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Carotid doppler ultrasound

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CAROTID DOPPLER ULTRASOUND DR. MUHAMMAD BIN ZULFIQAR PGR 1 FCPS SHL Part I
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Page 1: Carotid doppler ultrasound

CAROTID DOPPLER ULTRASOUND

DR. MUHAMMAD BIN ZULFIQAR PGR 1 FCPS SHL

Part I

Page 2: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Doppler US of carotid arteries

Anatomy of carotid arteries

Normal Doppler US of carotid arteries

Causes of carotid artery disease

Effect of extra-carotid diseases

Page 3: Carotid doppler ultrasound

PART I

Anatomy of carotid arteries

Normal Doppler US of carotid arteries

Causes of carotid artery disease• Common Carotid Artery• Internal Carotid Artery • External carotid Artery

Page 4: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Extra cranial cerebral arteries

All arteries that carry blood from heart up to base of skull

Right & left sides of extra cranial circulation not symmetrical

Page 5: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Variants resulting from elongation of ICA

Page 6: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Variations in extracranial circulationFew

• Left CCA & SCA share single trunk

• Left vertebral artery arising directly from aortic arch

• Right vertebral origin arising directly from aortic arch

Page 7: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Vertebral artery course

V1

V0

V2

V3

V4

BA

VAs asymmetric in 75 % – Left dominant in 80 %

Posteriorly directed loop when exists C1 transverse process2 VAs units to form basilar artery: collateralization

Page 8: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Doppler US of carotid arteries

Anatomy of carotid arteries

Normal Doppler US of carotid arteries

Causes of carotid artery disease

Effect of extra-carotid diseases

Page 9: Carotid doppler ultrasound

All carotid artery examinations should beperformed with:

Tahmasebpour HR et al. RadioGraphics 2005 ; 25 : 1561 – 1575.

• Gray-scale US

• Color Doppler

• Power Doppler

• Spectral Doppler

Integrate gray scale, color flow, & spectral findings

Page 10: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Position for scanning the carotid arteries

Patient lie down in supine or semisupine position

Head hyperextended & rotated 45° away from side being examined

Higher-frequency linear transducers (≥ 7.5 MHz)

Page 11: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Doppler ultrasound of carotid arteries / Tips

• Begin each scan on same side, usually the right

• Avoid excess pressure on carotid bifurcation to avoid – Stimulate carotid sinus Bradycardia

SyncopeVentricular asystole

– Compress arteries to cause spurious high velocities

Page 12: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Intima-Media complexNormal value ≤ 0.8 -9mm

Wall of CCA, bulb, or ICABest measured on far wall

Only intima & media included

Page 13: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Normal carotid bifurcation

Black & white US

ICA Larger & lateral

ECA Smaller & internalNormal flow separation

Color Doppler ultrasound

Page 14: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Longitudinal scan to visualize carotid arteries

Anterior

Posterior

Lateral

Page 15: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Carotid bifurcation

Longitudinal B-mode image of carotid bifurcation

ICA & ECA seen in same plane

Page 16: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Normal flow reversal zone in ICA

Velocities highest near flow dividerFlow reversal on opposite side

to flow divider

Flow reversal zoneOpposite to origin of ECA

Page 17: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Internal & external carotid artery

2 small branches originating from ECA

Power Doppler US

Page 18: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Standard Doppler spectral examination

Traces obtained from

• CCA Proximal – Distal

• Carotid Bulb

• ICA Proximal – Middle – Distal

• ECA Proximal

• Vertebral Artery V0 – V1 – V2

• SCA

Page 19: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Typical normal Doppler spectra

Common carotid artery

Internal carotid artery

External carotid artery

PSV: 45 – 125 cm/secDifference between 2 sides < 15 cm/sec

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Dicrotic notch

Normal feature

Closure of aortic valve with temporary cessation of forward flow

Resumption of forward flow by elastic rebound of aortic wall

Page 21: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Coiling of ICACongenital - Bilateral - Symmetrical

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Abnormal Doppler flow in tortuous vessel

Tortuous CCA displays color

Doppler eccentric jets of flow

High velocity due to eccentric

jet in tortuous CCA

Tortuosity can increase velocity, although there is no stenosis

Try sampling just beyond the curve

Page 23: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Temporal tapping of ECA“Saw-tooth” appearance

Small regular deflections (TT)

Frequency corresponds to rate of temporal tapping

Deflections best seen during diastole

Page 24: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Differentiation between ICA & ECA

Features ICA ECA

Size Usually larger Usually smaller

Temporal tap Usually negative Usually positive

Pulsed Doppler Low resistance High resistance

Orientation Posterior Anterior

Branches Rarely Yes

Page 25: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Protocol for VA examination

– Direction of flow– Waveform configuration– Measure PSV

Longitudinal VA between transverse processes

Caudad survey

– Follow artery cauded to its origin

Cephalad survey

– Follow artery cephalad above transverse processes

Page 26: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Ultrasound of normal vertebral vessels

Cephalad flow throughout cardiac cycle Low resistance flow pattern VA origin regularly seen by experienced sonographers Size: variable & asymmetric – Mean diameter 4 mm PSV: 20 – 40 cm/sec – <10 cm/sec potentially abnormal

Vertebral artery

Vertebral vein

May occasionally be seen adjacent to VA Flow caudad & nonpulsatile

Page 27: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Normal vertebral artery originV0

Page 28: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Normal vertebral artery & veinV2

Vertebral artery & vein seen between vertebral processes of spine

Color Doppler Pulsed Doppler

Page 29: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Subclavian artery

Mirror image below pleura

Color Doppler US Pulsed Doppler US

Normal triphasic waveform

Page 30: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Doppler US of carotid arteries

Anatomy of carotid arteries

Normal Doppler US of carotid arteries

Causes of carotid artery disease

Effect of extra-carotid diseases

Page 31: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Causes of carotid artery diseases

Arteriosclerotic disease

Non-arteriosclerotic diseasesFibro muscular dysplasia DissectionVasospasm Aneurysm & pseudo aneurysm

Arterio-venous fistula Arteritis: Takayasu – Horton Carotid body tumor Idiopathic carotidynia

Most common cause

Page 32: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Extracranial carotid artery & stroke

• Stroke is third leading cause of death in USA

• > 500.000 new cases of CVA reported annually

• 20 – 30% of stokes due to severe carotid artery stenosis

• Stenosis involves ICA within 2 cm of bifurcation

• CEA* more beneficial than medical tm in symptomaticor asymptomatic patients with > 70% carotid stenosis**

* CEA: Carotid endarterectomy** NASCET: North American Symptomatic Carotid Endartectomy Trial

** ECST: European Carotid Surgery Trial

Page 33: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Common sites for extracranial arterial disease

Most common site at carotid bifurcation

with plaque extending into ICA

Page 34: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Plaque characterization

Low Lipid – Flow void

Moderate Collagen – Easy to see High with shadow Calcification – Focal or diffuse

Echogenicity

Calcification: no correlation with neurologic symptoms Focal hypoechoic zones: Hemorrhage – Necrosis – Lipid

Heterogenous plaque

Common sources of cerebral emboli: TIA – Stroke Poor US results for ulcer detection

Plaque surface features

Page 35: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Appearance of atheromatous plaquesHomogeneous echolucent Homogeneous echogenic

Heterogeneous plaque Cauliflower’ calcification

Page 36: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Calcified plaque

Calcific plaque with shadow

obscuring portion of the bulb

Interrogate artery beyond plaque

Shadowing segment < 1 cm No turbulent flow: insignificant stenosis Damped or turbulent flow: tight stenosis

Shadowing segment > 2 cm Degree of stenosis indeterminate Other modalities recommended

Page 37: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Intraplaque hemorrhage

Page 38: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Sources of error in ulcer diagnosis

Plaque surface irregular

but not ulcerated

Adjacent plaque

simulate ulceration

Image plan does not include

the ulcer

Page 39: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Large plaque ulcer

Power Doppler“eddy flow”

Color DopplerPseudo-dissection

Page 40: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Ulcerated plaque or twinkle artifact

Scale 86 cm/sec, color in diastole Color flow disappeared

Color artifact continues to twinkle

Hard plaque in proximal ICA

Questionable flow at plaque surface

Page 41: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Estimation of carotid stenosis

Diameter reduction Surface reduction

Page 42: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Relationship between diameter reduction & cross-sectional area reduction

Diameter reduction(%)

Cross-sectional area reduction(%)

30 50

50 75

70 90

Page 43: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Cardinal Doppler parameter to grade stenosis

Best documented Doppler parameter for carotid stenosis

Peak Systolic Velocity (PSV)

Quite valuable for detecting high-grade carotid stenosis

End Diastolic Velocity (EDV)

Avoid errors of collateralization Avoid errors of physiological factors: BP – Pulse rate – Cardiac output – Peripheral resistance

PSV ratio

Page 44: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Relationship of flow, velocity & lumen size

Spencer MP & Reid JM. Stroke 1979 ; 10 : 326 – 330.

Page 45: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Grading stenosis – PSV ratio

Proximal: 2 cm proximal to carotid bulb

At stenosis: same Doppler angle if possible

Normal value < 2.0

Page 46: Carotid doppler ultrasound

17 authors:1 Moderator16 panelists

San Francisco, CalifOctober 22–23, 2002

Page 47: Carotid doppler ultrasound

ICA stenosis on angiogram

ECST 2 (1998)

European Carotid Surgery Trial

(C – A / C) x 100

NASCET 1 (1991 – 1998)

North American Symptomatic Carotid Endartectomy Trial

(B – A / B) x 100

1 NASCET. N Engl J Med 1991 ; 325 : 445 – 453.

Page 48: Carotid doppler ultrasound

ICA stenosis on angiogramDiameter reduction

* NASCET: North American Symptomatic Carotid Endartectomy Trial

** ECST: European Carotid Surgery Trial

30% 65%

40% 70%

50% 75%

60% 80%

70% 85%

80% 91%

90% 97%

* NASCET (B – A / B) x 100

** ECST(C – A / C) x 100

Page 49: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Degree of ICA Stenosis in Doppler US*Consensus Criteria – NASCET criteria

ICA stenosis ICA PSV ICA EDV PSV ratio (%) cm/sec cm/sec ICA/CCA

Normal < 125 < 40 < 2.0< 50% < 125 < 40 < 2.0

50 – 69% 125 – 230 40 – 100 2.0 – 4.0

> 70% > 230 > 100 > 4.0Near occlusion variable variable variableTotal occlusion undetectable undetectable not applicable

Page 50: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Degree of ICA Stenosis in Doppler US*Consensus Criteria – NASCET criteria

ICA stenosis ICA PSV ICA EDV PSV ratio (%) cm/sec cm/sec ICA/CCA

Normal < 125 < 40 < 2.0< 50% < 125 < 40 < 2.0

50 – 69% 125 – 230 40 – 100 2.0 – 4.0

> 70% > 230 > 100 > 4.0Near occlusion variable variable variableTotal occlusion undetectable undetectable not applicable

Page 51: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Aliasing or high velocity jet

Area of highest velocity in area of stenosis

Page 52: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Adjustment of color gain

Color gain at 80%

Marked turbulence of ICA & ECANo luminal narrowing

Anatomy of bifurcationdemonstrated more accurately

Color gain at 66%

Page 53: Carotid doppler ultrasound

ICA stenosis

PSV 500 cm/sec

EDV 300 cm/sec

Spectral broadening

80% diameter stenosis

Page 54: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Color Doppler bruit

Extensive soft tissue color Doppler bruit surrounds

carotid bifurcation with 90% ICA stenosis

Confetti sign

Page 55: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Post stenotic zone/ Immediately after stenosis

• Cannot be precisely quantified (evaluated visually)Fill-in of spectral window > 50% diameter reduction

Severely disturbed flow > 70% diameter reduction High amplitude & low frequency Doppler signalFlow reversalPoor definition of spectral border

• May be only sign of carotid stenosis in calcified plaque

Spectral broadening

Page 56: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Spectral broadening Immediately after stenosis

High amplitude & low frequency Doppler signalPoor definition of spectral border

Flow reversal

Severe spectral broadening: > 70% diameter reduction

Page 57: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Pseudo-spectral broadening

• High gain setting

• Vessel wall motion

• Tortuous vessels

• Site of branching

• Abrupt change in vessel diameter

• ↑ velocity: athlete - high cardiac output - AVF1 - AVM2

• Aneurysm, dissection, & FMD3

1AVF: Arterio-Venous Fistula2AVM: Arterio-Venous Malformation3FMD: Fibro-Muscular Dysplasia

Page 58: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Post stenotic zone / Distal to site of stenosis

Tardus-parvus waveform

Page 59: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Sonographic features of severe ICA stenosis

Significant visible plaque (≥ 70% diameter reduction)

PSV > 230 cm/sec

EDV > 100 cm/sec

ICA/CCA PSV ratio ≥ 4.0

Spectral broadening

Color aliasing despite high velocity scale (100 cm/sec)

Color bruit artifact in surrounding tissue of stenosis

High-pitched sound at pulsed Doppler

Page 60: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Tight stenosis or occlusion?

• Difficult to distinguish tight stenosis from occlusion

• Completely occluded ICA Will not release emboliNot corrected by surgery

• Very severe stenosis Potential source for emboli or acute thrombosisMay require urgent surgery

Page 61: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Optimization of low flow velocities

• Decreased color velocity scale

• Increase color, power & pulsed Doppler gain

• Decreased wall filter

• Focal zone at level of diseased segment

• Doppler angle as low as possible (60° or less)

• Increased persistence

• Increase sample volume gate

Page 62: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Subtotal occlusion of ICA

“string sign” or “trickle flow ”

Narrow channel of low-velocity in subtotal ICA occlusion

Low PRF & low filter required to detect low-velocity flow

Page 63: Carotid doppler ultrasound

High grade “string sign” stenosis

Tardus Parvus waveform

Tardus: Long rise time

Parvus: Low PSV

Page 64: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Endarterectomy without arteriography

• Arteriography ExpensiveRisks: stroke (0.1 – 0.6%) – death (0.1%)Rarely affect surgical planSufficient information obtained with MRI

• Conditions Good experience of US departmentStenosis localized to carotid bifurcationUnequivocal US findingsSymptoms ipsilateral to carotid stenosis

Page 65: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Causes of image/Doppler mismatch

• Cardiac arrhythmia• Severe aortic stenosis• Hypotension or hypertension• Tortuous vessels• Hypoechoic, anechoic or calcified plaques • Long segment high grade stenosis• Pre-occlusive lesion• Tandem lesion• Contra-lateral carotid stenosis• Carotid dissection

Page 66: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Short & long stenosis of ICAShort stenosis (frequent) Long stenosis (rare)

PSV lower than expected

EDV maintained at high level

Can produce very high PSV

(> 500 cm/s)

Page 67: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Long stenosis of ICA

Zwiebel WJ et al. Ultrasound Quarterly 2005 ; 21 : 113 – 122.

RICA

RICA: PSV 183 cm/secEDV 105 cm/sec

CCA: PSV 76 cm/sec PSV ratio: 2.4

Inconsistent data

Long stenosis of ICA > 70%

Page 68: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Occlusion of ICA

• Absence of flow by color, power & pulsed Doppler

• “Internalization” of ipsilateral ECA waveform

• Reversed flow in ICA or CCA proximal to occlusion

• Thrombus or plaque completely fills lumen of ICA

• Externalization of ipsilateral CCA or proximal ICA

• Higher velocities in contralateral CCA vs. ipsilateral CCA

Page 69: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Occlusion of ICA

ICA

ECA

CCA

Retrograde flow in stump of ICA

Absence of flow in ICA beyond

Doppler spectrum from CCA

Externalization of CCA

Page 70: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Occlusion of ICA“to-and-fro” flow or thud flow

Tahmasebpour HR et al. RadioGraphics 2005 ; 25 : 1561 – 1575.

Damped systolic flow

Reversed flow in early diastole

Pulsed Doppler of CCA

Page 71: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Internalization of ECA

Patient with complete occlusion of left ICA

Page 72: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Occlusion of CCA

Robbin ML et al. Ultrasound Clin 2006 ; 1 : 111 – 131.

Reversed flow from ECA

to supply ICA & brain

“ECA-to-ICA collateralization”

Page 73: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Occlusion of CCA

Tahmasebpour HR et al. RadioGraphics 2005 ; 25 : 1561 – 1575.

Absence of flow in distal CCAReversed flow in ECANormal flow in ICA

Internalization of ECADelayed systolic acceleration (tardus)

Positive temporal tap maneuver

Page 74: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Stenosis of ECA

• PSV of ECA stenosis Minimal < 200 cm/sec

• Moderate 200 – 300 cm/secSevere > 300 cm/sec

• ECA/CCA systolic ratio* < 2 ≤ 50% Ø stenosis ≥ 2 ≥ 70% Ø stenosis

Isolated ECA stenosis not clinically significant

Page 75: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Ectatic CCA

Ectatic CCA as it arises from innominate artery

Responsible for pulsatile right supra clavicular mass

Page 76: Carotid doppler ultrasound

Thank You


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