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Chapter 5- Consciousness Consciousness SSPBF2: The student will compare different states of...

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Chapter 5- Chapter 5- Consciousness Consciousness SSPBF2: The student will compare different states of consciousness. Consciousness Consciousness

Chapter 5- Chapter 5- Consciousness Consciousness

SSPBF2: The student will compare different states

of consciousness. ConsciousnessConsciousness


Awareness of things inside and outside


Related to ConsciousnessRelated to Consciousness

• Sleeping Sleeping

• DreamingDreaming

There are several altered states of consciousness

• Such examples of Altered states of consciousness are:

• Hypnotic trance

• Or under the influence of certain drugs.

William William JamesJames and and John John WatsonWatson…both …both

behaviorists behaviorists believed that believed that

consciousness was consciousness was something that was something that was not calculated into not calculated into


So, consciousness So, consciousness should not be part should not be part

of psychology.of psychology.

Watson and JamesThey both agreed that consciousness was something that could not be measured . They would only study observable behaviors.

Consciousness is

a construct.

Psychology is a Construct?A A constructconstruct is a is a concept used to concept used to

talk about talk about something we something we

cannot see, touch cannot see, touch or measure or measure

directly. Two directly. Two other types of other types of constructs are constructs are

intelligenceintelligence and and emotionemotion. .

Meanings of Consciousness (3)Meanings of Consciousness (3)

Consciousness as Consciousness as aa Sensory Sensory

awarenessawareness- ability to be aware of the things outside of

yourself. This requires you to use

your senses (environment)

Example?Example?• Cool breeze

enters a sweltering room.

• Bright colors

• Loud noises

• Sharp pains

Consciousness as a direct inner Awareness

Awareness of Awareness of things inside of things inside of


Good example Good example would be would be

memories, memories, images, or images, or emotionsemotions

Consciousness of Consciousness of Sense Sense of of SelfSelf

• Thinking that you are an individual and unique.

• It is associated with Self-consciousness which is an acute sense of self-awareness, with slight tinges of paranoia. It is the unpleasant feeling of being watched or observed, that "everyone is looking at" one. It may be the basis of shyness.

Levels of Consciousness (3)

• Preconscious level is filled with information that a person might not be thinking of, but can be recalled if necessary.

First President of the U.S.?

Levels of Consciousness (3)• Unconscious levelUnconscious level, ,

“Subconscious”,“Subconscious”, is is not usually not usually available to available to consciousness.consciousness.

• FreudFreud theorized that theorized that people have an people have an unconscious unconscious mind mind that has hidden that has hidden information. information.

Levels of Consciousness (3)

• He also believed He also believed that we had that we had mental strategies mental strategies to push painful or to push painful or unacceptable unacceptable ideas out of our ideas out of our consciousness consciousness called called defense defense mechanismsmechanisms..

Levels of Consciousness (3)

• Nonconscious Nonconscious level level is when people is when people cannot bring into cannot bring into consciousnessconsciousness their their bodily functions. bodily functions.

• Can you feel your Can you feel your nails growing? Can nails growing? Can you feel the Oxygen you feel the Oxygen and carbon dioxide and carbon dioxide being changed in being changed in your lungs? your lungs?

Altered States of Consciousness

• When one’s When one’s sense of sense of self or self or sense of sense of the the world world changes.changes.

"The beginning of health is sleep." Irish Proverb

"In sleep we are all equal."Spanish Proverb

"Disease and sleep keep far apart."Welsh Proverb

"Dreaming of eating will not satisfy the hungry."African Proverb

Sleep and DreamsSleep and Dreams• Circadian Rhythms are

the biological clock that determines when humans have sequences of bodily changes such as those in Body Temperature, Blood Pressure, and Sleepiness and wakefulness that occurs in 24 hours.

Stages of SleepStages of Sleep• Sleep can be Sleep can be

measured with measured with EEGEEG. .

• Which measures Which measures four types of four types of brainwaves, brainwaves, Beta, alpha, Beta, alpha, theta, deltatheta, delta..

Stages of SleepStages of Sleep• Alert- Alert- BetaBeta

• Relaxed and Relaxed and Drowsy- Drowsy- AlphaAlpha

• Visual images-Visual images-ThetaTheta

• Dreaming Dreaming DeltaDelta

Stages of SleepStages of Sleep• We move from the

first stage of sleep which lasts 30-40 minutes to stages 2,3,4.

• Stage 4 is the deepest sleep, this is hardest stage to be woken in.

Stages of SleepStages of Sleep• After about After about 30 30

minutesminutes in stage in stage 4, we will move 4, we will move back thorough back thorough stages 3,2, and to stages 3,2, and to stage one.stage one.

• Total time about Total time about 90 minutes90 minutes

Stages of SleepStages of Sleep• It is at this point It is at this point

that we start eh that we start eh stage called stage called Rapid Rapid Eye MovementEye Movement or or REMREM..

• The other areas of The other areas of sleep are known as sleep are known as NREMNREM, because , because they are not they are not REMREM..

Stages of SleepStages of Sleep• This is the stage of This is the stage of

where people where people experience their most experience their most vivid vivid dreamsdreams. .

• In the average 8 hour In the average 8 hour night of sleep most night of sleep most people go through people go through these stages about these stages about 5 5 timestimes. As the night . As the night goes on goes on REMREM gets gets longerlonger. .

EEG (electroencephalogram) which shows a record of brain activity; the EMG (electromyogram) shows muscle activity; the EOG (electroculogram) shows eye movements.

Look at the differences in the EEG, EMG and EOG during waking, REM sleep (Rapid Eye Movement Sleep) and NREM sleep

Why do we sleep?Why do we sleep?• Sleep helps revive

the tired body and build up resistance to infection.

• Sleep seems to serve important psychological functions.

Why do we sleep?Why do we sleep?• Deprivation of Deprivation of REM REM

sleep will cause sleep will cause people to forget people to forget easily and learn more easily and learn more slowly.slowly.

• People will tend to People will tend to have a have a REM-rebound REM-rebound when they are when they are deprived of deprived of REM REM sleep.sleep.

DreamsDreams• Freud theorized that

dreams reveal unconscious wishes and urges.

• Biopsychological approach believe that dreams occur because neurons fire in different part of the brain.

Sleep ProblemsSleep Problems• Insomnia Insomnia is is

the the inabilityinability to to sleep.sleep.

• Ways to Ways to overcome overcome Insomnia.Insomnia.

Sleep ProblemsSleep Problems• Nightmares- most

common involve snakes and murderers.

• Occupational hazard

• Anxious and depressed people are more likely to have nightmares.

Sleep ProblemsSleep Problems• Night Terrors- Not easily

remembered terrifying nightmares

• Heart rate increase• Gasp for air• Talk/thrash about• Common in young

children• Caused by immaturity of

nervous system

Sleep ProblemsSleep Problems• Sleep walking-Sleep walking-

move around move around during stages of during stages of deep sleep.deep sleep.

• Again, common Again, common with with young young childrenchildren

• Immaturity Immaturity of the of the nervous systemnervous system

Sleep ProblemsSleep Problems• Sleep Apnea-Sleep Apnea-

breathing breathing interruptioninterruption that that occurs during sleep.occurs during sleep.

• Possibly associated Possibly associated with with SIDS (sudden SIDS (sudden infant death infant death syndrome)syndrome)

Sleep ProblemsSleep Problems• Narcolepsy-Narcolepsy- sleep sleep

problem in which problem in which people people suddenly fallsuddenly fall asleep, no matter what asleep, no matter what time it is or where they time it is or where they are. are.

• Very rareVery rare• Go directly into REM Go directly into REM

sleep immediatelysleep immediately• Believed to be Believed to be

geneticallygenetically linked. linked.