AREA'S OF DATA PROCESSING DATA PROCESSING MAYBE CLASSIFIED AS EITHER SCIENTIFIC OR BUSINESS IN NATURE.
Business data processing is characterized by the need to
established, retain, and process files of data for producing useful
information. Generally, it involves a large volume of output. For
example, a large retail store must maintain a record for each
customer who purchases on account. Business Data Processing
Scientific Data Processing (SDP) Data processing involves a
limited volume of input and many logical or arithmetic
A data processing procedure normally consists of number of
basic processing operations performed in some order. The means of
manual, electromechanical, or electronic methods are used. Many
businesses find that the best solution to their processing
requirements is to use a combination of methods. Data Processing
A. Recording B. Verifying C. Duplicating D. Classifying E.
Sorting F. Calculating G. Summarizing and Reporting H. Merging I.
Sorting J. Retrieving K. Feedback
A. Recording Recording refers to the transfer of data onto some
form or document. It relatives to the documentation of intermediate
figures and facts resulting from calculations.
B. Verifying Since recording is usually a manual operation it
is important that recorded data be carefully checked for any
errors. This operations called verifying.
C. Duplicating It is sometimes necessary or desirable to copy
or duplicate data. This operation consists in reproducing the data
onto many forms or documents. Duplicating maybe done while the data
being recorded manually, or it may be done afterwards by some
D. Classifying This operation separates data into various
categories. Identifying and arranging items witch like
characteristic into groups or classes is called classifying
E. Sorting Arranging data in a specific order is called
sorting. After the data are classified, it is usually necessary to
arrange or rearrange them in a predetermined sequence to facilitate
processing. Sorting is done in an alphabetic or numeric order and
the data item which determines the sorting is called the key.
Numeric sorting usually requires less time than alphabetic sorting
in machine-based processing systems and it therefore generally
F. Calculating Arithmetic manipulation of the data is known as
calculating. It is a crucial phase of data manipulation, because
the outcome of this operation becomes part of the output. In the
calculation of an employee's pay.
G. Summarizing and Reporting In this operation, a collection of
data is condensed and certain conclusions from the data are
represented in a meaningful format. To be a value, data must often
be condensed or sifted so that the resulting output reports will be
clear, concise and effective. Reducing masses of data to a more
usable form is called summarizing.
H. Merging This operation takes two or more sets of data, all
sets having been sorted by the same key, and puts them together to
form a single sorted set of data
I. Storing Placing similar data into files for future reference
is storing. Storage is done by any o the following methods; a.
manual - such as in a ledger book, b. electromechanical- in the
form of punched cards and c. electronic- by magnetic tape, disk,
and main memory of the computer. Data should be stored only if the
value of having them in the future exceeds the storage cost.
J. Retrieving Recovering stored data and/ or information when
needed is the retrieving step. Retrieval methods range from
searches made by file clerks to the use of quick responding inquiry
terminals that are connected directly to a computer .
K. Feedback Feedback is the comparison of the outputs. and the
goal set in advance ; any discrepancy is analyzed, corrected, and
feedback to the proper stage in the processing operation.