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Chapter 12: Leadership. Logistics (theme – asap) DSS paperwork – asap! (by Thurs!) Overload of...

Date post: 30-Dec-2015
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Chapter 12: Leadership
  • Chapter 12: Leadership

  • Logistics (theme asap)DSS paperwork asap! (by Thurs!)Overload of exams info to me asap!Study guide posted on WebCT (let me know if you cant access it asap!)Notice changes in schedule (no class on Nov 9 reading schedule moved around)Check WebCT for reading assignment for 11/16 it will include an article (quiz on article)

  • What is leadership? Leadership is really how you set direction, how you communicate that direction to a variety of constituencies, align them to move in that direction, and then inspire them to fulfill the vision that has been articulated Linda Hill, Harvard Business School professor

  • What is leadership? Leadership is influencing peopleby providing purpose, direction, and motivationwhile operating to accomplish the mission and improving the organization. US Army Field Manual 22-100

  • Defining leadershipFiedler defines leader as the individual in the group given the task of directing and coordinating task relevant group activities, or who, in the absence of a designated leader, carries the primary responsibility for performing these functions.

    Attempted leadershipSuccessful leadershipEffective leadership*Leader emergenceTraits that predict emergence?

  • What is leadership?Numerous definitions existGenerally, its the process of influencing others to take action to achieve a goal

  • What is leadership?Leadership & management the same??Borman & Brushs areas of managerial responsibility out of 18, at least 6 are leadership-relatedDelegatingSelling/influencingGuiding, directing and motivation subsTraining, coaching & developing subsMaintaining good working relationshipsCoordinating subs and other resourcesThat leaves a lot of areas of management that are NOT leadership-related (ie, staffing, tech proficiency, etc)

  • What is leadership?Motives to lead?Power? Affiliation?Duty?Just one profile?Leader development vs. leadership development

  • Effects of LeadershipWhat do we want leaders to do? How do we judge if a leader is effective?What are the real effects of leaders? Are there any?What other factors affect outcomes?Constraints on leader behaviorControl over policy and resources?Role expectationsThe table that was set when they arrivedExternal factors beyond leader control

  • Why do we pay so much attention to Leaders?The Attribution and LeadershipControllable factors are comfortingBelief in the importance of individual actionIts easier to determine causality of eventsThe Leader as an ActorCreates the illusion of causality by associating self with success and distancing self from failure (politics, anyone?)

  • Selecting LeadersThe role of merit/ability in achieving leadership positions?Does it even play a role? What about height or attractiveness? Gender? Race?What are our criteria? What should they be?

  • What do researchers study?Traits/CharacteristicsActions/BehaviorsPosition/PowerFollowersSituation

  • Great Man/Great Woman TheoriesTraditional TheoriesBased on the idea of learning from the best focuses on trait or galvanizing experienceWhats missing from this approach?

  • Trait TheoryOldest approach to leadershipAssumes that people with certain traits will be more effective leadersIn late 1940s, it was concluded that possessing certain traits isnt enough to guarantee leadership effectivenessVery little agreement over defining traitsThe trait approach focused too much on productivity

  • Current approach to traitsCertain traits increase the likelihood of leadership effectivenessSome sets of traits are successful in one situation, but not anotherIn some situations, multiple sets of traits could be successfulSome traits are consistently related to leadership

  • Traits related to. . . . EffectivenessEnergy levelEmotional maturityIntegrityNeed for achievementSelf-confidenceStress toleranceDerailmentLess able to handle pressureMore defensive about failureLess dependableWeak interpersonal skillsOverconfidence or arrogance

  • Behavioral ApproachBehavior theory grew out of dissatisfaction with trait theoryDevelopment of taxonomiesEffective leaders can be differentiated by the behaviors they demonstrate

  • Behavioral Approach: Ohio State Studies (1950s)Most famous studies of leadershipCompiled a list of 1800 examples of leadership behaviorsReduced list to 150 itemsTwo independent dimensions of leader behavior: (1) consideration (2) initiating structure

  • Ohio State: ConsiderationFriendly & warmSupportiveLooks out for subordinates welfareShows concern for subordinatesManages conflictDevelops subordinatesPraises effective performance

  • Ohio State: Initiating StructurePlans aheadOrganizes and defines activitiesAssigns member roles and tasksClarifies goalsMonitors progress toward objectivesProvides necessary information

    What were the flaws in this study?

  • Behavioral Approach: Michigan Leadership StudiesSecond major program of leadership research in the behaviorist school focused more on dynamics of leader-group interactionThree dimensions:Relationship-oriented (like Consideration)Task-oriented (like Initiating Structure)Participativeshared decision making shared powerdemocratic management

  • Power ApproachFrench and Ravens taxonomyReward ability give (or withhold) valued rewardsCoercive ability to punish (or not)Legitimate prescribed right to influence/ control w/ corresponding duty to obeyExpert possessing superior knowledge Referent kind of abstract; often a result of another persons admiration (identification with the person, desire to be like that person, power of example)

  • What types of power are effective?The use of expert and referent power is correlated with subordinate satisfaction and performance

  • Other Old School TheoriesContingency approachHersey and Blanchards Situational TheoryRole of the situationHouses Path-Goal TheoryLeader helps person get from point A to point BVroom-Yettons Model of ParticipationRecognize that subordinate participation is not always a good thing. . . . . .

  • LMX (Leader Member Exchange)Modern ApproachLMX asks, what about the follower?LMX theory suggests that leaders treat followers differently based on each followers level of :1) Competence/skill2) Trustworthiness3) Desired responsibility

  • LMXLMX theory involves relationships between leaders and followersEach supervisor-subordinate pair has a unique relationshipIn-groups vs. out-groups

  • LMX: Ingroups vs. OutgroupsIngroupHigh quality relationshipFreedom to negotiate work roles/assignmentsDealt with using referent powerMore likely to remain with organizationMore likely to see relationship as supportiveOutgroupLow quality relationshipLittle freedomLeader relies on formal power and authorityHigh turnover More likely to see relationship as a contractual agreement

  • Transformational leadershipModern approach

    Influencing followers to transcend their self interests for the good of the organizationOften has a visionEnhances followers motivation, commitment, performance, along with higher order needsIn contrast with transactional leadershipDo this and youll get that (transactional)

  • Transformational leadership (cont)Four types of behaviorsIdealized influenceInspirational motivationIntellectual stimulationIndividualized consideration

  • Charismatic leadershipModern approachKey behaviorsArticulates a vision and promises a better futureSymbolic behaviors to impress followersTakes risks against the status quoSets example of high expectations for followersExpresses confidence in followersCreates inspiration through speech, writingHow could this be bad?

  • Transformational and Charismatic:Whats the difference?TransformationalMore commonLess extreme follower reactionsMore than just charismaAbout getting people to lead themselvesCharismaticRare; crisis situationsFollowers tend to either love or hateDont always transform followersAbout getting you to follow the person

  • GLOBE: The search for universal leadership attributes The Good Ones:IntegrityCharismaTeam OrientedExcellence Oriented

    The Bad Ones: LonerUncooperativeRuthlessVagueIrritableDictatorial

  • Substitutes for LeadershipAre leaders really necessary?What are possible substitutes?Subordinate characteristicsGroup/organization characteristicsTask characteristics

  • Suggestions for leaders in diverse contextsEncourage respect for differencesExplain the benefits of diversityDiscourage use of stereotypesPromote understanding other culturesChallenge people who make prejudiced comments