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Chapter 5 Consciousness Section 1 The Study of Consciousness.

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Chapter 5 Consciousness Section 1 The Study of Consciousness
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Page 1: Chapter 5 Consciousness Section 1 The Study of Consciousness.

Chapter 5Consciousness

Section 1The Study of Consciousness

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Consciousness as a Construct• Consciousness means the awareness of things that are both inside and outside ourselves

Psychological Construct: something that can’t be seen, touched

video or measured directlyvideo

• Early figures in psychology thought it couldn’t be scientifically studied because it is hard to measure or observe a person’s consciousness

• Today many psychologists believe that consciousness can be studied because it can be linked with measurable behaviors (like talking) and with brain waves

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Meanings of Consciousness

Consciousness as Sensory Awareness

• sensory awareness refers to being conscious of all the sights, sounds and smells in your environment at any given time

• in other words, you are conscious, or aware, of things outside of yourself

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Selective AttentionFocusing on a particular stimulus is referred to as selective attention

Example: to pay attention in class you must screen out the rustling of papers and the scraping of chairs

Selective attention makes our senses keener (pick out the voice of aparticular person across the room at a crowded party)

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4 Consciousness as Direct Inner Awareness

We don’t hear, see, smell or touch thoughts, images, emotions, ormemories, yet we are still conscious of them

Consciousness as direct inner awareness is being aware of things inside yourself

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Consciousness as Sense of Self

Children begin to develop an understanding that they are uniqueindividuals, separate from other people and their surroundings

The sense of self in which we are aware of ourselves and ourexistence

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Question: How can the memory of an event trigger an emotional response?

What was your most embarrassing moment?

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Answer: The memory of the event is still in the consciousness, the individual is still aware of it, and the response is brought on by the image of our memory

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The Preconscious Level

Preconscious thoughts and ideas are not in your awareness now,but you can recall them

Examples: what did you have for dinner last night? what did you wear to school yesterday?

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The Unconscious LevelInformation stored in the unconscious (sometimes called subconscious)is unavailable to awareness most of the time

In other words, it is hidden from the conscious mind.

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The Non-Conscious LevelMany of our basic biological functions exist at the non-conscious level

Examples: You know that you’re breathing in and out, but you cannot actually feel the exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen

You squint when you take your sunglasses off, but you can’t feel your pupils getting smaller

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Altered States of ConsciousnessAltered states of consciousness occur when a person’s sense of the world changes (beyond consciousness)

Examples: sleep, meditation, biofeedback, hypnosis, drugs and alcohol

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Section 2

Sleep and Dreams

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The Sleep CycleMuch of how people, animals, and plants function is governed byCircadian Rhythms, or biological clocks

We tend to associate periods of wakefulness and sleep with therotation of the earth (day and night 24 hour cycle)

Circadian rhythms in people cause changes in blood pressure, bodytemperature, sleepiness, and wakefulness over a 24 hour day

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2 The Stages of Sleep

Sleep stages are defined in terms of brain-wave patterns which can bemeasured by an electroencephalograph (EEG)

When we are awake, the brain emits beta waves, which are short and quick

When we are drowsy, the brain moves from beta waves to alpha waves which are slower than beta waves. You are falling into sleep.

Ever feel like you’re falling? Flashes of color?

This state is followed by five stages of sleep.

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3 Stage 1Lightest stage of sleep, brain waves slow down from the alpharhythm to the slower pattern of theta waves

May be accompanied by brief images that resemble vivid photographs,lasts no more than 30 or 40 minutes

Stages 2,3 & 4

Deep sleep, brain produces delta waves (slowest brain wave pattern)

Stage 4 is the deepest sleep, hardest time waking up during this stage

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REM Sleep (Stage 5)After about a half hour of stage 4 sleep we cycle back through stage 3, to stage 2, to stage 1

About 90 minutes after we fall asleep we move into rapid eye movementstage (REM) under eyelids, eyes move rapidly

Breathing becomes more irregular, blood pressure rises, heart beats faster

Previous four stages known as NREM

Over a typical 8 hours of sleep we go through these stages about five times,each one makes up one sleep cycle

As the night goes on, periods of REM sleep become longer

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The Sleep Cycle

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Most people go through the cycle 5 times in 8 hours. As the night progresses, stages 3 and 4 become shorter and REM sleep becomes longer

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Importance of Sleep

Sleep to revive the tired body and to build up resistance to infection

Also serves important psychological functions such as recovering from stress

REM sleep seems to serve particular psychological functions. People whoare deprived of REM sleep learn more slowly than usual, forget more rapidlywhat they’ve learned

Research suggests that REM sleep may help brain development in infants and “exercise” brain cells in adults

video clip

Page 138 reading

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DreamsMost vivid dreams occur during REM sleep, more likely to have vividimagery and make sense even if some of the events aren’t realistic

NREM sleep dreams are more vague and images more fleeting

People seem to dream in “real time” and dreams are often an extension ofthe activities of the day

Why are they sometimes hard to remember? Because it’s hard to hold on toInformation from one state of consciousness when we move into another(sleeping/dreaming to wakefulness)

Video clip

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Freudian View of DreamsFreud theorized that dreams reflect a person’s unconscious wishesand urges

Theorized people don’t always dream in direct or obvious forms, but rather, people dream in symbols

Theorized that these “symbolic” dreams give people a way to deal withpainful material that they cannot deal with consciously

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The Biopsychological Approach

Believe that dreams begin with biological, not psychological activity

Theorize that during sleep, neurons fire in the part of the brain thatcontrols movement and vision, that neurons fire at random and thebrain tries to make sense of them (weaving a story)

This approach explains why people often dream about events that happened earlier in the day

Most recent brain activity dealt with problems of the day, so the brainuses everyday matter to give structure to random bursts of neuronsduring REM sleep

Who’s right? Who knows?

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Activity: The Dreamer and the Dream

Small Group Roles:Dreamer Freudian analyst Biopsychological analyst

Dreamer will report a class-appropriate dream to the two analysts.

Reminders:

Freudian analyst: identify symbolism in the dreamBiopsychological analyst: look for real events that have been woven into the story

Analysts will write down and deliver their reports to the dreamer

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Sleep ProblemsInsomnia

Most common type of insomnia is difficulty falling asleep

Psychologists recommend:

• tense the muscles one at a time and then let the tension go• avoid worrying in bed, get up and do something else• establish a regular go to bed and wake up time routine• Use pleasant images to relax

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Nightmares and Night TerrorsNightmares, like most other dreams, are products of REM sleep

Night Terrors are similar to, but more severe than nightmares

heart races, gasps for air, suddenly sit up, talk incoherently or thrash about, not fully wake up

Tend to happen during the first couple of sleep cycles. Nightmares tend tohappen more toward morning.

Most common in young children

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SleepwalkingMany children walk in their sleep, usually in deep stages of sleep

May answer questions, but don’t remember what they said whenthey awake

Most children outgrow sleepwalking

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Sleep ApneaSleep apnea is a breathing interruption that occurs during sleep

About 10 million Americans have sleep apnea, associated with obesityand snoring

Can lead to high blood pressure, heart attacks, and stroke

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NarcolepsyNarcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder in which people suddenly fall asleep, nomatter what time it is or where they are

One minute they are awake, the next, their muscles completely relaxedin REM sleep

Believed to be a genetic disorder of REM-sleep functioning

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Section 3

Altered States of Consciousness

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1 Meditation and Biofeedback

Meditation is a method some people use to try to narrow their consciousnessso the stresses of the outside world fade away

Focus on a peaceful, repetitive stimulus such as a mantra

Important part of some religions such as Buddhism, “oneness with the universe”

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BiofeedbackBiofeedback is a system that provides, or “feeds back,” data about something happening in the body

Allows people to control bodily functions previously regarded as notsubject to conscious control

Tension headachesHigh blood pressureADHD

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HypnosisHistory of Hypnosis

German physician Franz Mesmer in the late 1700’s. developed theory onmagnetism (all parts of universe connected by forms of magnetism)

To cure patients, passed magnets over their bodies, some would fall intoa trance, Mesmer was dismissed as a quack

Today:

Used by some medical doctors as an anesthetic for minor surgery

Some psychologists use it to help patients manage anxiety, or pain. Or tohelp patients overcome fears

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4 Achieving HypnosisFocus on an object or the hypnotist’s voice, usually suggest that arms andlegs are becoming warm, heavy and relaxed. Becoming sleepy or are fallingasleep

Hypnosis is not sleep. People in trances have very different brain waves thanpeople who are sleeping

Hypnotic suggestibility: usually like the idea of being hypnotized and don’tresist

Can only be hypnotized if they allow themselves to be

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Explaining HypnosisFreud used hypnosis to explore the unconscious.

Believed hypnotized people would allow themselves to put fantasy and impulse before fact and logic

Another View?

Role play theory: people who are hypnotized are playing out a part as if they are in a play and believe what they’re doing is real

(they enjoy the experience and believe what the hypnotist is telling them is real)

There is no one generally accepted explanation for hypnosis

Most researchers agree that it can and does work with certain patients

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Uses for HypnosisPsychologists continue to debate whether hypnosis has a scientific basis

Hypnosis and MemoryHas been used on occasion by the police to jog the memoriesof witnesses to a crime, but results unclear

Hypnosis and Pain PreventionHas been used by dentists to help people avoid pain during certain proceduresSome people so suggestible, undergo surgery without anesthesia if theyare hypnotized and told they feel no pain

Hypnosis and Quitting Bad HabitsTherapist uses posthypnotic suggestion of behaviors to be carried outafter the patient leavesLink the image of smoking with some image that would make the patientfeel ill or disgusted if they light up

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Section 5

Drugs and Consciousness

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DepressantsDepressants are drugs that slow the activity of the nervous system.

Generally give people a sense of relaxation but can have many negative side effects

Include alcohol and narcotics such as barbiturates and opiates

Alcohol is the most widely used drug in the United States

Regular use can lead to addiction

Withdrawal symptoms includetension and trembling

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Depressants:Heroin Morphine

Oxycodone

Stimulants:Amphetamines Methamphetamines CocaineNicotine

Hallucinogens:Ecstasy LSD

Marijuana/CannabisPeyote Inhalants

Other:Bath Salts

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NarcoticsNarcotics are addictive depressants that have been used to relieve painand induce sleep

Many narcotics (such as morphine, heroin, and codeine) are derived fromthe opium poppy plant

Morphine used during the Civil War to relieve pain from wounds. Highlyaddictive

Heroin introduced in the West in the 1800’s, seen as the “hero” that wouldend morphine addiction, also highly addictive

Withdrawal symptoms tremors, cramps, chills, rapid heartbeat, insomnia,vomiting, diarrhea

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3 StimulantsNicotine

Nicotine, the drug found in tobacco leaves is one of the most commonstimulants

Cigarettes, cigars, pipe tobacco, chewing tobacco

Addictive substance, some research suggests it can be as addictive as theuse of heroin

Withdrawal symptoms: nervousness,loss of energy, insomnia, heart palpitations, dizziness

Serious health risks, 400,000 Americansdie each year

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Amphetamines

Stimulants

Amphetamines are stimulants known for keeping people awake and forreducing appetite

First used by soldiers during WWII to stay awake and alert during the night

Pills, liquid form injected, meth (crushed, smoked, injected, snorted)

Not a hallucinogen, but high doses can cause hallucinations (bugs) and delusions

Highly addictive. Especially meth.

Permanent brain, liver, kidney damage, “meth mouth”

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HallucinogensA hallucinogen is a drug that produces hallucinations. In addition may cause feelings of relaxation and pleasure.

Marijuana

Impairs coordination, studies report it also impairs memory and learning

Effects on consciousness, may feel that time is passing very slowly

LSD

Much stronger than marijuana and can produce intense hallucinations

Gained wide popularity in the 1960’s with the claim that it expands consciousness and “opens new worlds”

Others: mushrooms, peyote, ecstasy

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Types of Drug Treatment

Detoxification: Removal of harmful substances from the body

Maintenance Programs: Controlled amounts of drug given to participants

Counseling: Group or individual sessions

Support Groups: People with similar problems sharing common experiences

• Alcoholics Anonymous


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