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Aquifers of pakistan

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2. Presented By Syeda Mahgul Babar Sidra Shakoor Sidra Liaqat Anam Talat Mirza Ambreen Parvaiz 3. What Is This Presentation All About?? Introduction Aquifers Types Of Aquifers Artesian Wells Worlds Largest Aquifers Aquifers Of The World Aquifers Of Pakistan Conclusion 4. Aquifer 5. Introduction 6. Types Of Aquifers According To Their Properties 7. Confined Aquifer Confined aquifer is also called artesian aquifer They are bounded by two layers mostly by clay The pressure in confined aquifer is greater than atmospheric pressure 8. Confined Aquifers 9. Semiconfined Aquifers Semi-confined are intermediate between confined and unconfined aquifers It is confined by layers of lower permeability material through which recharge and discharge may occur South Africa have semi- confined aquifer 10. Unconfined Aquifers Also called Water Table Aquifers or Phreatic Aquifers Are exposed to the surface without any confining layer Partially saturated with water The Indus basin in Pakistan 11. Unconfined Aquifers 12. Fractured Aquifer They are found in rocks such as basalt and granite which contain usable amounts of groundwater in cracks, fissures and joints 13. Fractured Aquifer This how a fractured aquifer looks like 14. Perched Aquifer Perched aquifer is often found in formation of glacial outwash where clay layers form impermeable layers above a primary aquifer 15. Types Of Aquifers Due To Different Rock Types 16. Surficial Aquifers These aquifers are found in river valleys, deltas and basins They are essentially unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, gravel, and limestone formations The width of the surficial aquifer system is usually less than 50 feet 17. Sedimentary Aquifers Sedimentary aquifers occur in consolidated sediments These aquifers are generally located in large, continuous sedimentary basins that may be tens or hundreds of meters thick 18. Igneous and Metamorphic Rocks The igneous and metamorphic rocks are permeable only where they are fractured 19. Fractured Rock Aquifers In fractured rock aquifers, groundwater is stored in the fractures, joints, bedding planes and cavities of the rock mass. About 40 per cent of groundwater in Australia is stored in fractured rock aquifers 20. Aquifers of the World 21. Aquifers Of The World Distribution of aquifers all around the world depends upon their topology and climate There are many aquifers in the world (In Africa, Asia, Europe and most of them are concentrated in Australia and the Americas) Aquifers are the main source of water extraction for the people and are facing a high level of depletion 22. Aquifers Of Canada A brief overview of topology of Canada The Oak Ridges Moraine: One of the main aquifer systems Located in the South Ontario, Canada The moraine covers a geographical area of 1900 sq. km amidst Caledon and Rice Lake, near Peterborough It was formed due to glacial movement about 12,000 years ago It supports a wide variety of biodiversity in those ecosystems 23. The Oak Ridges Moraine A Map of the Oak Ridges Moraine. Retrieved on 18-05-2013. Retrieved from http://www.humberriver.ca/oakridges.html 24. Aquifers Of America Most of the aquifers of the world are concentrated in the Americas 1. Sankoty Aquifer: It is the most important aquifer of Illinois as it provides water to the northwestern and central parts of the state Thickness ranges from 50-150 km Consists of quartz sand ranging from dust to marbles It is the widest aquifer of the state that is 100km in average thickness 25. The Sankoty Aquifer William, S. D., Kempton, J. P. & Lott, R. B. The Sankoty-Mahomet Aquifer.Central Illinois. (1994). PDF retrieved on 19/5/2013 from http://www.isws.illinois.edu/pubdoc/COOP/ISWSCOOP-16.pdf 26. Mahomet Aquifer Important aquifer of the east central Illinois Covers 15 counties 50-200 ft thick It has pathogen and pollution free water Is the remains of prehistoric Mahomet River Valley Population projections tell that the number of people may increase from 100,000 to a total of 900,000 27. Mahomet Aquifers 28. Aquifers of Australia The Yarragadee Aquifer: Located in the southwest of Western Australia It a very deep aquifer located hundreds of meters underground Contains about 1000 cubic km of water Its recharge source is rainfall It fulfills the water needs of the people in that region They extract 45 gigalitres per year from this aquifer 29. Yarragadee Aquifer The Yarragadee and Leederville Formations. Retrieved on 19/5/2013 from http://www.viacorp.com/perth_water.htm 30. Aquifers of Africa The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System: Worlds largest fossil water aquifer Located in the underground eastern end of the Sahara desert Parts of Chad, Libya & Sudan are also included in it Contains 150,000 cubic km of water-estimated results Composed of ferruginous sandstone, shale and clay Fresh to slightly blackish Contains high levels of calcium and sodium sulfates that lead to dissolution and leaching processes 31. Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System Abouelmagd, A. A. Towards A Better Understanding GIS. Retrieved on 19/5/2013 from http://abdoualy.com/Current-Research.php Libya Sudan Chad Egypt 32. References Batu, V. (1998). Aquifer Hydraulics: A Comprehensive Guide to Hydrogeologic Data Analysis. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=JncPuWYf5qMC&pg=PA22&dq=types+of+aquifer s&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lWSDUanjI9Cg7Abe1IDgAg&ved=0CEIQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=typ es%20of%20aquifers&f=false Cech, T. V. (2009). Principles of Water Resources: History, Development, Management and Policy. Retrieved from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=A2nJCPPixGQC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepag e&q&f=false Aquifer Basics. (2013). In USGS online. Retrieved from http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/aquiferbasics/volcan.html Mithra, S. (2013). What Is An Artesian Well?. Retrieved from www.wisegeek.org/what-is-an- artesian-well.htm Mahomet Aquifer. (2013). In Illinois State Water Survey online. Retrieved from http://www.isws.illinois.edu/gws/archive/mahomet.asp

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