguey (Agave salmiana andAgave atrovirens), predominantin the Central Highlands Region, when the upper leaves of the plant arewithdrawn and a hole is made to the heart of the plant, the aguamiel isextracted, a liquid that once fermented id converted into pulque. The

    29

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    30/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    consumption of this beverage continues in rural zones and in a lesser level inthe cities.Pulque is used in preparing the barbecue salsas and various dishes; it isessential in pulque bread making, offered at fairs or markets.

    Ximb de conejo

    30

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    31/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    37. ARROCILLO BREED CORN

    Maiz is a word of Caribbean origin employed in the Antilles, which means thecause of life. The Nahuatl name is centli. After the Spanish conquest, the wordmaiz prevailed in Mexico. Corn is an annual herbaceous plant. It reaches aheight of over three meters depending on growing conditions, with unisexual

    flowers. The masculine are located in the terminal portion of the stem, and thefemale in the axils of the leaves, forming dense spikes of tightly insertedgrains, called pods.

    The arrocillo breed maize belongs to the group of conical races of maize,which are endemic to Mexico.These breeds produce short conical shaped corncobs, with a largenumber of rows of grains of variable texture ranging from farinaceousup to popcorn. This group forms the basis of production in agriculturalzones of the center of the country, and the different races are exploited

    for the preparation of tortillas, tamales, antojitos, pozoles and popcorn,among many others. In addition, other parts of the plant are used as,for example, the leaves to wrap tamales and livestock food.Grains can be semi crystalline; also their shape can be pointed to semidented; and color varies from white, to yellow and purple in variousshades. Kernels from the first harvest are predominantly yellow, but insubsequent recollections, appear varieties of different colors.The cultivation of this breed is found in cool temperate zones in theCentral Highlands (North Sierra of Puebla), North and Central Gulfregions, where it is consumed mainly by the Totonaca, Nahua andmestizo communities. Likewise in the high zones of the CentralHighlands Region (Hidalgo, Tlaxcala, State of Mexico and Michoacan),and Southern Highlands (Oaxaca), where it is consumed by thePurepecha, Mazahua, Nahua and Otomi communities.The use and consumption of arrocillo maize vary according with thecolor of the grain. We use the white and yellow corn to make tortillas,the dark one, to prepare antojitos or to provide variety to the daily diet,some breeds of the crystalline grain that pop easily is used to the makepopcorn; Otomi communities prefer the almost black purple grains to

    prepare atoles.

    31

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    32/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    38. CORN CACAHUAZ (C) INTLE BREED

    Maizis a word of Caribbean origin employed in the Antilles, which meansthe cause of life. The Nahuatl name is centli. After the Spanishconquest, the word maiz prevailed in Mexico. Corn is an annual

    herbaceous plant. It reaches a height of over three meters depending ongrowing conditions, with unisexual flowers. The masculine are located inthe terminal portion of the stem, and the female in the axils of theleaves, forming dense spikes of tightly inserted grains, called pods.

    These breeds produce conical shaped ears, with a large number of rows ofgrains of variable texture ranging from farinaceous up to popcorn grains. Thisgroup forms the basis of production in agricultural zones of the center of thecountry, and the different races are exploited for the preparation of tortillas,tamales, antojitos, pozoles and popcorn, among many others. In addition,other parts of the plant are used as, for example, the leaves to wrap tamales

    and livestock food.Cacahuaz (c) intle corn has large grains, starchy and mainly white, pink or bluehave less number of grains.The cultivation of this breed is found in the Central Highlands Region (State ofMexico, Puebla, Hidalgo and Tlaxcala).The use and consumption varies according to the zone. Grains are destined tothe preparation of pozoles in almost all the national territory; the whole cornears to be roasted or boiled. Nahua, Mazahua, Otomi and mestizoscommunities of that region, use them for making cornmeal, flour, atole,pozole, rolls, tamales, or corn on the cob.

    Menudo norteoPozoles/ blanco/ rojo/ verde

    32

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    33/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    39. CHALQUEO CORN

    Maizis a word of Caribbean origin employed in the Antilles, which meansthe cause of life. The Nahuatl name is centli. After the Spanishconquest, the word maiz prevailed in Mexico. Corn is an annual

    herbaceous plant. It reaches a height of over three meters depending ongrowing conditions, with unisexual flowers. The masculine are located inthe terminal portion of the stem, and the female in the axils of theleaves, forming dense spikes of tightly inserted grains, called pods.

    Chalqueo maize belongs to the group of conical breeds of maize, whichare endemic to Mexico.These breeds produce short conical shaped corncobs, with a largenumber of rows of grains of variable texture ranging from farinaceousup to popcorn. This group forms the basis of production in agricultural

    zones of the center of the country, and the different races are exploitedfor the preparation of tortillas, tamales, antojitos, pozoles and popcorn,among many others. In addition, other parts of the plant are used as,for example, the leaves to wrap tamales and livestock food.Chalqueo maize is one of the country's most productive breeds, because ithas large conical ears, and numerous rows of large grains, ranging fromstarchy a semi crystalline; color ranging from white, yellow, red, pink and bluein various shades.The cultivation of this breed is found in zones with good soil and moistureconditions in the Central Highlands region (Hidalgo, State of Mexico, MexicoCity, Tlaxcala, Puebla); the North Highlands (Zacatecas and Durango) and theSouthern Highlands (Oaxaca).The use and consumption of chalqueo maize vary according to the color ofthe grain. We use the white and yellow variants to the making of tortillas andflour for tamales; the blue and red corns, to prepare antojitos and pinole; thedried leaves of the ear, due to its size, are the most popular for wrappingtamales and craft production. Nahua, Mazahua, Purepecha, Otomi, Popolocas,Chatinos, Mazatecos and Cuicatecos communities that use them for tortillas,antojitos, tamales and atole.

    Mole de olla

    Torta de elote

    33

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    34/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    40. CHAPALOTE CORN BREED

    Maizis a word of Caribbean origin employed in the Antilles, which meansthe cause of life. The Nahuatl name is centli. After the Spanishconquest, the word maiz prevailed in Mexico. Corn is an annual

    herbaceous plant. It reaches a height of over three meters depending ongrowing conditions, with unisexual flowers. The masculine are located inthe terminal portion of the stem, and the female in the axils of theleaves, forming dense spikes of tightly inserted grains, called pods.

    The chapalote corn belongs to a group of chapalote maize breeds. Cobsproduce elongated shapes resembling a tobacco cigar; the grains are of avariable texture, ranging from crystalline to floury to sweet (high sucrose).Among these breeds there are to be pointed out those used for thepreparation of popcorn and pinole, and those which having blue, semi-flouryand sweet kernels are consumed as corn on the cob and esquites.

    Chapalote maize is one of the oldest breeds of Mexico; it has crystal grain earsbrown in color, with pink and red variants due to the crossing with otherbreeds.The cultivation of this maize is found in lowland areas, mainly in the NorthPacific Region.The use and consumption of the chapalote corn vary according to grain color,but the Yaqui, Mayo, Tepehuano, Cora, Huichol and Guarijo communities ofthat region prepare pinole, ponteduro, atole, popcorn, esquites and corncookies.

    Wakabakki

    34

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    35/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    41. TOLUQUEO CORNPOP BREED CORN

    Maiz is a word of Caribbean origin employed in the Antilles, which means thecause of life. The Nahuatl name is centli. After the Spanish conquest, the wordmaiz prevailed in Mexico. Corn is an annual herbaceous plant. It reaches aheight of over three meters depending on growing conditions, with unisexual

    flowers. The masculine are located in the terminal portion of the stem, and thefemale in the axils of the leaves, forming dense spikes of tightly insertedgrains, called pods.

    The toluqueo palomero maize belongs to the group of conical breeds of

    maize, which are endemic to Mexico. These breeds produce conicalshape ears, with a large number of rows of grains of variable textureranging from farinaceous up popcorn. This group forms the base ofproduction in agricultural zones of the central part of the country, andthe different breeds that are exploited for the preparation of tortillas,

    tamales, antojitos, pozoles and popcorn, among many others. Inaddition, other parts of the plant are used as, for example, the leaves towrap tamales and livestock food.Toluqueo palomero corn is considered one of the oldest breeds ofMexico, which probable distribution center has been the Valley of Toluca,State of Mexico, hence the name.The distinguishing characteristics are small conical ears of numerousrows with sharp grains resembling rice and popcorns.The cultivation of this breed is found in temperate and cold areas,mainly in the Central Highlands Region.

    The use and consumption of toluqueo palomero corn, is used formaking popcorn. Nahua and Mazahua communities of this region, use itin preparing tamales.

    Ponteduro

    35

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    36/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    42. TUXPEO CORN BREED

    Maiz is a word of Caribbean origin employed in the Antilles, which means thecause of life. The Nahuatl name is centli. After the Spanish conquest, the wordmaiz prevailed in Mexico. Corn is an annual herbaceous plant. It reaches aheight of over three meters depending on growing conditions, with unisexualflowers. The masculine are located in the terminal portion of the stem, and thefemale in the axils of the leaves, forming dense spikes of tightly inserted

    grains, called pods.

    The tuxpeo corn breed belongs to the tropical jagged breeds.Breeds corresponding to this group are the most widely distributed in Mexico;

    they are grown in tropical zones of low and intermediate humidity anddryness. They produce ears that vary in size from medium to long, jaggedgrains, and a soft to hard texture.The group is the base of improvement programs, preferably of corns of theTuxpeo and Celaya breeds.The Tuxpeo corn has large cylindrical ears with a high number of rows ofjagged grains predominantly white in color. It is one of the most importantbreeds for the production of high quality white tortillas; there are also yellowkernels and sometimes purple in various shades.The cultivation of this breed is found in low tropical and subtropical rainyseasons, including Northern Gulf, Central Gulf, Yucatan, Central Pacific and

    South Pacific regions.The use and consumption of Tuxpeo corn is multiple, but Nahua, Amuzgo,Tepehuano, Lacandon, Mame, Maya, Huasteco, Totonaca, Tepehua, Chontal,Mazateco, Tzeltal, Chol, Tzotzil, Zapoteco, Zoque and mestizos communitiesconsume it as corn on the cob, and in the preparation of tortillas, tamales,antojitos, atoles and pozol (fermented beverage).

    Cegueza con espinazo de cerdo

    36

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    37/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    37

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    38/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    43. MAMEY

    The mamey (P. sapota) is a species of the family Sapotaceae. This fruit isnative to Mexico and northern South America (tropical and subtropical climateszones). It is related to zapotilla or sapodilla, the fruit of the gum tree(Manilkara zapota) and the star apple (caimito) (Pouteria caimito), but it is not

    related to the black sapote (Diospyros digyna), or the white sapote (Casimiroaedulis).The name comes from the Nahuatl tetzontzapotl, zapote color de tezontle (thelatter being a red rock of red-orange volcanic origin), known as mameycolorado, colorado sapote, mamey sapote, among others. (Ricardo MuozZurita)The mamey tree grows to a height ranging from 15 to 45 meters. It haselliptical to rounded leaves, pink flowers and ovoid fruits, brown skin, roughorange flesh (salmon); it is sweet, containing one to two elongated, hard andglossy surface stones of a black or brown color.Mameyes are outstanting fruits for their high contents of vitamin A(responsible for the healthy state of the skin, eyes, teeth and gums), alongwith protein, calcium, phosphorus and iron.The best fruits are obtained in the season that goes from Decemberto March; the largest production is located in the Central Gulf, Yucatan,Central, North Pacific (Sinaloa) and South Pacific (Chiapas), regions.We consume mameyes fresh as dessert, in preparation for sorbets, popsiclesand combined with milk in smoothies, cooked in milk, it is a base for sweets,jellies or custards, the stones, if they are shredded and mixed with water, arean aromatic fresh beverage.The wood provided by the mamey tree, is used in rural type buildings,staircases, doorframes, windows and paintings frames, fine furniture, shoessoles, guns grips and pool cues.The stones, which in some zones are called pixtle, if roasted and ground serveto dye gray hair. The oil extracted from them is used in the cosmetics industry,and is applied locally as a hair rinse, a custom that has remained since pre-Hispanic times.

    Dulce de platn de mamey

    38

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    39/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    44. NOPAL. XOXONOSTLE

    The term cactus comes from the Nahuatl nopalli, and designated cacti with flatstems racket shaped.The different varieties of cactus are plants belonging to the family of cacti andOpuntia genus originating in the American Continent. In our country we have

    140 of the 250 species that exist on the continent; from the former, only fourhave been exploited for human consumption.At first only the shoots were consumed as food, with the passage of time, theplants were domesticated, and the species most cultivated in Mexico for thispurpose is Opundia ficusindica.

    The cactus of this species has flat stems, covered paddle-shaped clusters ofsmall stiff hairs called glochidia (thorns); coloring in shades of green; if theplant is young, the leaves give the appearance of scales; loses the bottom,which leads to a woody stem, giving the plant the appearance of a tree. Itfeatures colorful flowers, which are consumed in addition to soups and soupystews, medium size fruits called tunas (prickly pears), with or without smallspines, fleshy and sweet pulp, white or colored, containing numerous small,hard seeds. These fruits are consumed fresh as dessert or as a fresh beverage,sorbets, ice pops, and to extend their season, crystallized.The fresh stalks are prepared as smoothies; roasted, they are alone in tacos;cooked, in salads or marinades, soups, soupy stews or with sauces; as stuffingfor antojitos and garnish; they are also preserved by crystallizing them or in asyrup.The plant has few demands on its management; it has a great tolerance fornutrient-poor soils or poor irrigation methods. Therefore, both survive in thedesert and in the snow. They are found in arid and semiarid regions of Mexico.They take five years to reach productive age; cactus yields vegetables twice ayear, and fruit once a year. The presence of these cactuses near growing areasis important to conserve soil moisture and keep them fertile.They are food rich in water, fiber, calcium and potassium. Because thequantity of fiber, it lowers the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides andglucose in blood, besides being a raw material in cosmetic and medicinalproducts.The increased production and consumption of this variety of cactus as avegetable, is located in the Central Highlands (Mexico City is the largestproducer, followed by Morelos and the State of Mexico). The best specimensgrow from March to November.The increased production and consumption of its fruit, are located in theCentral Highlands (Guanajuato, Jalisco, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas, San LuisPotosi and Durango). The best specimens are from July to September.

    The xoconostle (Opuntia joconostle) derives from the Nahuatl xoconochtli:xococ, sour and nochtli, prickly pear, also calledjoconostle or soconostle.

    39

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    40/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    It is a plant belonging to the semi-desert areas of Mexico where there arebetween 9 and 15 varieties; the most common are cuaresmeo (cultivated)and burro or white (wild). Cactuses of this kind are not excessively consumedby its fibrous nature; fruits have a sour flavor, they are small in size andcontain less water and, therefore, less glucose.The xoconostle contributes to substantial amounts of fiber, vitamins A, C and

    K, calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron and copper to the human body.The increased production and consumption of xoconostle cuaresmeo, islocated in the Central Highlands (San Luis Potosi, State of Mexico, Hidalgo,Puebla and Queretaro; to a lesser extent, Aguascalientes, Zacatecas andGuanajuato). The best specimens are from July to October.We consume it in caldos de olla; roasted in spicy salsas or picos de gallo;crystallized or in jam; sweet, salty and enchilados orejones; naturallydehydrated and in liquor.

    nopalXimb de conejo

    xoconostleMole de ollaDulce de xoconostle

    40

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    41/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    45. OCTOPUS

    Octopuses belong to the Octopoda order. The common octopus (Octopusvulgaris) is a cephalopod mollusk appreciated by the abundance of organisms(fishery) and meat quality (consumption).Octopuses have reddish to brown body and have a large oval head, where the

    eyes, brain, and three hearts are contained: two hearts pump blood to the gillsand the third to the body. The mantle cavity can grow up to 25 centimetersand keep the rest of internal organs, and the deposit of ink used to escapepredators, and have eight arms with two rows of tentacles each, whichconverge in the animal's body. At the point of convergence presents themouth, provided with a corneum peak; they also have a siphon, with whichthey expel a large amount of water, thus promoting their high speed.Octopuses eat worms, small crustaceans, certain mollusks and some fish thatthey capture using the strength of their tentacles; crabs are their favorite food.On the coasts of Mexico are captured:The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) which varies in color from white ormottled brown up to cinnamon color. It can measure up to 50 centimeters. Themajor producing regions are located along the Gulf of Mexico. Fishery takesplace all year.The reddish octopus (Octupus maya) can grow to 80 centimeters. The largestproducers are in the Yucatan Region (Campeche and Yucatan). The largestfishery production of these animals runs from August to December.Spotted octopus (Paraoctopus limaculatus) or Pacific octopus whose fishery isconducted in the region of Baja California. Fishery takes place all year.Octopuses are a rich source of vitamin B3, B12, potassium, iodine, selenium,calcium, sodium, phosphorus and many proteins that help maintain good skin,muscles, hair and nails.Octopuses are offered fresh, frozen or canned. Fresh and whole can be roastedon a grill or fried, but a large percentage are cooked before, and thenincorporated into different preparations: in cocktails or pickled, alone or withother seafood, are used as a complement to salads, rice-based elaborations,pasta and soupy stews; they can be adobados or marinated and then cookedin its own ink also.When cooking octopus it is important to calculate the right point of cooking toprevent the meat is be tough, or too soft. This technique is called to scare theoctopus, which is to take it by the head and soak it three times into a pot withenough boiling water, garlic, onions and herbs, before drop it inside the pot tocontinue cooking.

    Arroz a la tumbada

    41

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    42/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    46. SNOOK

    The name snook includes different types of fish, belonging to the genusCentropomus, group of sea and freshwater fish, located on both coasts ofMexico.Among the important species in the Gulf of Mexico are the common snook orwhite snook (Centropomus undecimalis) and robalo prieto (Centropomuspoeyi), on the coast of the Pacific Ocean, the robalito (Centropomus robalito).The common snook, also known as chucumite, lives preferably in the sea,although it also inhabits rivers and estuaries; this fish is a predator of all kindsof small fish and crustaceans. It is a large fish; it has a wide mouth, prominentlower jaw, flattened head, sides and belly of a silvery color and a forked tail. Ithas a black lateral stripe that reaches the tail, large, rough scales, dorsal colorthat varies according to the environment in which it lives, ranging from greento gray to brown. It has white, soft, oily and juicy meat making it one of themost appreciated species.The largest abundance of this species is found in the Gulf of Mexico due to thepresence of a large number of streams in the area.The breeding season is from March to September.Fishery can be done all year round, but the authorities and agenciesinvolved in the issue have proposed a ban during the months of Julyand August, when the largest number of organisms is in reproduction. Andwhile aquaculture activities are underway.Most production is found in the Yucatan Region (Campeche) duringthe period from March to October; on a smaller scale, in the Gulf regionand South Central Gulf region.The robalo prieto lives preferably at sea, although it also inhabits freshwater,rivers, streams and estuaries. This is an elongated, compact fish; the top ofthe head goes from straight to concave; it has a large mouth, protruding lowerjaw, two dorsal fins separated by a small space. The forked tail is gray to

    42

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    43/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    black; it has large, rough scales, a lateral line that goes from the middle part ofthe body up to the end of the tail. The meat of this fish is darker than that ofthe common snook, it also is soft, greasy and juicy.The largest abundance of this species is located in the Northern Gulf Region.The robalito is a fish that lives in lake systems, estuaries and coastal areas,most of the time remains in brackish inland waters, when it reaches maturity.

    Is of a smaller size compared with other fish of the same genus.The largest abundance of this species is located in the corresponding regionsof the Pacific Ocean, highlighting the Central and South Pacific regions.We prepare it in ceviches; whole fish are roasted on the grill, on a grid or theyare baked; they are covered with adobo or can be marinated and then cooked;if sliced they complement broths, soups, stews accompanied by varioussauces; they are cooked with rice, pasta, and stews with sauces; they aresteamed and shredded to be used as stuffing for tamales and antojitos. Also,they are wrapped in banana leaves and roasted, when cut into steaks they canbe grilled, or be breaded or battered and then fried.

    Arroz a la tumbadaCebiche blancoTamales de pescado

    43

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    44/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    47. SARDINE

    The sardine belongs to the family Clupeidae, from the pelagic fish group (ofthe offshore marine areas); it is abundant and distributed worldwide. Its fisheryis significant from an economic and food standpoint.Sardines have slender, compact bodies, covered with delicate scales; their

    backs are blue-green, lateral and ventral regions of a bright silver tone, arather prominent head and wide mouth; the dorsal fin is high and short, analand caudal regions are notched low. The size of the species important tofishery ranges between 17 and 18 centimeters.These fish live together in groups, forming huge schools that consumephytoplankton.Sardines perform periodic migrations, conditioned to the type of food (duringthe late fall months) and mating time (from winter to spring), but the seasonmay change depending on the species.In Mexico the sardine fishery includes two major species, Monterrey sardine orPacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caerulea) and the sardina crinuda(Opistonema libertate). The most important is the Pacific sardine fishery, whichannually comes to represent the highest percentage of this activity. Largestproduction is from May to July and September to October.Fishing for these species has been increasing due to fleet growth, the use ofrefrigeration on vessels and the development of fishing port terminals thatoptimize marketing to reach sales markets in better hygienic and priceconditions.The largest fishery by volume in Mexico, i.e. the Pacific sardine (Sardinopssagax caerulea) from the Gulf of California, has been certified according to theMSC independent standard assessment for being sustainable and wellmanaged. To demonstrate the strength of the MSC process, which is open andtransparent to all interested parties, a formal objection filed against thecertification of the fishery has been resolved through consultations, clearing inthis manner the path towards the certification of this fishing activity.Sardines are not only eaten fresh, but processed, both dried, salted, smokedcold or hot, and pickled. Besides, their canned version has become animportant share of the canning industry.Sardine in general is a food rich in Omega-3 fatty acids, protein, vitamins A, D,B2, B3 and sodium, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and iron. Frequentconsumption helps to reduce cholesterol and triglyceride levels; it increasesblood flow, which reduces the risk of atherosclerosis, thrombosis and preventsosteoporosis.Sardines meat is intended mostly to be canned in oil or tomato sauce. Weconsume them in these presentations due to its taste, low cost andpracticality, as stuffing for tortas or sandwiches, cold salads; they complementrice preparations, pozole or soupy stews.Sardines are offered fresh or frozen, to be roasted; when cooked they can bestuffing for antojitos or wheat flour patties.

    44

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    45/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    Tostadas con sardinas

    45

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    46/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    48. TEJOCOTE (HAWTHORN)

    The hawthorn and its varieties belong to the genus Crataegus, composed ofspecies of small trees of the family Rosaceae, native to Mexico and parts ofGuatemala and in general of the Andean Zone (areas of mountain and tropicalforests).

    In our country we have 13 species of hawthorn, the most common, Crataeguspubescens (sinomia Crataegus mexicana) and Crataegus graciliordistributedin mountainous areas, and Crataegus greggiana (red hawthorn) located inNorth Highlands Region (Coahuila and Nuevo Leon).The name tejocote comes from the Nahuatl texcotl, hard and acid fruit; calledalso manzanita or manzanilla.The tejocotero (tree) grows to a height of 4 to 10 meters; it has spines andoval or diamond shaped leaves, and white flowers. The fruits are globose andapple shaped with a yellow-green color that, when ripe, turns to orange withtiny brown spots, soft, thin skin; its edible pulp is light orange, bittersweet andfragrant, containing four to six small, hard and brown seeds.Tejocotes are important for their high pectin and vitamin C contents.The best fruits are obtained in the season from October to January ,with the largest production located in the Central Highlands (being Puebla thelargest producer, and to a lesser extent, Jalisco, Zacatecas and Mexico City)and the Southern Highlands (Oaxaca) regions.We include hawthorns in the offering of the Day of the Dead, boiled in watertogether with other fruits and spices in traditional December punches; whenfresh, we consume them as part of the fruits included in the piatas of thatseason; as the base of atoles and sweet and spicy sauces. To extend theirseasonality, they are cooked in syrup or prepared in jelly, ate and jam.The high content of pectin in the fruit, when processed, is used by the food,cosmetics, pharmaceutical, textile and metal industries.In traditional medicine, the hawthorn, prepared in infusions, serve as apreventive or to lessen the discomfort of respiratory diseases; tejocotes areuseful in digestive diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, amoebas, kidneyailments, to loose weight, improve coronary circulation, moderate contractionsin case of tachycardia, and as a diuretic.

    Dulce de tejocote

    46

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    47/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    49.TOMATILLO (MILTOMATE)

    Miltomate and tomatillo (green tomato) are native of Mexico. They are plantsbelonging to the Solanaceae family. In pre-Hispanic times, in certain regions ofour country, the use and consumption of tomato was more common thanjitomate (red tomato).

    The tomatillo (Physalis ixocarpa and Physalis philadelphica), also known astomate verde or tomate de cascara is the fruit of herbaceous plants, both wildand domesticated, which grow well in almost all climates and lands. They areclimbing plants with yellow flowers, some varieties have blue, green or purplespots. The fruit resembles a balloon, and is covered by the accompanyingchalice during development. Its shape is nearly spherical, has a green color,which at maturity can still switch to green or yellow or purple. The pulp isfleshy and juicy, with a slightly acidic flavor or something sweet, containingnumerous edible, yellow to brown almost flat seeds.

    The miltomate (Physalis ixocarpa Bro., Physalis peruviana L., Physalis angulataand Physalis pubescens L.) is known as milpero tomato, tomate de milpa ortomatillo. This species is planted in the milpas, hence its name; it is smallerthan the tomato, but with the same features, except for the amount of seedsthat is more numerous, smaller and hard.

    In Mexico, given its demand, miltomate is being grown in large quantities inthe North Pacific (Sinaloa) and Central Pacific (Jalisco) regions.The seasonality varies according to the climate zone and variety. The largestproduction and best fruits are obtained from January to March.Miltomate and tomato provide carbohydrates, calcium, magnesium,phosphorus, sodium and potassium, and a good amount of vitamin C.They are consumed fresh and chopped, ground or martajados for salsas; alsoin seafood cocktails and ceviches, and other preparations that are served cold;roasted or boiled are essential in certain sauces, pipianes, moles, soupy stewsor different sauces. The calyx (shell) is involved in the cooking of tequesquite(natural carbonates), and they replace in many preparations baking powder orcarbonate salts in the elaboration of tamales.

    tomate verdeChilayo colimenseEnchiladas verdes

    miltomateHuatape de langostinosTlatonile de la milpa

    47

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    48/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    50. VANILLA

    The genus Vanilla (Vanilla planifolia, Vanillapompona and Vanilla tahitensis) isa group of orchids that produces a fruit from which we get the aromatic flavorknown as vanilla.This genus is typical of tropical forests (hot and humid climate), comprising

    climbing plants that can reach lengths of more than 35 meters. They havelarge flowers, most with a sweet fragrance and colors ranging from white,green, greenish, yellow to cream; its life only lasts a few hours.The fruit is a pod of 10 to 20 centimeters long that matures gradually, givingoff a strong aroma, and each contains a large number of tiny seeds.The species Vanilla planifolia, tlilxochitl in Nahuatl -black flower- is a nativeand domesticated plant of Mexico, endemic of the Papantla area (Central GulfRegion).This plant has been used since pre-Hispanic times as an aromatic or perfume,in the preparation of cocoa-based beverages, and women who belonged to theprivileged classes used it to perfume the oil extracted by pressing mameykernels, with which they covered their hair.From the Sixteenth century, the Spaniards took vanilla to Europe, and fromthere, to the rest of the world, an event that revolutionized the bakery,confectionery and other related culinary activities.Previously, the vanilla plant was naturally pollinated by the Melipona bee andby a variety of hummingbirds. Today, due to changes in the ecology in thezone, the process is done by human hand. Pruning of tutors and channelingguidelines also require a careful handling of the guides to avoid mistreatingthem and its superficial roots.When the vanilla pods are mature, the best are chosen to proceed to the nextstep called beneficio (benefit), which must be carried out under differentweather conditions and labor must be specialized. The pods are dried in thesun for half a day, and during the evening they are stored in wooden boxeslined withpetates (palm mats) to keep them warm. This operation is replicatedover a period of eight to ten weeks, depending on the weather. Once the pointof benefit is reached, the pods are classified by size and shape before beingpackaged.In the Nineteenth century outside our country, artificial pollination was madepossible, and from this method, Madagascar became the largest producer ofvanilla, to meet the huge demand that it exists on the planet.In Mexico, both in the place of origin and in other parts of the country where itwas produced, authorities are working together with peasant associations anduniversities to recover both vanilla crops and the quality that eventually gaveus fame and represented an important source of income. This is been carriedout in the Central Gulf (Papantla) and Southern Highlands regions (Near LaChinantla in Oaxaca; organic product, Slow Food Bastion).We use vanilla in different preparations, ranging from its use in bakery, pastry,confectionery, ice cream making, sauces, preserves, chocolates andconfectionery, to beverages with or without alcohol contents, both using

    48

  • 7/30/2019 20141.Productos Mexicanos. Traducidos.mpedits3

    49/49

    50 textos descriptivos de productos elegidos. Traduccin

    traditional and industrial methods, including the areas of pharmaceuticals andcosmetics.

    Pltanos al tequilaTorta de eloteDulce de platn de mamey


Recommended