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Coriant HiT 7025 Technical Description

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Page 1: Coriant HiT 7025 Technical Description

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1/101 SDH MSPP

Thomas Jost

Copyright 2008 Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.

Coriant hiT 7025

Technical Description

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2/101 Technical Description hiT 7025July 15, 2013 / Issue 12

Copyright 2013 Coriant. All rights reserved.

The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in theintroduction of this documentation. This documentation is intended for the use of Coriant customers only for thepurposes of the agreement under which the document is submitted, and no part of it may be used, reproduced,

modified or transmitted in any form or means without the prior written permission of Coriant. The documentation hasbeen prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes fullresponsibility when using it. Coriant welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continuousdevelopment and improvement of the documentation.

The information or statements given in this documentation concerning the suitability, capacity, or performance of thementioned hardware or software products are given “as is” and all liability arising in connection with such hardwareor software products shall be defined conclusively and finally in a separate agreement between Coriant and thecustomer. However, Coriant has made all reasonable efforts to ensure that the instructions contained in thedocument are adequate and free of material errors and omissions. Coriant will, if deemed necessary by Coriant,explain issues which may not be covered by the document.

Coriant will correct errors in this documentation as soon as possible. IN NO EVENT WILL CORIANT BE LIABLEFOR ERRORS IN THIS DOCUMENTATION OR FOR ANY DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TOSPECIAL, DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL OR ANY LOSSES, SUCH AS BUT NOT

LIMITED TO LOSS OF PROFIT, REVENUE, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY ORDATA,THAT MAY ARISE FROM THE USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR THE INFORMATION IN IT.

This documentation and the product it describes are considered protected by copyrights and other intellectualproperty rights according to the applicable laws.Other product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks of their respective owners, and they arementioned for identification purposes only.

Copyright © Coriant 2013. All rights reserved.

History of Changes

Control Date Author Comments

04 18.06.2007 Rainer Koster Rebranded to NSN layout

05 Feb 27, 2008 Th. Jost New SW license structure added

06 Jun 05, 2008 Rainer Koster New 4x STM-1 board and enhanced temperature variantadded

07 Sep 09, 2009 ChristophSchwinghammer

Update with new core and OA shelf

08 Sep 15, 2009 Rainer Koster Update of mapping table

09 Apr 15, 2010 Xie Yijian Update of port cross connection & VLAN aggregation featureDescription of 4x GE/T card updatedDescription of DNI feature addedList of electromagnetic compatibility requirements updated

10 Jun 15, 2010 Xie Yijian

Rainer Koster

Modification on description of 4x GE/T cardSTM-1 I-1 optical interface addedmodification on max. power consumptionupdate of thermal standard (ETSI Class 3.2 on environment)

12 Jul 15, 2013 Thomas Jost

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Contents

1. 

Introduction ........................................................................... 8 

1.1 

Editorials ......................................................................................................... 8 

1.2  Next Generation SDH ...................................................................................... 8 

1.3  hiT 70 series .................................................................................................... 9 

2.  hiT 7025 Overview .............................................................. 10 

2.1  Overview ....................................................................................................... 10 

2.1.1 

Physical Structure ......................................................................................... 11 

2.1.2  Cross Connection and Switching Capability .................................................. 12 

2.1.3 

Line/Service Interface .................................................................................... 12 

2.2 

Data Capabilities ........................................................................................... 13 

2.3 

 Advanced Data Service Support .................................................................... 13 

2.3.1  IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN) ..................................................................................... 13 

2.3.2 

Input Information Rating Limiting ................................................................... 14 

2.3.3  Class of Service ............................................................................................ 14 

2.3.4  GFP Data Encapsulation ............................................................................... 14 

2.3.5  Virtual Concatenation and LCAS ................................................................... 15 

2.3.6  RSTP Based Protection ................................................................................. 15 

2.3.7  L2 Multicast Function ..................................................................................... 15 

2.3.8  Ethernet Transport Schemes ......................................................................... 15 

2.4  Network Protections ...................................................................................... 17 

2.5 

Main Features & Strengths ............................................................................ 17 

2.5.1  Flexibility ....................................................................................................... 17 

2.5.2  Reliability ....................................................................................................... 17 

2.5.3  Modularity and Scalability .............................................................................. 18 

2.5.4  Ease of use ................................................................................................... 18 

2.5.5 

Data Handling Capabilities ............................................................................ 18 

3.  System Application ............................................................. 19 

3.1  Networking Capability .................................................................................... 19 

3.1.1  Termination and Multiplexing (TM) ................................................................ 19 

3.1.2  Hubbing and Local Cross Connect ................................................................ 20 

3.1.3 

Linear ............................................................................................................ 21 3.1.4  Ring ............................................................................................................... 21 

3.1.5 

Multiple Ring Closure .................................................................................... 22 

3.1.6  OA extension shelf ........................................................................................ 22 

3.2  Ethernet Service Applications ........................................................................ 23 

4.  System Description ............................................................. 24 

4.1  Physical Structure and Module Construction ................................................. 24 

4.1.1  Chassis Slot Naming ..................................................................................... 24 

4.1.2  hiT 7025 interface options ............................................................................. 25 

4.2 

Power Supply ................................................................................................ 26 4.3

 

FAN 26 

4.4  System Controller (SC, SCE and SCE plus) .................................................. 26 

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4.5  System Interface Panel (SI) ........................................................................... 27 

4.6 

Cross-Connect Switching (CC) ...................................................................... 27 

4.7 

SDH Interfaces .............................................................................................. 27 4.7.1

 

1x STM-4 Interface Board ............................................................................. 27 

4.7.2  2 STM-1 Interface Board ............................................................................. 27 

4.7.3  4 STM-1 Interface Board ............................................................................. 28 

4.7.4  2 STM-1E (W/P) Interface ........................................................................... 28 

4.8 

PDH and Data Service Interfaces .................................................................. 29 

4.8.1  8x FE/L2 Service Interface Card .................................................................... 29 

4.8.2  4xGE/L2 Service Interface Card .................................................................... 31 

4.8.3  8x FE/T Service Interface Card ..................................................................... 32 

4.8.4 

1x GE/T Service Interface Board ................................................................... 33 

4.8.5  4x GE/T Service Interface Board ................................................................... 34 

4.8.6 

3 E3/DS3 (W/P) Interface Card.................................................................... 37 4.8.7

 

21 E1 (W/P) Interface Card ......................................................................... 38 

4.9 

Optical Amplifier ............................................................................................ 38 

4.10  User Channel (F1) ......................................................................................... 41 

4.11 

Engineering Order Wire (EOW) ..................................................................... 41 

4.12  Miscellaneous Discrete Input/Output (MDI/MDO) .......................................... 42 

4.13  Introduction to Software licensing .................................................................. 43 

4.13.1  General Structure of new SW items ............................................................... 43 

4.13.2  Software license structure of hiT 7025 ........................................................... 44 

5.  Protection and Redundancy ................................................ 46 

5.1 

Network Protection ........................................................................................ 46 

5.1.1  MS-SPRing ................................................................................................... 46 

5.1.2 

MSP .............................................................................................................. 46 

5.1.3  SNCP ............................................................................................................ 47 

5.1.4 

DNI ................................................................................................................ 47 

5.1.5  LCAS ............................................................................................................. 48 

5.1.6  Ethernet Shared Protection Ring ................................................................... 48 

5.1.7  Multiple Layers Protection ............................................................................. 48 

5.2  Equipment Redundancy and Protection ........................................................ 49 

5.2.1  Redundant Power Supply .............................................................................. 49 

5.2.2 

Redundant Cross-Connect ............................................................................ 49 

5.2.3 

Electrical Interface Module Protection ........................................................... 49 5.2.4

 

Protection under Abnormal Condition ............................................................ 49 

5.2.5  Software Fault Tolerance .............................................................................. 50 

5.2.6  Data Security ................................................................................................. 50 

6.  Technical Specification ....................................................... 51 

6.1  Multiplexing Structure .................................................................................... 51 

6.2  SDH Overhead .............................................................................................. 53 

6.3  Interface Types.............................................................................................. 54 

6.3.1  Electrical Interfaces ....................................................................................... 55 

6.3.2  Optical Interfaces .......................................................................................... 55 

6.3.3 

Optical amplifier card: OA .............................................................................. 56 6.3.4

 

Optical Amplifier (OA) .................................................................................... 57 

6.3.5  Management and Maintenance Interface ....................................................... 60 

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6.4  Interface Performance Specifications ............................................................ 61 

6.4.1 

Optical Interface Performances ..................................................................... 61 

6.4.2 

STM-1 Optical Interface Performance ........................................................... 62 6.4.3

 

STM-4 Optical Interface Performance ........................................................... 63 

6.4.4  STM-16 Optical Interface Performance.......................................................... 64 

6.4.5  Multi-rate CWDM interface Optical Performance ........................................... 65 

6.4.6  2.5G DWDM interface Optical Performance .................................................. 66 

6.4.7  GE Optical Transmitter and Receiver Interfaces ............................................ 68 

6.4.8 

Electrical Interface Performances .................................................................. 70 

6.4.9  Timing and Synchronization Performance ..................................................... 73 

6.4.10 

Jitter Performance ......................................................................................... 73 

6.4.11  STM-N Interface Output Jitter ........................................................................ 74 

6.5  Timing ........................................................................................................... 76 

6.6 

Power Source ................................................................................................ 77 

6.6.1 

Power Supply ................................................................................................ 77 

6.6.2  Power Consumption ...................................................................................... 77 

6.6.3 

Cooling .......................................................................................................... 77 

6.7 

Mechanical Structure ..................................................................................... 77 

6.8  Environment Requirements ........................................................................... 78 

6.8.1  Enhanced Temperature Variant ..................................................................... 78 

6.9  Electromagnetic Compatibility ....................................................................... 79 

6.10  Vibration Tests .............................................................................................. 81 

6.10.1  Shipping Test ................................................................................................ 81 

6.10.2 

Office Test ..................................................................................................... 81 

6.11 

 Alarms and Events ........................................................................................ 81 

6.11.1   Alarm Types .................................................................................................. 81 

6.11.2   Alarm Severity Level...................................................................................... 82 

6.11.3   Alarm Reports ............................................................................................... 82 

6.11.4  Events ........................................................................................................... 82 

7.  Standard Compliance.......................................................... 85 

8.   Appendix 1: Definitions and Abbreviations .......................... 87 

9.   Appendix 2: Basis Technologies ......................................... 94 

9.1 

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) ................................................................ 94 

9.2  Virtual Concatenation (VCat) ......................................................................... 96 

9.3  Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS) .................................................... 97 

9.4 

Ethernet Functions and Services ................................................................... 97 

9.5  Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross Connetion.............................. 98 

10.   Appendix 3: Related Documents ....................................... 101 

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List of Figures

Figure 1 - Future Traffic Growth .......................................................................................................... 8 

Figure 2 - hiT 7025 chassis ............................................................................................................... 10 

Figure 3 – hiT 7025 Physical Structure ............................................................................................. 11 

Figure 4 - Three Ethernet data transmission methods in hiT 7025 ring ........................................... 16 

Figure 5 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability .............................................................. 19 

Figure 6 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability .............................................................. 20 

Figure 7 - hiT 7025 linear network configuration ............................................................................... 21 

Figure 8 - hiT 7025 2-fiber MS-SPRing application .......................................................................... 21 

Figure 9 - Multiple Ring closure at a single hiT 7025 node ............................................................... 22 

Figure 10 - hiT 7025 Chassis view .................................................................................................... 24 

Figure 11 - hiT 7025 chassis slot naming ......................................................................................... 25 

Figure 12 - hiT 7025 Cards List ......................................................................................................... 26 

Figure 13 - Functional block diagram of 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection ..................................... 28 

Figure 14 - 8 FE/L2 card functional block diagram ......................................................................... 30 

Figure 15 - 8 FE/L2 interface card external interfaces .................................................................... 31 

Figure 16 - 8 FE/L2 card LEDs ....................................................................................................... 31 

Figure 17 - 8 FE/T card functional block diagram ........................................................................... 32 

Figure 18 - 8 FE/T interface card external interfaces...................................................................... 33 

Figure 19 - 8 FE/T card LEDs ......................................................................................................... 33 

Figure 20 - 1 GE/T service board module functional block diagram ............................................... 34 

Figure 21 - Functional block diagram of 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection ...................................... 37 

Figure 22 – OA module functional building block diagram ............................................................... 39 

Figure 23 – OA module safty procedure ........................................................................................... 40 

Figure 24 – OA card external interfaces ........................................................................................... 41 

Figure 25 – OA card LEDs ................................................................................................................ 41 

Figure 26 –External XOW box .......................................................................................................... 42 

Figure 27: Software license structure in Next Generation Metro ...................................................... 43 

Figure 28: Software license structure of hiT 7025 ............................................................................ 45 

Figure 29 - Cross-Connect Multiplexing Structure (ITU-T G.707) .................................................... 51 

Figure 30 - Terminated Mapping Structure ....................................................................................... 52 

Figure 31 - Payload Mapping ............................................................................................................ 52 

Figure 32 – hiT 7025 supported SDH overhead process ................................................................. 54 

Figure 33 – hiT 7025 Interface Types ............................................................................................... 54 

Figure 34 - hiT 7025 optical service interfaces supported ................................................................ 56 

Figure 35 - STM-N Optical Interface Parameters and Application Codes ........................................ 61 

Figure 36 - hiT 7025 STM-1Optical Interface Specifications ............................................................ 62 

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Figure 37 - hiT 7025 STM-4 Optical Interface Specifications ........................................................... 63 

Figure 38 - hiT 7025 STM-16 Optical Interface Specifications ......................................................... 65 

Figure 39 - hiT 7025 CWDM Optical Interface Specifications .......................................................... 66 

Figure 40 - hiT 7025 DWDM Optical Interface Specifications .......................................................... 67 

Figure 41 - hiT 7025 DWDM Wavelenthes ....................................................................................... 67 

Figure 42 - 1000 Base-SX transmitter interface parameters ............................................................ 68 

Figure 43 - 1000 Base-SX receiving interface parameters ............................................................... 69 

Figure 44 - 1000 Base-LX Transmitter interface parameters ........................................................... 69 

Figure 45 - 1000 Base-LX receiver interface parameters ................................................................. 70 

Figure 46 - 2048 kbit/s Electrical Interface Parameters .................................................................... 71 

Figure 47 - Electrical Interface Output Signals Bit Rate Allowable Deviation ................................... 71 

Figure 48 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Attenuation ............................................................. 72 

Figure 49 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Port Frequency Deviation ....................................... 72 

Figure 50 - Electrical Interface Input Port Anti-interference Capability ............................................. 72 

Figure 51 - Timing Output Jitter ........................................................................................................ 73 

Figure 52 - Internal Timing Source Output Frequency...................................................................... 73 

Figure 53 - STM-1/-4/-16 Interface Output Jitter ............................................................................... 74 

Figure 54 - STM-1 Interface Jitter Tolerance .................................................................................... 74 

Figure 55 - STM-4 Interface Jitter Tolerance .................................................................................... 75 

Figure 56 - STM-16 Interface Jitter Tolerance .................................................................................. 75 

Figure 57 - PDH mapping jitter generation specification................................................................... 75 

Figure 58 - hiT 7025 PDH interface combined jitter generation spec ............................................... 76 

Figure 59 - hiT 7025 Environment Requirements ............................................................................ 78 

Figure 60 - hiT 7025 Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements .................................................. 80 

Figure 61 - Shipping Test Standards ................................................................................................ 81 

Figure 62 - Office test standards ....................................................................................................... 81 

Figure 63 - Management Events ....................................................................................................... 83 

Figure 64 - Hardware Events ............................................................................................................ 83 

Figure 65 - Software Events .............................................................................................................. 84 

Figure 66 - GFP mapping .................................................................................................................. 95 

Figure 67 - Comparison between GFP and PPP .............................................................................. 96 

Figure 70  – Port Cross Connection ............................................................................................... 98 

Figure 71 – VLAN aggregation .......................................................................................................... 99 

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1. Introduction

1.1 Editorials

This document is a technical description for the product hiT 7025. The technicaldescriptions of other products of the hiT 70 series are also available. This document is nota marketing document. The target of this document is to inform on detail about theproduct, product features and the application in the network environment.

It is not a document for advertisement purposes but it is useful to inform our customer indetail in the after sales period. For marketing and advertisement related productinformation please contact the sales department.

If the reader is looking for information on the basis technologies please refer to  9 Appendix 2: Basis Technologies.

1.2 Next Generation SDH

For almost two decades, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) has been the preferredtransport technology over optical fibers. SDH is the dominant transport protocol in virtuallyall long-haul networks (voice and data) as well as in metro networks that were originallydeveloped for voice traffic. As a resilient, well-understood transport mechanism, SDH hasstood the test of time. Its reliability is uned. The ability of SDH to support 50-msecswitching to backup paths, combined with extensive performance monitoring features for

carrier-class transport.

Legacy SDH was designed mainly to transport circuit oriented services like voice and assuch is an inherently rigid and inefficient method for transporting data. Traditionally asingle wire speed Gigabit Ethernet service (1.25G) will be allocated to one STM 16channel (2.5G). This means 48 % of the of this STM-16 pipe remains as idle capacity.

Figure 1 - Future Traffic Growth

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The phenomenal growth in bandwidth, connectivity and content generated by the Internet,Intranet and broadband applications, has made native data transfer a very important

criteria for telecommunication infrastructure (see Figure 1). Ethernet has become the defacto standard for enterprise networks. In Storage Area Networks (SAN), ESCONTM,FICONTM and Fiber Channel are by far today‘s most dominating technology as well.

The solution is Next Generation SDH—technology that transforms rigid, circuit-orientedSDH networks to a universal transport mechanism that is optimized for both voice anddata. The technology enables carriers to keep up with growing demands for bandwidth, toefficiently carry both streaming and bursty traffic, and adapt to constantly changing trafficpatterns. Multiple protocols and thus services are supported: from basic TDM voice,Ethernet, as well as SAN.

1.3 hiT 70 series

Coriant has introduced a new range of equipment that makes the promise of NextGeneration SDH a reality: the hiT 70 series. This platform provides the flexibility of truepacket switching and Ethernet transport, while operating with the inherent reliability ofSDH. Multiple network applications are integrated and consolidated into a single compactunit. The efficiency of this approach, together with extensive use of highly integratedcomponents allows the hiT 70 series to be offered at lower costs than current solutions.

Data + Voice = hiT 70 series

In order to address the varying needs and requirements of carrier‘s carrier, car rier and

enterprise, the hiT 70 series consists of a diverse range of products, namely:

 hiT 7080 ADM / CC, multiple STM-64

 hiT 7065 ADM / CC, multiple STM-64

 hiT 7060 HC ADM 64, multiple STM-16

 hiT 7060 ADM, multiple STM-16

 hiT 7035 ADM, STM-16, STM- 4, STM-1

 hiT 7025 ADM, STM-16, STM-4, STM-1

 hiT 7030 ADM 4/1 modular

 hiT 7020 ADM 4/1 single board CPE

This Technical Description covers hiT 7025, only. For detailed description of the otherproduct please refer to 10 Appendix 3: Related Documents. 

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2. hiT 7025 Overview

2.1 Overview

hiT 7025 is a compact carrier class full blown STM-16/-4/-1 add-drop-multiplexer. hiT7025 supports core equipment protection with no single point of failure, and PDH electricalprotection.

It offers rich Ethernet features.

 Applications:

 Optimized for SDH applications with data capabilities

 In transmission networks of mobile network

 Central office STM-16/-4/-1 add drop multiplexer

 Highend enterprise services

hiT 7025 offers a High Order cross connection capacity up to 33G and a Low Order crossconnection capacity up to 10G.

Figure 2 - hiT 7025 chassis

hiT 7025 offers a powerful and cost-effective product design for PDH, SDH and data

applications independent if these applications capabilities are requested for use in centraloffices, fixed part of mobile networks or in combination with highend enterprise services.

hiT 7025 supports the complete range of PDH and SDH interfaces ranging from E1,E3/DS3, STM-1 el./opt. up to STM-4 and even STM-16. It provides a full suite of SDHfunctions including mapping, multiplexing, cross-connection and various protectionschemes.

hiT 7025 has a modular and scalable design, enabling a pay-as-you-grow deploymentplan. The system can be initially deployed as a low cost, modest capacity system, andthen enlarged to a high capacity, multi-service system. A large variety of service modulesensure a cost-effective match with service demands of today while retaining superiorflexibility to meet future service requirements.

Its advance software architecture design results in a highly fault-tolerant system.Combined with built-in hardware redundancies, hiT 7025 achieves carrier-class reliabilitywith 99.999% availability.

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The system is fully compliant with ITU-T and/or IEEE standards, and is inter-operable withother standards-based SDH, multi-service transport, and data communication products.

Utilizing hiT 7025 in combination with the multi-service capabilities of Coriant TNMSnetwork management system, service providers can cost-effectively grow their embeddedbase networks or launch new networks

2.1.1 Physical Structure

The physical dimensions of hiT 7025 chassis are 445mm (wide)  238mm (high)  240mm (deep) (300mm back to door), which is compliant to 19 and 21 inch industry

standards.

Figure 3  – hiT 7025 Physical Structure

The dimension of physical cards is:

CC cards = 253 mm x 264 mm x 30mm

Short cards = 238 mm x 130 mm x 30 mm

IO1-4/ = 229 mm x 130 mm x 33 mm

SI/PWR = 198 mm x 130 mm x 33 mm

FAN = 246 mm x 225 mm x 36 mm

 All external interfaces have front access.

CC2 w/ STM-16/4/1

F

A

N

CC1 w STM-16/4/1

LC7

SCE

LC3

IO4

IO1

IO2

IO3

SI

PWR1

PWR2

LC5LC1

LC6LC2

LC8LC4

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2.1.2 Cross Connection and Switching Capability

hiT 7025 supports two types of cross connection and switching capabilities:

 ADM-4/-1: 7.2G/2.5G CC with 1x STM-4/-1 line interface:

 HOCC: (7.2G)

 LOCC: (2.5G)

 ADM-16/-4: 15.2G/5 CC with 1x STM-16/-4 line interface:

 HOCC: 15.2G LOCC: 5G

 

 ADM-16/-4/-1: 33G/10 CC with 2*STM-16 or 1*STM-16+4*STM-4/1:

 HOCC: 33G

 LOCC: 10G

2.1.3 Line/Service Interface

hiT 7025 provides the following line interfaces:

1) SDH: 1 STM-4 Optical Line Interface Board

2) SDH: 2 STM-1 Optical Interface Board

3) SDH: 4 STM-1 Optical Interface Board

4) SDH: 2 STM-1E (W/P) Electrical Interface Card

5) SDH: 2 STM-1E PaddleCard

6) PDH: 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) interface card

7) PDH: 3 E3/DS3 Paddle

8) PDH: 21 E1 (W/P) client interface card

9) PDH: 21 E1 75ohm Paddle

10) PDH: 21 E1 120ohm Paddle

11) IP/Ethernet: 8 FE/L2 interface card

12) IP/Ethernet: 8 FE/T Ethernet interface card13) IP/Ethernet: 1 GE/T interface card

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14) Optical Amplifier cards (13, 15 and 18 dBm)

15) Optical Pre-Amplifier card (20dB)

16) 4 x GE/T interface card

2.2 Data Capabilities

hiT 7025 supports GFP (ITU-T G.7041 / Y.1303) encapsulation for Ethernet data.

hiT 7025 supports VC-12-nv, VC-3-nv and VC-4-nv virtual concatenation (ITU-T G.707 /Y.1322) efficiently mapping data traffic into SDH payload. hiT 7025 also supports LCAS(G.7042) at VC-12-nv, VC-3-nv and VC-4-nv level, which provides dynamic bandwidthadjustment.

hiT 7025 provides SDH network protection functions including Multiplex Section SharedProtection Ring, Multiplex Section Protection 1 + 1 unidirectional/bi-directional, and Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP) at VC-12/-3/-4 levels.

2.3 Advanced Data Service Support

hiT 7025 supports the following Layer 2 data functions:

1) IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN)

2) Input information limiting

3) Class of Service

4) GFP

5) VCAT and LCAS

6) RSTP

7) Layer 2 multicast8) ESR

9) Port aggregation and VLAN aggregation

2.3.1 IEEE 802.1Q (VLAN)

hiT 7025 supports Ethernet switching function, which is in compliance with IEEE Standard

802.1Q. hiT 7025 supports VLAN on a per port basis. Each data port can be enabled ordisabled for VLAN function.

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 At the ingress, each port can be set either to accept both VLAN-tagged and untaggedframes, or to accept only the VLAN-tagged frames depending on the application

requirements. At the egress, each port can be set to remove the VLAN tags or keep theVLAN tags. It is also possible to assign each port a PVID (Port-based VLAN ID), which willbe inserted to the untagged frames as a VLAN ID when the frames come into the port. Inaddition, each port can be put into one or more VLANs by assigning a VLAN list to it,allowing different customers or different applications to share the same port. All serviceswithin the specific VLAN in the list can dynamically share the bandwidth of the port andstill retain security. If the port belongs to a VLAN, the frames of that VLAN will be able topass-through the port; otherwise the frames will be discarded.

Optionally, each port can be set to transparent mode, meaning that no switching functionswill be performed on the frames. In this case, the pairing of one LAN (customer) port andone WAN (internal uplink) port must be established.

2.3.2 Input Information Rating Limiting

hiT 7025 supports Input Rate Limiting function on a port basis or a VLAN basis.

 An input information rate-limiting feature allows the one to control the maximum bandwidthan end user can obtain from the network. The minimum rate is 128 Kbit/s, and thebandwidth incremental granularity is as low as 128 Kbit/s.

2.3.3 Class of Service

hiT 7025 supports 802.1p CoS at a port basis or a VLAN basis.

 At the ingress of every port, there is a buffer to accommodate the input burst when theoutput port is congested. The memory for buffering is shared among all ports on a card,and the total capacity is up to 16 Mbytes. At the egress of every port, there are fourqueues, which can be assigned with different priorities or weights. The scheduling schemecan be set either to strict policing or Weighted Round-Robin.

2.3.4 GFP Data Encapsulation

hiT 7025 incorporates advanced Generic Framing Procedure (GFP) (G.7041 / Y.1303)mapping scheme to encapsulate Ethernet traffic into SDH payloads. GFP encapsulateddata is then mapped into SDH payloads using Virtual Concatenation techniques of ITU-Tstandard G.707/Y.1322. This process provides the most efficient mapping of the packetsand the greatest bandwidth

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2.3.5 Virtual Concatenation and LCAS

hiT 7025 supports VC-12-nv, VC-3-nv and VC-4-nv. The VC provides fine-tuned SDHpipes to match the needs of packet – and to boost carriers’ traffic-handling scalability andefficiency. The system can accommodate up to 48ms (for all transparent cards) or 32 ms(for FE/L2 card) delay deference between the fastest VC-4 member and the slowest VC-4member and accommodate 16 ms delay deference between the fastest VC-12 memberand the slowest VC-12 member..

hiT 7025 supports LCAS. The combination of VCAT and LCAS provide soft protectionschemes. LCAS provides dynamic adjustment of the size of a virtually concatenated groupof channels.

2.3.6 RSTP Based Protection

The Rapid Spanning Tree protocol acc. IEEE 802.1w and MSTP acc. IEEE 802.1sprevent against loops at the WAN side of the network while providing L2 protection.

2.3.7 L2 Multicast Function

hiT 7025 supports Layer 2 multicast functionality including pre-provisioned staticmulticast, or IGMP Snooping controlled dynamic multicast.

2.3.8 Ethernet Transport Schemes

hiT 7025 supports three Ethernet data transport schemes, which are described below:

 Point-to-point transparent

In this mechanism, dedicated bandwidth is assigned to end-to-end traffic. The VirtualConcatenation technique is used in the hiT products to provide more efficientbandwidth assignment. This scheme is more suitable for high security requirementsand delay-sensitive traffic as each traffic has a dedicated bandwidth. The drawback isthe limited bandwidth efficiency. As we know, Ethernet traffic has burstycharacteristics and is delay insensitive. Statistical multiplexing is usually employed indata network to achieve bandwidth efficiency. Dedicated bandwidth per data flow isnot efficient for bursty traffic transmission.

 Layer 2 aggregation

In this mechanism, the Ethernet switching and aggregation is performed at the NE toallow local user traffic to be aggregated into a higher rate SDH trunk. The statisticalmultiplexing of multiple Ethernet traffic makes the bandwidth utilization more efficient.

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  Port Cross ConnectionThat means the frame from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will be forward to egress

port (both WAN or LAN) according to the ingress port. At the ingress port a forwardtable is configured by operator to define the egress port base on the ingress port

  Port + VLAN Cross Connection (VLAN aggregation)That means the frame from ingress port from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will beforward to egress port (both WAN or LAN) according to its VLAN tag. At the ingressport a forward table is configured by operator to define the egress port based onVLAN. Untagged frame will be discarded.

 Ethernet Shared Ring (ESR)

The ESR (Ethernet Shared Ring) is a variable length packet switched multi-node ring.

 Data traffic shares the same ring bandwidth

 Nodes on ring have IEEE802.3 Address

 Header has IEEE802.3 type Destination Address and Source Address

 MAC and VLAN based switching

 Destination strips unicast packets

 Drop and continue for broadcast and multicast

 Source node strips broadcast packets

 Class of Service indication in the header supports multiple traffic priorities on ring

 Rapid Spanning Tree protocol (IEEE 802.1w and IEEE802.1s) to prevent buildingloops and to provide layer 2 protections in ring configuration.

The ESR (Ethernet Shared Ring) technology can efficiently add/drop or duplicate thedata traffic on a ring. This dramatically increases the transport efficiency whencompared with the traditional point-to-point networking technology that may lead toback-haul traffic and inefficient multicast traffic.

ESR is based on the RSTP technology to prevent the Ethernet Loop and BroadcastStorm. If using the Multi-STP, functionality of the spatial reuse, different VLAN can gothrough different path, and can balance the traffic between the different paths.

(c) Ethernet Shared Ring(a) Point-to-point

(transparent)

(b) Local Aggregation

-Layer 2switching

-VLAN aggregation

3WAN

interfaces

9WAN

Interfaces

3 LAN

interfaces

2WAN

interfaces

3 LAN

interfaces

3 LAN

interfaces

Local muxing

 Figure 4 - Three Ethernet data transmission methods in hiT 7025 ring

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2.4 Network Protections

hiT 7025 provides traffic protection in the SDH layer:

 MS-Spring at STM-4 and STM-16 level,

 1+1 MSP at STM-1and STM-4 and STM-16 level,

 Both of SNCP/I and SNCP/N at VC-12, LO VC-3, HO VC-4, and HO VC-4-4c level.

  DNI at STM-16 and STM-4 Level

hiT 7025 also provides traffic protection in the Ethernet layer:

 LCAS soft protection (Diverses routing),

 Link aggregation at LAN and WAN side.

2.5 Main Features & Strengths

2.5.1 Flexibility

hiT 7025 offers the flexibility to be used as full blown ADM-1/ ADM-4 to compact ADM-16.Interconnection to your SDH network can be at STM-16, STM-4 or STM-1 level.

For reach of very long and ultra long distance applications without use of intermediatedregenerators optical booster and preamplifiers are offered. Maximum distances up to 160km (in compliance with ITU-T Recommendation G.692 U-16.2/3) can be achieved.

2.5.2 Reliability

hiT 7025 is due to its full redundancy concept a very reliable product:

The system is based on the standardized SDH technology, which is a market provennetworking technology.

Highly integrated components guarantee for highest system reliability:

Optical transmission can be protected using Multiplex Section Shared Protection Ring,Sub-Network Connection Protection (SNCP), and Multiplex Section Protection 1+1unidirectional / bidirectional.

Thermal Sensor detects if the internal temperature exceeds the threshold and raise theover temperature alarm.

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2.5.3 Modularity and Scalability

hiT 7025 is of modular design and allows therefore a high configuration versatility.

 All optical line interfaces uses SFP optical modules. This modularity reduces the sparepartstock and increases the flexibility of the system as on the same card different types ofSFP modules can be used on different ports (e.g. short haul and long haul).

The scalability from full blow ADM-1/ ADM-4 to compact ADM-16 allows for flexible growthwith evolving networking needs.

hiT 7025 offers the ability to interface with all NSN and other vendor’s optical networkingsystems.

The same applies for data processing equipment offers standardized Ethernet interface

(10/100 BaseT, 1000/100/100 BaseT, 100 Base FX , FC1G or 2G and Gigabit Ethernet).

2.5.4 Ease of use

 All optical and electrical interfaces have front access.

Support for Small Form-factor Pluggable (SFP) optical interfaces for STM-16, STM-4,STM-1, and GE SFP optical interfaces, allow convenient field replacement of the optical

interfaces. As the network evolves, different optical modules can be inserted to meet thechanging network environment and growth.

 Additional, state-of-art electrical SFP module is supported for STM-1 interface card andGE card.

2.5.5 Data Handling Capabilities

Support for 4094 VLANs per L2 switch card in order to transport end-user data securely

with a variety of Class-of-Service options that allow differentiated services between usersor between applications with a given user.

Ethernet traffic is encapsulated into SDH using either GFP. This provides the mostadvanced and efficient way to carry data traffic within a SDH network.

Virtual Concatenation is used to provide scalable, efficient, compatible, and resilient use ofSDH to move traffic. This greatly increases the useable bandwidth of the network.

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3. System Application

hiT 7025 multi-service access platform is a highly flexible product capable of supporting avariety of network applications like bandwidth access, service-on-demand and LANservices.

hiT 7025 can be configured in such a way that it supports a large variety of networkapplications with any mix of PDH, SDH and Ethernet services.

3.1 Networking Capability

hiT 7025 provides high flexibility and compactness supporting a large variety ofconfigurations for STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1 network applications:

 Termination and multiplexing

 Small local cross connect

 Linear

 Ring

 Multi Ring closure

3.1.1 Termination and Multiplexing (TM)

hiT 7025 system can be configured to function as a hub-Terminal at STM-16, STM-4 orSTM-1 level.

Figure 5 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability

hiT 7025STM-1/-4/16

E1

E3/DS3

10/100M

10/100/1000M

100M FX

GE

STM-1E

STM-1/4

 ATM IMA

FC

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3.1.2 Hubbing and Local Cross Connect

hiT 7025 system can be used to function as a small local cross-connect system (or canbe applied in hubbing configurations). This allows various hybrid network architectureswith a variety of connection speeds and network topologies such as rings, multi-rings,subtending rings, or linear structures. This eliminates the need for back-to-back terminalsand greatly increases network flexibility.

hiT 7025 can serve a cluster of other terminals, for example hiT 7030 or other vendor’sproducts that have standard SDH interfaces, located at remote sites, through point-to-point connections with optional 1+1 MSP protection. It also serves as an aggregation Hubfor Subtending Rings. This feature eliminates back-to-back terminals that would berequired to serve multi-ring connections using equipment with less ring-closure

capabilities.

Figure 6 - hiT 7025 termination and multiplexing capability

hiT 7025STM-1/-4/16STM-1/-4/16

E1

E3/DS3

100/100M

10/100/1000M

100M FX

GE

STM-1E

STM-1/4

 ATM IMA

FC

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3.1.3 Linear

hiT 7025 supports STM-16/-4/-1 linear network topology as depicted in figure below:

Figure 7 - hiT 7025 linear network configuration

3.1.4 Ring

Rings provide redundant bandwidth and/or equipment to ensure system integrity in theevent of any transmission or timing failure, including a fiber cut or node failure. A ring is acollection of nodes that form a closed loop, in which each node is connected to adjacentnodes.

hiT 7025 supports two-fiber MS-SPRing. Figure below shows a hiT 7025 ring example.

Figure 8 - hiT 7025 2-fiber MS-SPRing application

When using the MS-SPRing protection mechanism, rings ranging from 3 to 16 nodes aresupported (the maximum of 16 nodes in a ring is specified in G.841). They performautomatic protection switching (revertive) in less than 50 milliseconds.

hiT7025TM

hiT7025 ADM

hiT7025TM

2-Fiber STM-4/16 ring

hiT7025

hiT7025 hiT7025

hiT7025

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3.1.5 Multiple Ring Closure

 A single network element as depicted in Figure 9 can interconnect two hiT 7025 ringsworking at different or the same line speeds.

Figure 9 - Multiple Ring closure at a single hiT 7025 node

3.1.6 OA extension shelf

In OA Extension Shelf Mode the hiT 7025 can be used as an Optical Amplifier (OA)extension shelf for the hiT 70xx series products. This configuration has no CC, tributary,or line cards. Only basic cards (power, fan, Enhanced System Controller (SCE)), andOptical Amplifier (OA) cards are supported.

Connection is made either directly between the management ports of these two NEs or ifmultiple OA Extension Shelves are required, through a hub or switch (see Fig. 3.1).

MAIN SHELF

MGT Port 1

MGT Port 2

SURPASS hiT 7025

OA Extension Shelf 

SURPASS hiT 7025

OA Extension Shelf 

SWITCH

 / HUB

When more than one OA Extension Shelf is needed,

a hub or switch is necessary

 

Fig. 3.1 OA Extension Shelf connection to main shelf

Ring 1

(STM-1/4/16)

hiT7025

hiT7025 hiT7025

hiT7025

hiT7025

hiT7025

hiT7025Ring 2

(STM-4/16)

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In OA Extension Shelf configuration, the NE has no cross connect card or tributary cardsand can be equipped with up to 8 OA cards in slots 1  – (LC1) to 8 – (LC8).

3.2 Ethernet Service Applications

hiT 7025 provides data transport over SDH, and offers various data applications inaddition to traditional TDM applications. This offers service providers a cost-effective,simple, and reliable multi-service solution for their customers.

hiT 7025 can provide aggregation from any port to any port, and then connect it to arouter. hiT 7025 can support up to 4094 VLANs on the Ethernet port allowing bandwidthto be shared for different customer applications depending on the priority or securityrequired for the application.

Normally a user does not require all of the available bandwidth, for instance 600 Mbit/swhich can be provided by a VC-4-4v. By using the VLAN capability, the whole bandwidthof 600 Mbit/s can be allocated across multiple users, giving each a committed informationinput rate. Hence, the bandwidth of the physical link can be more effectively utilized.

In addition, using Virtual Concatenation and LCAS can more accurately adjust thephysical bandwidth to meet customer demands, as opposed to traditional contiguousconcatenation. This further enhances bandwidth efficiency.

 Additionally to being able to provide precise customer-required bandwidth levels, four

queues for service priority can be assigned per Port/VLAN. This enables additionalflexibility in pricing and over-subscription service plans.

By using the VLAN function, the operator can provide Transparent VLAN Service (TVS)for different customers. For example, a GE user or multiple 10/100M Ethernet users canbe aggregated and transported while retaining secure connections.

The use of GFP data mapping techniques within hiT 7025 greatly improves the bandwidthefficiency of the connections.

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4. System Description

4.1 Physical Structure and Module Construction

hiT 7025 is designed to fit ETSI (21 inch) and EIA 300 (19 inch) requirements. A hiT 7025chassis view is shown below:

Figure 10 - hiT 7025 Chassis view

hiT 7025 sub-rack is structured using a horizontal oriented, multi-card chassis.

4.1.1 Chassis Slot Naming

hiT 7025 chassis slot and slot naming is shown below:

LC stands for Line Card, CC stands for Cross Connect Card, SC stands for SystemController, IO stands for Input/Ouput Card, SI stands for System Interface and PWRstands for Power filter and converter module.

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Figure 11 - hiT 7025 chassis slot naming

4.1.2 hiT 7025 interface options

In the following table all interface options provided by hiT 7025 are listed.

Card Name Allowable Card Location

Maximum number ofports

[per system]

Cross Connect Card with 1xSTM-4/-1 CC1, CC2 1 [2]

Cross Connect Card with 1xSTM-16/-4 CC1, CC2 1 [2]

Cross Connect Card with 2xSTM-16 or1*STM-16+4*STM-4/1

CC1, CC25 [10]

1 STM-4 Line Interface Board

LC1 to LC4(7.2G/2.5G) 

LC1 to LC8(15.2G/5G) 

LC1 to LC8 ( 33G/10G)

1 [4](7.2G/2.5G) 

1 [8](15.2G/5G) 

1 [8](33G/10G) 

2 STM-1 Line Interface Board

LC1 to LC4(7.2G/2.5G) 

LC1 to LC8(15.2G/5G) 

LC1 to LC8(33G/10G) 

2 [8](7.2G/2.5G) 

2 [16](15.2G/5G) 

2 [16](33G/10G) 

4x STM-1 Line Interface Board

LC1 to LC4(7.2G/2.5G) 

LC1 to LC8(15.2G/5G) 

LC1 to LC8(33G/10G) 

4 [16](7.2G/2.5G) 

4 [32](15.2G/5G) 

4[32] (33G/10G)

2 STM-1E Interface Board LC3 or LC4 2 [2]

CC2 w/ STM-16/4/1

F

A

N

CC1 w STM-16/4/1

LC7

SCE

LC3

IO4

IO1

IO2

IO3

SI

PWR1

PWR2

LC5LC1

LC6LC2

LC8LC4

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Card Name Allowable Card Location

Maximum number ofports

[per system]

8 FE/T Card LC1 to LC8 8 [64]

8 FE/L2 LC1 to LC8

8 [32] (7.2G/2.5G)

8 [32] (15.2G/5G)

8 [32] (33G/10G)

1 GE/T LC1 to LC8 1 [8]

4 GE/T LC1, LC2,LC7, LC8 4 [16]

4xGE/L2 LC1, LC2,LC7, LC8 4 [16]

3 E3/DS3 LC3, LC4 3 [6]

21 E1 LC5 to LC8 21 [84]

Figure 12 - hiT 7025 Cards List

Both the optical and electrical interface access is on the front of the sub-rack. Cardfaceplates are provided for all cards with information on card type, LED description, andunique serial number on each label. Faceplate covers are available for empty slots.

4.2 Power Supply

hiT 7025 DC power supply provides two -40V DC to -72V DC power supplies to offer fullequipment redundancy.

4.3 FAN

There is one fan assembly on the left side of the chassis. The fan working status isindicated at the interface panel. The fan assembly is replaceable when the system is inservice.

4.4 System Controller (SC, SCE and SCE plus)

hiT 7025 has a dedicated system controller. This controller has on its front side severalservice interfaces: management, console, MDI/MDO, etc.

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4.5 System Interface Panel (SI)

The system interface panel provides the synchronization interfaces (T3 and T4).

4.6 Cross-Connect Switching (CC)

The CC card provides a cross connect function. To fit the customers’ different application

economically, the hiT 7035 provide three types of CC cards: one with 15.2G/5G with 1 

STM-16/-4, one with 7.2G/2.5G with 1 STM-4/-1 and one with 32.8G/10G and 2*STM-16or 1*STM-16 + 4*STM-4/1.

4.7 SDH Interfaces

hiT 7025 provides following SDH interfaces:

 1 STM-4 Interface Board

 2 STM-1 Interface Board

 4x STM-1 Interface Board

 2 STM-1E interface Card

4.7.1 1x STM-4 Interface Board

This board provides 1 optical interface with a signal rate of 622 Mbits/s. The STM-4

interface is fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. This module supportshot swappable SFP optical module. The STM-4 optical interface on this board can bepaired with any STM-4 interface on another board for 2-fiber STM-4 ring closure. TheSTM-4 ring supports MS-SPRING, MSP, and SNCP protection function.

4.7.2 2 STM-1 Interface Board

This board provides 2 optical interfaces with a signal rate of 155 Mbits/s. The STM-1

interfaces are fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. This board supportstwo hot swappable SFP optical modules or SFP electrical modules. On STM-1 level MSPand SNCP protection is supported.

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4.7.3 4 STM-1 Interface Board

This board provides 4 optical interfaces with a signal rate of 155 Mbits/s. The STM-1interfaces are fully compliant with ITU-T G.707 and G.957 standards. This board supportsfour hot swappable SFP optical modules or SFP electrical modules. On STM-1 level MSPand SNCP protection is supported.

4.7.4 2 STM-1E (W/P) Interface

This card offers 2 STM-1E electrical interface, and supports redundant (1+1) 2 STM-1Ecard protection.

Using the redundancy option implement the following devices two 2 STM-1E functional

cards and one 2 STM-1E I/O board.

The 2 STM-1E functional card performs 2 STM-1E signal mapping and framingfunction.

The 2 STM-1E EC board provide 2 STM-1E interfaces. This board is connected to both

2 STM-1E (working) and 2 STM-1E (protection) card simultaneously.

Under normal condition, the STM-1E client interface is connected to the 2 STM-1E

(working) card. If the 2 STM-1E (working) card fails, the 2 STM-1E EC board will switchto the 2 STM-1E (protection) card.

Figure 13 depicts the functional block diagram of 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection.

Figure 13 - Functional block diagram of 2 

STM-1E (W/P) card protection

2x STM-1E transceiver& Framing function2 STM-1E EC

2 STM-1E (W)

2x STM-1E transceiver& Framing function

SC

Selector Relay

To CC boardvia B ackplane

2 STM-1E (P)

To c lientequipment

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4.8 PDH and Data Service Interfaces

hiT 7025 supports the following service cards:

Data cards:

 8 FE/L2 Service Interface Card

 8 FE/T Service Interface Card

 1x GE/T Service Interface Board

 4x GE/T Service Interface Board

PDH cards:

 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) Interface Card

 21 E1 (W/P) Interface Card

4.8.1 8x FE/L2 Service Interface Card

This card provides 410/100M Base-T interfaces (RJ-45), One RJ45 can be used for twoLAN ports, There are eight WAN ports on the network side. Up to 8x 10/100M traffic canbe aggregated at WAN port side and forwarded to a SDH line interface for transmissionwith up tp 4 VC-4 at the network / WAN side.

Ethernet over SDH functions by this card are:

 Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)

 Scalable bandwidth through VC-12-nv (n=1,…,46) and VC-3-nv (n=1,2)

 LCAS support according ITU-T G.7042

 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 1800 bytes

The Layer 2 functions supported by this card are:

10/100Mbit/s Ethernet VLAN trunking

 VLAN and double VLAN tagging, providing increased number of VLANs

 Access Control List (ACL) based on MAC addresses

 Rapid Spanning Tree (802.1w) for the WAN ports, dramatically reducing restorationtime

 Layer 2 multicast functions (including static provisioned multicast and IGMP Snoopingmulticast functions), saving bandwidth on applications such as multi-media video

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 Layer 2 aggregation function

 Providing per port/VLAN rate limiting function: the rate range of each port is from128kbps~100Mbps, and the rate provisioning granularity is 128kbps

 Providing 802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN

Layer 2

Ouad

100Base-T

PHY

EOS

(GFP)

VC-12-nv,

VC-3-nv,

VC-4-nv

4xVC-4 to XCT

via backplane

4x RJ-45

connectors

 

Figure 14 - 8  FE/L2 card functional block diagram

Each LAN and WAN interface has a buffer to support bursty data traffic transmission. Theinput buffer of the interface can accommodate up to 256 frames. Each interface has 8output queues, each of which has a buffer that can accommodate up to 96 frames to be

sent out. As each input buffer and output buffers are independently using the dedicatedmemory spaces, instead of sharing any common memory space, there will be no mutualinfluence between the input buffer and the output buffers.

Interface Description

FE ElectricalInterface

4x RJ-45 connectors, each connector supports twochannels of Fast Ethernet service via an external ethernetsplitter

Standard compliance

10M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)100M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)

Data rate supported

10Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)

100Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)

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Interface Description

Cables:

Use of 4 ports only:

10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms two pairs shielded twisted paircable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable(Category 5 UTP). The reaching distance is up to 100m

Use of 8 ports:

10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms four pairs shielded twisted paircable (Category 5) in combination with 2-in-1 RJ45 splitter.

Figure 15 - 8  FE/L2 interface card external interfaces

Name Color Status Functional Description

(FE portLED)

 A green LED perinterface indicatesthe link up and down

OnThe link is up.

OFF The link is down.

 A yellow LED perinterface indicatesthe activity

ONTransmitting or receivingdata.

OFF No data.

Figure 16 - 8 

FE/L2 card LEDs

4.8.2 4xGE/L2 Service Interface Card

This card provides four Gigabit Ethernet optical interface. The basic functionality of thecard is to provide L2 switching, GFP, high order virtual concatenation, LCAS and WANports aggregation. The GE ports can be use as optical GE, FX or electrical

10M/100M/1000M ports together with electrical SFP’s inserted. The 4xGE/L2 boardsupports VC-4-Xv, VC-3-Xv and VC-12-Xv mapping.

Summary of key functions:

  VLAN cross-connection and port cross-connection

  802.3x Flow Control

  802.1q VLAN , VLAN stacking

  802.1w RSTP, 802.1s MSTP Ingress

  Per port/VLAN rate Limiting

  LAG on WAN and LAN ports

  Jumbo Frames

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  MAC based ACL

  Layer 2 multicast support via IGMP snooping

  IEEE 802.1p based CoS, Policing CIR/PIR, WRED

  Strict priority and WRR scheduling scheme

  8 QoS queues per port

  LCAS per VCG

  Ethernet OAM base on ITU-T.1731 and IEEE 802.1ag

4.8.3 8x FE/T Service Interface Card

This card has 8 10/100M Base-T IEEE 802.3 compatible Ethernet interface ports, andcan provide transparent transmission for up to 8x 10/100M connections. The total

available bandwidth on the network side is 4 VC-4 equivalent.

 Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)

 Scalable bandwidth through VC-12-nv (n=1,…,46) and VC-3-nv (n=1..3)

 LCAS support according ITU-T G.7042

 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 1800 bytes, up to 9600 bytes (jumbo frame

support)

Even with minimal equipment investment, this Ethernet card still provides very attractiveservices to the end customers, like:

 Scalable bandwidth without having to change interfaces

 A transparent LAN service that hides the complexity of the WAN for end users (aWAN that looks like a LAN)

 High availability LAN service because of end-to-end SDH protection switching

Octal

100Base-T

PHY

EOS (GFP,

LAPS, VC-

12-nv, VC-3)

 Network side:

Total 4xVC4

 bandwidth

(to the backplane)

4x RJ-45

connectors

Client side:

Up to 8 FE

signals

 Figure 17 - 8

 

FE/T card functional block diagram

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Interface Description

FE ElectricalInterface

4x RJ-45 connectors, each connector supports two channels

of Fast Ethernet service via an external ethernet spiltter

Standard compliance

10M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3)

100M BASE-T (IEEE 802.3u)

Data rate supported

10Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)

100Mbit/s (half-duplex, full-duplex, flow control)

Cables:

Use of 4 ports only:

10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms two pairs shielded twisted paircable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable(Category 5 UTP). The reaching distance is up to 100m

Use of 8 ports:

10/100 BASE-T: 100 Ohms four pairs shielded twisted paircable (Category 5) in combination with 2-in-1 RJ45 splitter.

Figure 18 - 8  FE/T interface card external interfaces

Name Color Status Functional Description

(FE portLED)

 A green LED perinterface indicatesthe link up and down

OnThe link is up.

OFF The link is down.

 A yellow LED perinterface indicatesthe activity

ONTransmitting or receivingdata.

OFF No data.

Figure 19 - 8  FE/T card LEDs

4.8.4 1x GE/T Service Interface Board

The board provides one 1000Base-X interface (1 SFP module).

 Application:

 GE p2p; Mapping into VC-4-Xv (X=1...4) or VC-3-Xv(X=1…12) payload fortransmission.

 Virtual mode enabled: The Ethernet side provides eight 10/100 Mbps virtual ports

VLAN aggregation function is used.

VC4, VC-3-Xv(X=1…3), VC-12-Xv(X=1…46) mapping is available.

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The functional block diagram of this board is depicted in the following figure:

Figure 20 - 1 

GE/T service board module functional block diagram

For hiT 7025, 1xGE/T can also be inserted on SLOT 5/6/7/8 when 15.2G/5G CC isconfigured.

For hiT7025 system with 15.2G/5G CC, 1xGE/T backplane bandwidth is 4xVC-4 when it isat slot 1/2/3/4 and 1xGE/T backplane bandwidth is 1xVC-4 when it is at slot 5/6/7/8.

 Supports GFP encapsulation (ITU-T G.7041/Y.1303)

 Scalable bandwidth through VC-3-nv (n=1,…,3) and VC-4-nv (n=1..4)

 LCAS support according ITU-T G.7042

 Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) 9600 bytes (jumbo frame support)

Even with minimal equipment investment, this Ethernet card still provides very attractiveservices to the end customers, like:

 Scalable bandwidth without having to change interfaces

 A transparent LAN service that hides the complexity of the WAN for end users (a

WAN that looks like a LAN)

 High availability LAN service because of end-to-end SDH protection switching.

4.8.5 4x GE/T Service Interface Board

This card provides 4 LAN interfaces on the side and 32 WAN ports like described in thedrawing:

GE

PHY

GE LAN port

VCG#1

VCG#2

Virtual port #1

(a) Transparent Mode

VCG#n

VCG

WAN port

EoS

Mapper 

Switch

Fabric

GE

PHY

GE LAN port

(b) Virtual Port Mode

WAN port

EoS

Mapper 

Switch

FabricVirtual port #2

Virtual port #n

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This card provides 4 client interfaces on the LAN side:

Interface ports 1 and 2 of this board can be configured as 1G Ethernet, 1G FiberChannel or 2G Fiber Channel:

 1G Ethernet, Port 1 and Port 2 can be 1G Ethernet

 1G Fiber channel, Port 1 and Port 2 can be 1G Fiber Channel

 2G Fiber Channel, Port 1 can be 2G Fiber Channel

FC(1G) can have a bandwidth through VC-4-X6 and VC-3Xv(x=1 - 21 and 19 is thebest).

FC(2G) can have the bandwidth through VC-4-VX.

GE LAN can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1 to 7), VC-3Xv(x=1-21)and VC-12Xv(x=1-46).

Interface ports 3 and 4 can be configured as 1G Ethernet or 10/100/1000Mps triplespeed with E-SFP:

 1000Mbps with SFP

  10/100/1000Mbps with E-SFP

 100Mbps with SFP

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GE LAN can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1 to 7), VC-3Xv(x=1-21)and VC-12Xv(x=1-46).

10/100/1000 Base LAN can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1 to 7), VC-3Xv(x=1-21) and VC-12Xv(x=1-46).

100-Base FX can have scalable bandwidth through VC-4Xv( x=1), VC-3Xv(x=1-3) andVC-12Xv(x=1-46).

On the WAN side  this card provides 32 WAN (VCG) ports to share 16xVC-4bandwidth on the backplane and each VC4 can be mapped into VC3 or VC12. The firstWAN can have bandwidth till 14Xvc-4 so that it can used to aggregate more than twoGE traffic

This card support two Modes:

1. Port cross connectionPort cross connection function can transport the Ethernet traffic through the SDHnetwork using GFP-F, and transport the fiber channel packet using GFP-T

 At the same time, it can support VLAN operate on the input packets includes:

1) Just forward without any VLAN operation.

2) Add a PVID based on Port

3) Stack a VLAN Tag

4) Strip VLAN tag at the egress

2. Port+VLAN cross connection (VLAN aggregation) At the same time, it can support VLAN operate on the input packets includes:

1) Forwarding the packet without any VLAN manipulation

2) Stacking a VLAN tag (double tag tunneling)

3) Ttranslating a VLAN ID (VLAN id replace)

4) Stripping the VLAN tag at the egress (new request)

For more information about Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross Connectionfeature, please refer to Appendix 9.3: Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN CrossConnection.

Traffic manager include Policing (CIR/PIR), QOS (VLAN priority) and Schedule(WRED/SP/WRR) is supported in this 4*GE/T card.

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4.8.6 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) Interface Card

This card has 3 E3/DS3 software configurable interfaces; each E3/DS3 signal is mappedinto a Lower Order VC-3 and forwarded to line interface for transmission. The E3/DS3interface uses CC4 connector.

Figure 21 depicts the functional block diagram of 3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection.

Figure 21 - Functional block diagram of 3  E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection

The hiT 7025 chassis supports 1:1 protection for the E3/DS3 card.

Mapping each E3/DS3

To VC-33 E3/DS3 EC

3 E3/DS3 (W)

Mapping each E3/DS3To VC-3

SC

Selector 

RelayTo CC board

via Backplane

3 E3/DS3 (P)

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4.8.7 21 E1 (W/P) Interface Card

The 21 E1 interface card contains the following two types of cards:

(1) 21 E1 Function Card with retiming function

(2) 21 E1 EC (Electrical Connectors) Card with 75Ohm/120Ohm version connector

In the retiming mode, the transmitter eliminates wander and jitter in the incoming clock.

While the rate of the outgoing 2 Mbit/s or 2MHz signal is normally equal to the rate of the 2Mbit/s or 2MHz signal going into the SDH network, occasionally this relationshipdisappears. A retiming function is necessary for suppression of jitter and wander that the2Mbit/s signal suffers during transmission in SDH and which makes the signal useless forcarrying the synchronous frequency to the PDH domain.

To retime an outgoing 2 Mbit/s or 2MHz signal, means simply to retime this signal with theinternal clock of the multiplexer equipment in which the de-synchronization takes place.This can be done by reading the recovered 2Mbit/s or 2MHz signal into an elastic storeand timing the output of the elastic store with the system clock.

When the device is set in the retiming mode all jitter and wander due to the multiplexing orde-multiplexing process in the transmission is eliminated.

4.9 Optical Amplifier

This OA (Optical Amplifier) module provides uni-directional single optical amplifier functionwith optical performance monitoring capabilities.

Optical Amplifiers are available with 13, 15 or 18 dBm output power.

 Additionally there is also a Pre-amplifier module available (20 dB).

These modules are designed to compensate losses in the entire C band and increasingtherefore the span performance of the system without need for intermediatedregenerators. The module functional building block diagram is shown below.

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EDFA Module

Embedded CPU

RS-232

FPGA

OA Card

Optical

Signal IN

Optical

Signal OUT

To SC (System Controller)

 

Figure 22  – OA module functional building block diagram

The EDFA (Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier) sub-module is the core building block for thiscard. It provides optical signal amplification function. With integrated fast digital circuit and

advanced software, the EDFA can be configured to operate at APC, ACC or AGC mode.

 APC (automatic power control) mode: In this mode, the optical output power ismaintained constant by adjusting the laser pump current to compensate minorchanges in OA input power, component aging, and temperature variation. This modeis mainly used in post-amplifier application.

 AGC (automatic gain control) mode: In this mode, the OA provides constant gainpower by adjusting the pump laser current to compensate minor changes incomponent aging and temperature. This mode is mainly used in pre-amplifierapplication.

 ACC (automatic current control) mode: In this mode, the pump laser current ismaintained constant.

These modes can be set through software according to customer’s requirements. Inaddition, other significant parameters that need to be pre-set are:

 Input optical power low threshold

 Output optical power low threshold

 Low and high temperature threshold for output power shutdown

This OA provides the following performances monitoring parameters:

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 OA Input Power (dBm), precision to 0.01dBm

 OA Output Power (dBm), precision to 0.01dBm

 OA Module Gain (dB), precision to 0.01dB

 OA Pump Power (mW), precision to 0.01mW

 OA module internal temperature, precision to 0.1 C degree

 OA module pump drive current, precision to 0.1 A

 OA power module power supply voltage, precision to 0.01V

This OA module board can be configured to use one of the following 4 EDFA sub-modules:

 Booster 13dBm 

 Booster 15dBm 

 Booster 18dBm 

 Pre-amp 20dB

 All EDFA sub-modules above use single-stage or dual-stage un-cooled 980nm pumplasers.

OA Safety Procedures

The OA module safety procedures supported are described in the table below.

Feature Description

 ALS After 500ms or more of continuous presence of the LOS defect,the laser will automatically shutdown; the reduction of the opticaloutput power at OA input port occurs within 800ms from themoment loss of optical signal occurs at OA output port.

 AutomaticLink restore

Whenever the OA’s input signal vanishes, the OA’s optical outputsignal will be shut down. When the input signal returns, the output

power will be restored.- The minimum optical signal restore delay is 100s.

- The activation for Transmitter /Receiver is less than 0.85s.

- The maximum deactivation time of booster and preamplifiers is100 ms.

- The maximum activation time of an booster is 100 ms.

- The maximum activation time of preamplifier is 300ms.

ManualRestore

"Manual restart" or "Manual restart for test" can only be activatedwhen the laser is shut down.

Figure 23  – OA module safty procedure

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Interface Description

OpticalInterface

Connector Type LC connector

Input power range

Pre-amp -35 to -10 dBm

Boosteramp.

-6 to +3 dBm

Figure 24  – OA card external interfaces

Name Color Status Functional Description

Fault RedON

There are fault conditions presented in thiscard.

OFF This card is in normal condition.

Link 1 GreenON The OA optical link is normal.

OFF The optical link is down.

Figure 25  – OA card LEDs

4.10 User Channel (F1)

Two 64kbps G.703 interfaces are provided and the following SDH Overhead bytes can beallocated: E1, E2 and/or F1.

4.11 Engineering Order Wire (EOW)

The hiT 7025 uses VoIP (H.323) technology to provide the EOW function on a DCC

channel or uses an external data network.The hiT 7025 VoIP based EOW provides unicast and multicast calling, and broadcastcommunications.

Traditional XOW over E1/E2/F1 will be implemented via an external XOW box.

For 7025:

There are one RJ45s on the SC card. Users may totally select all the channels of E1/E2from the system. And will be terminated by the system. There is no limitation on the cardor STM-N port level. Only one F1 channel can be selected at the same time. On externalXOW Box, there is one V.11 access for F1 channel, and the physical interface is DB15. And there is one RJ11 accessed for phone.

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SURPASS hiT 7025 / 7035

SURPASS hiT 70 XOW

RJ 45

Cable

EOWC

Phone Set

 

Figure 26  –External XOW box

For more details please refer to the hiT 7035 XOW technical description.

4.12 Miscellaneous Discrete Input/Output (MDI/MDO)

The hiT 7025 provides 8 (4)* miscellaneous discrete input points and 8 miscellaneous

discrete output points (4 of MDOs are always used for rack alarm).MDI is used to read the status of external alarm points. Both the MDI description andseverities are provision able on the management system. Any external equipment to bemonitored must provide the electrical equivalent of a contact closure across thecorresponding pairs. The MDI voltage specifications are as below:

 MDI Voltage range: 0~ -75V

 Inactive: 0~ -10V

 Active: -18~ -75V

MDO is used to drive external devices. MDO actions are activated or deactivated

manually by the management system. Miscellaneous discrete output points are hardcontact, its contact rating as below:

 Max DC Voltage: 110VDC @ 0.3A

 Max AC Voltage: 125VAC @ 0.3A

 Max Current: 1A @ 30VDC

* starting from Release 4.2 hiT 7025 provides 4 miscellaneous input points.

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Mandatory SW items

Optional SW items

Upgrade SW items

SW Maintenance items

4.13 Introduction to Software licensing

Up to now SW licenses for Next Generation Metro equipment were un-recognized add-onitems and the sales of these products have been dominated by HW selling. The SWlicense structure guarantees an optimized Network performance with minimum TCO (TotalCost of Ownership) by customized feature set. Within the hiT 70xx portfolio there areseveral features are being introduced like capacity based licenses, support of Matrixprotection, support of extension shelves and ASON/GMPLS.

This SW license structure allows following equipment configuration principles:

•  Offer only what is actually required

•  Exclude non-mandatory features explicitly

•  Tailoring of SW bundles allows up-sell potential

•  Protect the individual SW value drivers by selling them separately

•  Do not automatically design & price all SW features for the whole network

4.13.1 General Structure of new SW items

The Software item structure implemented within the product line Next Generation Metro

are divided into 3 general categories: mandatory SW license items, optional application

feature SW license items and upgrade SW license items. These are further represented in

the following document by a colour code indicated in the drawing below.

Figure 27: Software license structure in Next Generation Metro

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Mandatory SW items

Themandatory Softw are items 

 represent the basic functionality of the system, and oneof these core licenses are mandatory to be equipped for each equipment core.

Optional SW items

The option al Software items  are items that represent additional types of functionality.

These can be:

  Additional optional feature packages

  Additional functionality related with HW configuration

  Additional capacity

Upgrade SW items

The upgrade Software items  are available for each individual product to provide release

upgrades. Release upgrades are in general upgrades where the succeeding release

contains a higher feature set. This is in general represented by a number in the release

name of the product.

SW Maintenance items

The Software Maintenance items   are available for each individual product to provide

maintenance related services, namely to solve technical queries (to provide qualified

answers and assistance for any general technical/operational queries), for trouble

resolution (to handle customer reported suspected defects and o deliver workarounds

and/or final solutions) and to provide software updates (to ensure a regular, proactive,

delivery of software update packages with respective release documentation).

4.13.2 Software license structure of hiT 7025

hiT 7025 is a versatile network element having the equipping option as ADM for STM-1/-4(equipped with a small switch matrix) or as ADM for STM-4/-16 (equipped with a largeswitch matrix).

Therefore there are three different mandatory core licenses, an ADM-1/4 core license, an ADM-4/16 license and an ADM-1/-4/-16 license.

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The main optional feature that hiT 7025 offer is equipment protection to significantlyincrease the reliability of the network elements. Increased reliability is significant value

add, therefore by equipping a switch matrix protection, a matrix protection license isneeded.

Upgrade SW items are available to a release upgrade (from a release x.y to a releasex.(y+1) or increase of x).

Figure 28: Software license structure of hiT 7025

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5. Protection and Redundancy

5.1 Network Protection

hiT 7025 supports multiple layer network protection functions and multiple layer protectionescalation. The network protection functions supported are:

 MS-SPRing, in compliance with ITU-T G.841

 MSP 1+1 protection, revertive or non-revertive modes, in compliance with ITU-TG.841

 SNCP at VC-12, VC-3, VC-4, VC-4-4c level in compliance with ITU-T G.841

 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) to provide Layer 2 Ethernet data protection byconverging data to another path, in compliance with IEEE 802.1w protocol

5.1.1 MS-SPRing

hiT 7025 supports 2 fibers MS-SPRing at STM-16/-4 level. The protection (detection andswitching) is guaranteed to be finished within 50ms. The wait-to-restore time is userconfigurable with a default value of 5 minutes. The system also supports force switching

and manual switching.

For example, In an STM-4 ring with the MS-SPRing function enabled, a total of 4 AU4sare divided evenly into 2 groups, working AU4s (time slots 1 and 2) and protection AU4s(time slots 3 and 4).

The hiT 7025 MS-Spring implementation supports also low priority traffic by supportingNUT feature (Non-preempt-able Unprotected Traffic).

5.1.2 MSP

1+1 MSP (G.841/Clause 7) protects an STM-N link between two adjacent SDH MS(multiplexing section) elements.

hiT 7025 supports 1+1 multiplex section protection (MSP) on all STM-N optical ports. TheMSP 1+1 can be either uni-direction or bi-direction. The protection time is less than 50ms.

hiT 7025 also supports Manual Switch and Forced Switch of MSP, revertive and non-revertive MSP.

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5.1.3 SNCP

hiT 7025 supports Sub-Network Connection (SNC) protection (ITU-T G.841). It isavailable at VC-12, VC-3, VC-4 and VC-4-4c level. hiT 7025 supports VC-4/-3/-12 SNCprotection between any pair of VC-4/-3/-12s in any STM-N cards and also supports VC-4-4c SNC protection in STM-4 cards and STM-16 ports.

The protection switch time for SNC protection is less than 50 ms.

The SNC protection scheme supported in hiT 7025 is an inherently monitored SNCP(SNCP/I) or non-intrusively monitored SNCP (SNCP/N). The SNCP protected VC-4s areprotected against AIS or LOP at the AU-4 level (server layer defects) and againstmisconnections (trace identifier mismatch or VC-4 dTIM), disconnections (unequippedsignal or VC-4 dUNEQ), or signal degradations (VC-4 dDEG) in the VC-4 itself. Likewise,

SNCP protected VC-3s and VC-12s are protected against TU3/12-AIS, TU3/12-LOP(server layer defects), VC-3/12 dTIM, dUNEQ, and dDEG. Also SNCP protected VC-4-4csare protected against AU-4-4c-LOP/AIS, MS-AIS, LOF, LOS, VC-4-4c- dTIM, dUNEQ anddDEG.

The hiT 7025 SNCP implementation supports also non-revertive, single-ended and drop &continues features.

 An advantage of SNCP is the flexibility to select any segment of the path for protection.The SNC protection can be applied to an end-to-end (from source to sink terminationpoint) VC-n path, or to one or multiple links within the end-to-end path. It is also simpleand easy to implement, as there is no signaling required between the source anddestination nodes.

5.1.4 DNI

hiT 7035 supports Dual Node Inter-working (DNI) protection (ITU-T G.841). It is aprotection mechanism between two rings with dual node connections. Each ring may beconfigured for MS-shared protection or SNCP protection.

The ring interconnection can work at STM-1 electrical or STM-N optical rate level.

The DNI architecture has the capacity of protecting against the failure of oneinterconnecting node, two interconnecting nodes, or the connection between the twointerconnecting nodes. It depends on detecting path defects. To avoid propagation offailures when possible, a hold-off time is allowed.

The service interrupt time by external command and node failure, signal failure, cardfailure, SFP failure for DNI/DRI protection is less than hold-off time plus 50ms.

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5.1.5 LCAS

hiT 7025 supports the combination of VCAT and LCAS to provide VC-4, VC-3 or VC-12level protection. LCAS allows hitless adjustment of the size of a virtually concatenatedgroup of channels.

For example, whenVC-4-nv bandwidth is used to transmit data traffic through the network.In the case that certain VC-4s in the same VC-4-nv group fail, hiT 7025 will use LCAS todelete the failed VCs from the group, and the traffic is dynamically, or on the fly adapted tothe rest VC-4s bandwidth for transmission. Without LCAS, partial bandwidth failure willresult in the failure of the end-to-end traffic transmission.

When the failure is repaired, the LCAS will automatically add (recover) the deleted VC-4sto the VC group.

5.1.6 Ethernet Shared Protection Ring

hiT 7025 supports L2 switching and RSTP (IEEE 802.1w compliant) based L2 protectionin ESR. The convergence time can reach less than two seconds. RSTP based protectionis different from SDH layer protection. SDH protection is considered a physical layerprotection, while RSTP is a Layer 2 protection. When layer 2 Ethernet data fault isdetected, even though the physical connectivity is good, RSTP will make the convergence

of the data to another physical path.

5.1.7 Multiple Layers Protection

hiT 7025 supports network protection functions in multiple layers. These layers are SDHand Ethernet data. In order to coordinate the protection activities between layers, hiT 7025provides a protection escalation mechanism. This uses different hold off times at differentlayers to make sure that lower layer protection occurs first. For example, in a fiber failure

condition, SDH protection will be performed first. If SDH layer protection is successful, noEthernet layer protection occurs (because it is not needed). However, if the SDHprotection fails after a certain period of time (the hold off time for Ethernet layerprotection), Ethernet layer protection will occur. That is, the higher the layer, the longer thehold off time will be. In this way, the system can fully take the advantage of the fast SDHprotection (<50ms), and have multi-layer protections for higher system reliability.

For Ethernet services, if the layer protection fails (the failure is declared after a pre-definedhold off time; for example 100ms), the RSTP in the Ethernet layer will react to the failureand provide the protection by converging the data to an alternative path. In the ESR, thealternative path is the path on the other side of the ring. The hold off time in the Ethernetlayer is user provision able.

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5.2 Equipment Redundancy and Protection

5.2.1 Redundant Power Supply

hiT 7025 provides optional 1+1 DC power supply protection. The DC power voltage is -40to -72 V. Both power modules are active and coupled via an “OR” function to share theload current.

hiT 7025 permits convenient field replacement of either power module without affectingtraffic.

5.2.2 Redundant Cross-Connect

hiT 7025 provides optional redundant cross-connect and timing card.

5.2.3 Electrical Interface Module Protection

hiT 7025 provides the following electrical interface card protection:(1) 1:3  21 E1 card protection (revertive)

(2) 1:1  3 E3/DS3 (W/P) card protection (non-revertive)

(3) 1+1 2 STM-1E (W/P) card protection (non-revertive)

5.2.4 Protection under Abnormal Condition

Software download protection: when power fails during software download, hiT 7025BIOS will be written protected. The BIOS is guaranteed not to start the uncompletedsoftware program or data file. After the power recovery, hiT 7025 supports continuedsoftware downloading. All application software and data files can be downloaded to theNE while the NE is still in-service. The software download verification process preventsdata errors from transmission.

Software upgrade protection: hiT 7025 controller contains two copies of the systemsoftware. During the software upgrade, one copy will be replaced by the new version ofthe software. After the new version is confirmed, the switch over to the new version doesnot affect the service traffic, and the existing system setting and configuration aremaintained. If the system upgrade fails, the system can be switched back to the old

version. Only when the new software version is confirmed working properly, can the oldversion be erased.

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5.2.5 Software Fault Tolerance

The software design of hiT 7025 NE adopts the principle of software engineering,involving a top-down and object-oriented software design methods. Advanced softwaredeveloping management and designing technology assure the high quality and reliabilityof NE software.

hiT 7025 provides multiple protections for software programs and data with self-checkingand self-recovering functions.

Data transmission checking and re-transmitting mechanism are implemented in all controlsignal transmission channels between modules to minimize the transmitting errors.

 Adopted internal watchdog-circuit in CPU to avoid the impact of software deadlock or shut

down. No service is affected when the software performs warm reset. Adopted common software platform approach: hiT 7025 supports code-sharing and re-using as many as field proven codes to provide higher software reliability.

5.2.6 Data Security

hiT 7025 adopts database module technology and manages data uniformly, whichenhances the data security:

Database and database files each have a data checking function.

Database files are protected according to importance level of data. Errors of lower leveldatabase files will not affect higher level database files.

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6. Technical Specification

6.1 Multiplexing Structure

hiT 7025 supports the following multiplexing structure and terminated mapping andpayload mapping structures.

Bit Rate Cross-connect multiplexing structure

2.5 Gb/s

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4-16c

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AU-4-4c

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-3

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TU-3

STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TUG-2<->TU-12

622.08

Mb/s

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AU-4-4c

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-3

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TU-3

STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<-> TUG-2<->TU-12

155.54

Mb/s

STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4

STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-3

STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TU-3

STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4<->TUG-3<->TUG-2<->TU-12

Figure 29 - Cross-Connect Multiplexing Structure (ITU-T G.707)

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Bit Rate Terminated Mapping Structure Container

2.5 Gb/s STM-16<->AUG-16<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4

C-4

622.08 Mb/s STM-4<->AUG-4<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4 C-4

155.54 Mb/s STM-1<->AUG-1<->AU-4<->VC-4 C-4

E3 (34Mbit/s, E31) E31 <-> C-3 <-> VC-3 C-3

DS3 (45Mbit/s, E32) E32 <-> C-3 <-> VC-3 C-3

E1 (2.048Mbit/s) E1 <-> C-12 <-> VC-12<-> TU-12<-> TUG-2 …… 

C-12

10/100 Mb/s (FE)

10/100Mbit/s (FE) <-> GFP <-> C-12-Xv <->VC-12- Xv (X=1..46)

C-12

10/100Mbit/s (FE) <-> GFP <-> C-3-Xv <->VC-4-Xv (X=1..3)

C-3

1000 Mb/s (GE)

1000Mbit/s (WAN port GE) <-> GFP <->

C-4-Xv <-> VC-4-Xv (X=1..4)

C-4

1000Mbit/s (WAN port GE) <-> GFP <->

C-3-Xv <-> VC-3-Xv (X=1..3)

C-3

1000Mbit/s (WAN port GE) <-> GFP <->C-12-Xv <-> VC-12-Xv (X=1..46)

C-12

FC(2G) FC(2G) <-> GFP <-> C-4-X12 <-> VC-4- X12 C-4

FC(1G)

FC(1G) <-> GFP <-> C-4-X6 <-> VC-4- X6 C-4

FC(1G) <-> GFP <-> C-3-Xv <-> VC-3- Xv(X=19...21, 19 is the best fit)

C-3

10/100/1000M

10/100/1000Mbit/s LAN <-> WAN <-> GFP <->C-4-Xv <-> VC-4- Xv (X=1...7)

C-4

10/100/1000Mbit/s LAN <-> WAN <-> GFP <-> C-3-Xv <-> VC-3- Xv (X=1...21)

C-3

10/100/1000Mbit/s LAN <-> WAN <-> GFP <-> C-12-Xv <-> VC-12- Xv (X=1...46)

C-12

Figure 30 - Terminated Mapping Structure

VirtualContainer

Container Container Bit Rate Terminating Signalat Bit Rate

VC-4 C-4 149.76Mb/s STM-1, or VC-4-nv

Figure 31 - Payload Mapping

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6.2 SDH Overhead

hiT 7025 supports the following SDH overhead process:

Overhead Name Description hiT 7025 Support

RS-OH

 A1-A2 Framing Bytes  

J0 Regenerator Section Trace  

B1 Regenerator Section BIP-8  

E1Regenerator Section Order

wire 

F1Regenerator Section UserChannel

 

D1~D3 Section DCC  

MS-OH

B2 BIP-Nx24  

K1, K2 (b1~b5) APS  

K2 (b6~b8) MS-RDI  

D4~D12 Multiplex Section DCC  

S1 Synchronous Status  

M0-M1 MS-REI  

E2 Line Order Wire  

VC-4-Xc/VC-4/VC-3POH

J1 Path Trace  

B3 Path BIP-8  

C2 Path Signal Label  

G1 Path Status  

F2 Path User Channel

H4Position and SequenceIndicator

 

F3 Path User Channel

K3(b1~b4) APS

K3(b5~b6) Spare

K3(b7~b8) Data link

N1 Network Operator Byte

VC-2/VC-1

POH

V5(b1~b2) BIP-2  

V5(b3) LP-REI  

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Overhead Name Description hiT 7025 Support

V5(b4) LP-RFI  

V5(b5~b7) Signal Label  

V5(b8) LP-RDI  

J2 Path Trace  

N2 Network Operator Byte

K4(b1~b4) APS  

K4(b5~b7) Reserved  

K4(b8) Data Link  

Figure 32  – hiT 7025 supported SDH overhead process

6.3 Interface Types

hiT 7025 supports the following interfaces listed in Table below:

Interface Types Interface Name and Rates

Electrical Interface

10/100M/1000 Base-T

E1 (2048kbit/s)

E3/DS3

STM-1 el. (155.520Mbit/s)

Optical Interface

STM-1 (155.520Mbit/s)

STM-4 (622.080Mbit/s)

STM-16 (2.5 Gbit/s)

GE

FC100M FX

Timing Interface2048kbit/s

2048kHz

 Auxiliary Management and Maintenance Interface)  RS-232, RJ-45 (802.3 LAN)

TIF (MDO or MDI) , ALM (alarm contact) RJ-45

Data Channels 64Kbps/s, G703, RJ45

Figure 33  – hiT 7025 Interface Types

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6.3.1 Electrical Interfaces

hiT 7025 Ethernet 10/100M Base-T rate-adaptive electrical interface complies with IEEEStandard 802.3. The transmission media is 100 Ohms –two pairs shielded twisted paircable (STP) and two pairs of unshielded twisted pair cable (Category 5 UTP); the interfaceconnector is using standard RJ-45 (1000ohm) connector.

hiT 7025 STM-1E interface complies with ITU-T G.703 Recommendation and uses CC4connector (75 ohm) unbalanced.

hiT 7025 E3/DS3 interface complies with ITU-T G.703 Recommendation and uses CC4connector (75ohm) unbalanced.

hiT 7025 E1 interface complies with ITU-T G.703 Recommendation, and uses 2mm High

Density (75ohm or 120ohm) connector.

6.3.2 Optical Interfaces

hiT 7025 optical interfaces comply with ITU-T Recommendations G.957 and G.691. TheSFP optical modules are field replaceable.

Optical Interfaces:STM-16 SFP interfaces S-16.1, L16.1 and L-16.2, V-16.2, U-16.2 also

FC 2G.

STM-4 SFP interfaces S-4.1, L4.1, L-4.2 and V-4.2

STM-1 SFP interfaces I-1, S-1.1, L1.1, L1.2 and V-1.2 also 100M FX

GE SFP interfaces SX, LX, LH, ZX also FC(1G)

STM-1 electrical SFP interfaces

Multi-rate CWDM SFP interfaces G. 695 C8L1-1D2 and C8L1-0D2

2.5G DWDM SFP interfaces 100G Hz channel grid

GE electrical SFP interfaces

Laser safety for the STM-16, STM-4 and STM-1 optical interfaces: complies with IEC-60825 recommendations

Optical connectors are LC type.

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Line Rate Wavelength and Application Code Transmission Distance

STM-1

1310 nm (I-1)

1310 nm (S-1.1)

1310nm (L-1.1)

1550nm (L-1.2)

1550nm (V-1.2)

1310/1550nm Bidi

2 km

15 km

40 km

80 km

120 km

20 km

STM-4

1310 nm (S-4.1)

1310 nm (L-4.1)

1550 nm (L-4.2)

1550 nm (V-4.2)

1310/1490nm Bidi

15 km

40 km

80 km

120 km

10 km

STM-16

1310 nm (S-16.1)

1310 nm (L-16.1)

1550 nm (L-16.2)

1550 nm (V-16.2)

1550 nm (U-16.2)

1555.75 nm (DWDM U-16.2)

15 km

40 km

80 km

120 km

160 km

180 km

Multi-rate

(622Mbps ~2.67Gbps)

1471+20m,m=1-7

(C8L1-1D2/ C8L1-0D2)N.A.

DWDM STM-16100 GHz channel grid in the C-band:191.70-196.0 THz, 44 wavelengths

N.A.

1000 Base-SX 850 nm 500 m

1000 Base-LX 1310 nm 5000m

1000 Base-LH 1310 nm 10 km

1000 Base-ZX 1550 nm 70 km

1000 Base-LX 1310/1490nm Bidi 10 km

Figure 34 - hiT 7025 optical service interfaces supported

6.3.3 Optical amplifier card: OA

Function

This Optical Amplifier (OA) card provides unidirectional single optical amplifier functionalitywith optical performance monitoring capabilities. This card is designed to compensate

losses in the entire C band as Booster Optical Amplifier (BOA) or Pre-Optical Amplifier(POA) in the transport networks.

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The OA card can be ordered (with different part numbers) to provide the followingapplications:

  Post-amplifier, 13 dBm Output Power

  Post-amplifier, 15 dBm Output Power

  Post-amplifier, 18 dBm Output Power

  Pre-amplifier, 20 dB Gain

6.3.4 Optical Amplifier (OA) 

Parameters Min. Max. Units

Operating case temperature 0 65 C

Storage temperature -40 85 C

Environment (ESD/EMC) 700/85% V/-

Tab. 6.1 OA card EDFA module absolute ratings

Parameters Description Note

Wavelength

range

1528 nm ~ 1562 nm 1

Pump laser Uncooled pump

Configuration Single or Dual pump, single

stage

2

Gain flattening without GFF 3

Control modes APC, AGC, and ACC

Transient

suppress control

Transient Suppress Circuit

 Application types Booster or Preamplifier

Notes:

1. This wavelength range is specified as the max. wavelength range for

the erbium-doped fiber amplifier using in single channel SDHapplication.

2. This configuration is designed for single channel SDH system up to

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Parameters Description Note

now; dual pump or dual stages may be required for obtaining high gainor large output power.

3. For single channel SDH application, the Gain Flatten Filter (GFF) is notrequired for obtaining the fine gain flatness.

Tab. 6.2 Erbium-Doped fibre amplifier general specifications

BOA interface

Parameters Min. Type Max. Unit Notes

General specifications (for all types booster)

Wavelength range 1528 1562 nm

Noise figure 5.0 5.5 dB 3

Optical power detection accuracy 0.5 dB

Polarization mode dispersion 0.3 0.5 ps

Polarization dependent gain 0.2 0.5 dB

Return loss 45 dB

Transient overshoot (5 dB

 Add/Drop)

0.5 1.0 dB

Transient suppress speed (5 dB

 Add/Drop)

0.5 ms

Post-amp: 13 dBm output power

Input power range -10 3 dBm

Small signal gain @ pin = -10

dBm

18 dB 1

Saturation power @ pin > -5 dBm 13 dBm 2

Post-amp: 15 dBm output power

Input power range -10 3 dBm

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Parameters Min. Type Max. Unit Notes

Small signal gain @ pin = -10

dBm

20 dB 1

Saturation power @ pin > -5

dBm

15 dBm 2

Post-amp: 18 dBm output power

Input power range -10 3 dBm

Small signal gain @ pin = -10dBm

23 dB 1

Saturation power @ pin > -5

dBm

18 dBm 2

Notes:

The maximum small signal gain:

13 dBm booster: when input power ≤ -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be up to 18 dB.

15 dBm booster: when input power ≤ -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be up to 20 dB.18 dBm booster: when input power ≤ -5 dBm, maximum small signal gain can be up to 23 dB.

The saturation power is specified at the maximum gain value when the input power is larger

than -5 dBm;

The typical value of Noise figure is specified at the maximum gain and input power of 0 dBm.

Tab. 6.3 Post-amplifier specifications

POA interface

Items Parameters Min. Typ Max. Unit Notes

Center wavelength 1555.75 nm

Wavelength range (filter pass-band window @ 3dB) -

0.25

+0.25 nm 3

Input power range -35 -15 dBm 4

Small signal gain (include filter attenuation ) 20 dB

Output power range @ pin= -15 dBm -15 -10 dBm

Gain flatness N/A dB 1

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Noise figure 5.0 6.0 dB

Optical power detection accuracy

Input power: -35 to -20 dBm

Output power: -20 to 0 dBm

0.5

0.5

dB

dB

Polarization mode dispersion 0.3 0.5 ps

Polarization dependent gain 0.2 0.5 dB

Return loss 40 dB

Transient overshoot

(5 dB input variance @ constant power)

0.5 1.0 dB

Transient suppress speed

(5 dB input variance @ constant power)

0.5 ms

 Auto-shutdown hysteresis 0.5 2 dB 2

Notes:

1. For single channel SDH application, gain flatness is not required.

2. The same as booster amplifier.

3. A fixed filter (1555.75 nm  0.25 nm @ 3 dB) which is put after the output of OA to improve OSNRand sensitivity of PA is integrated in PA. DWDM SFP with fixed wavelength 1555.75 nm (both 100G and 200 GHz grid) will be used when PA is added before optical receiver.

4. Error-free long term transmission should be guaranteed under worst case when input power of PAis -35 dBm ~ -20 dBm and bit rate is 2.5 Gbps.

Tab. 6.4 Pre-amplifier specifications

6.3.5 Management and Maintenance Interface

hiT 7025 provides a RS-232 connector, which supports terminal-based command lineinterface.

hiT 7025 also provides a RJ-45 100 Ohms IEEE 802.3 LAN connector, which supportsInternet browser based EMS and telnet-based command line interfaces.

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6.4 Interface Performance Specifications

hiT 7025 performance specifications for the optical and electrical interfaces, timing andsynchronization, and jitter, as well as tests for electromagnetic compatibility, environment,and vibration comply with the ITU-T Recommendations G.957, G.703, and IEEE Standard802.3.

6.4.1 Optical Interface Performances

The following table provides hiT 7025 supported optical interfaces and application codes.

ApplicationInter-officeShort-haul

Inter-officeLong-haul

Inter-officeVery Long-haul

Operatingwavelength range(nm)

1310 1310 1550 1550

Type of fiberITU-T Rec.

G.652

ITU-T Rec.

G.652

ITU-T Rec. G.652

ITU-T Rec. G.653

ITU-T Rec. G.654

ITU-T Rec. G.652

ITU-T Rec. G.653

ITU-T Rec. G.654

Distance (km)* 15 40 80 120

STM-1 S-1.1 L-1.1 L-1.2 V-1.2

STM-4 S-4.1 L-4.1 L-4.2 V-4.2

STM-16 S-16.1 L-16.1 L-16.2 V-16.2

* (1) Target distance is used for classification, not for standardization.

(2) The actual transmission distance can be calculated based on the transmitter power,receiver sensitivity and fiber loss.

Figure 35 - STM-N Optical Interface Parameters and Application Codes

The following tables show the STM-1/-4 and STM-16 optical interface parametersspecified for the transmitter at point S, the receiver at point R, and the optical pathbetween points S and R.

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6.4.2 STM-1 Optical Interface Performance

Item Parameters Classification of STM-155Mbps

1 Application Code I-1 S-1.1 L-1.1 L-1.2 V-1.2 Bidi

2 Supported Distance Range [km] ~ 2 ~15 ~40 ~80 ~120 ~20

3 Laser Types MLM/LED MLM MLM/SLM SLM SLM

4 Central Wavelength [nm] 1300 1261~1360 1261~1360 1480~1580 1480~15801260 ~ 1360

1480 ~ 1580 

5 Max. Spectral Width [nm]RMS

=40/80RMS=7.7

RMS=3/

-20dB=1-20dB=1 -20dB=1

RMS<7

-20dB<1 

6 Min. SMSR [dB] NA NA NA/30 30 30 NA

7 Average Launch Power [dBm] -15 ~ -8 -15 ~ -8 -5 ~ 0 -5 ~ 0 0 ~ 4 -14 ~ -8

8 Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 8.2 10 10 10 <10

9 G.957 STM-1 Mask Margin 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%

10 Receiver Types PIN PIN PIN PIN PIN PIN

11 Mini. Overload [dBm] -10 -8 -10 -10 -10 > -8

12 Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -31 -37 -37 -37 -32

13 Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -29 -35 -35 -35 -30

14 Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -28 -28 -34 -34 -34 -28

15 Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 1 1 1 1

16 Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] NA NA NA -25 -25 >14

17 Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Figure 36 - hiT 7025 STM-1Optical Interface Specifications

Notes:

1. The application code is referred to ITU-T G.957.

7. Average launched power is the range of output power. Usually, the actual output power should be close tothe up-side level of Average power; we require that the output power of laser at the beginning of life (BOL)should be 1dB better than the standard values listed in the ITU-T G.957, according to the application code;

12. (1) Measured at bit error rate (BER) of 10e-10, using 2^23-1 PRBS test data pattern;

(2) To consider of aging factor, we define the receiver sensitivity at the beginning of life (BOL) should be2~3dB better than the standard values listed in the ITU-T G.957, according to the application code;

13. To consider of high-temperature’s effect, we define the receiver sensitivity at the high-temperature (HT),

which refers to the environmental temperature about 55ºC. Generally, we test all performance at 25ºC roomtemperature when SFP transceivers are installed in MetroWave

TM MSTP system with Fan “ON”; to the

extreme temperature, we tested all performance at 55ºC environmental temperature when SFP transceiversare installed in MetroWave

TM MSTP system with Fan “ON” for about 3 hours;

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14. For the receiver sensitivity at the end of life (EOL), we consider of the sensitivity aging degradation whenthe transceiver is used in the long-term, which includes the effect of temperature, laser aging and chip aging;

15. The impact factors for path penalty value include the dispersion, non-linear and other effects. Butdispersion is the main effect we should consider. Generally, we use fiber to test the path penalty of the SFPtransceivers.

 15 km SFP, 25 km G.652 fiber

 40 km SFP, 45~50 km G.652 fiber

 80 km SFP, 90~100 km G.652 fiber

6.4.3 STM-4 Optical Interface Performance

Item Parameters Classification of STM-4/622Mbps

1 Application Code S-4.1 L-4.1 L-4.2 V-4.2 Bidi

2 Supported Distance[km] ~15 ~40 ~80 ~120 ~10

3 Laser Types MLM MLM/SLM SLM SLM MLM

4 Central Wavelength [nm] 1261~1360 1261~1360 1480~1580 1480~15801260 ~ 1360

1480 ~ 1500

5 Max. Spectral Width [nm] RMS=2.5RMS=1.7/

-20dB=1-20dB=1 -20dB=1

RMS<3.5

-20dB<0.88

6 Min. SMSR [dB] NA NA/30 30 30 NA/<30

7 Average Launch Power [dBm] -15 ~ -8 -3 ~ 2 -3 ~ 2 0 ~ 4 -9 ~ -3

8 Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 10 10 10 <12

9 G.957 STM-4 Mask Margin 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%

10 Receiver Types PIN PIN PIN APD PIN

11 Mini. Overload [dBm] -8 -8 -8 -18 > -3

12 Receiver Sensitivity @BOL dBm] -31 -31 -31 -36 -22

13 Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. dBm] -29 -29 -29 -35 -21

14 Receiver Sensitivity @EOL dBm] -28 -28 -28 -34 -20

15 Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 1 1 <1

16 Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] NA -14 -27 -27 NA

17 Digital Diagnostics Function Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Note: The same as the STM-1 statement.

Figure 37 - hiT 7025 STM-4 Optical Interface Specifications

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6.4.4 STM-16 Optical Interface Performance

Item Parameters Classification of STM-16/2.5Gbps

1 Application Code S-16.1 L-16.1 L-16.2 V-16.2 U-16.2DWDM U-16.2

2 Supported Distance[km] ~15 ~40 ~80 ~120 ~160 ~180

3 Laser Types SLM SLM SLMUn-cooledSLM

Un-cooledSLM

Cooled SLM

4 Central Wavelength [nm] 1261~1360 1261~13601480 ~1580

1530~1560 1530~1560 1555.75

5 Max. Spectral Width [nm] -20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

-20dB=1

6 Min. SMSR [dB] 30 30 30 30 30 30

7 Average Launch Power[dBm]

-5 ~ 0 -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3 -2 ~ 3

8 Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2 8.2

9G.957 STM-16 MaskMargin

15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 15%

10 Receiver Types PIN APD APD APD APD APD

11 Mini. Overload [dBm] 0 -9 -9 -9 -9 -9

12Receiver Sensitivity@BOL [dBm]

-21 -30 -30 -30 -30 -30

13Receiver Sensitivity @HT. [dBm]

-19 -28 -29 -29 -29 -29

14Receiver Sensitivity@EOL [dBm]

-18 -27 -28 -28 -28 -28

15 Optical Path Penalty [dB] 1 1 2 3 3 3

16Max. Reflect. of receiver[dB]

NA -27 -27 -27 -27 -27

17 Dispersion [ps/nm] NA NA 1600 2400 3200 2400

18Digital DiagnosticsFunction

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Note:

1. V-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion can be up to 2400ps/nm;U-16.2 SFP has the same optical parameter as L-16.2 SFP except its dispersion can be up to 3200ps/nm;DWDM U-16.2 SFP is one of 44 channels DWDM SFP listed in 2.3.8 section; its wavelength is a special one(1555.75nm).

The wavelength stability of DWDM U-16.2 SFP is 100pm.

120km transmission: V-16.2 SFP plus 13dBm booster amplifier

160km transmission: U-16.2 SFP plus 18dBm booster amplifier180km transmission: DWDM U-16.2 SFP plus 18dBm booster amplifier and preamp with filter and 680ps/nmDCM (suppose the fiber dispersion @1555.75nm is 17ps/nm)

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DWDM SFP should be compatible with DWDM SFP MSA (Sept., 2005)

2. The wavelength of V-16.2 and U-16.2 SFP should be within the range of 1530nm ~ 1560nm over life and

temperature.3. Other items are the same as the above.

Figure 38 - hiT 7025 STM-16 Optical Interface Specifications

6.4.5 Multi-rate CWDM interface Optical Performance

Item Parameters Specifications

1 Application Code C8L1-1D2/ C8L1-0D2

2 Data Bit Rate 622Mbps ~ 2.67Gbps

3 Laser Types SLM

4 Central Wavelength [nm]1471 + 20 mm = 0 to 7

4.1 Channel Spacing [nm] 20

4.2Maximum central wavelength deviation[nm]

±6.5

5 Max. Spectral Width [nm] -20dB=1

6 Min. SMSR [dB] 30

7 Average Launch Power [dBm] 0 ~ 5

8 Extinction Ratio [dB] 8.2

9 ITU-T G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin 15%

10 Receiver Types APD

11 Mini. Overload [dBm] -9

12 Receiver Sensitivity @BOL [dBm] -30

13 Receiver Sensitivity @ HT. [dBm] -29

14 Receiver Sensitivity @EOL [dBm] -28

15 Optical Path Penalty [dB] 2

16 Max. Reflect. of receiver [dB] -27

17 Dispersion [ps/nm] 1600

18 Digital Diagnostics Function Yes

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Note:

1. 8 channels CWDM SFP are supported. Its optical performance is compliant with G.695. C8L1-1D2 is for

STM-16 application and C8L1-0D2 is for GE application. It can support multi-rate application: STM-4/16, STM-16 FEC and GE. Their wavelengths are 1471nm, 1491nm, 1511nm, 1531nm, 1551nm, 1571nm, 1591nm,1611nm.

2. Other items are the same as the above. The RX sensitivity is based on 2.48832bps bit rate.

Figure 39 - hiT 7025 CWDM Optical Interface Specifications

6.4.6 2.5G DWDM interface Optical Performance

Item Parameters Specifications

1  Application Code

2 Data bit rate 2.48832 to 2.666057 Gbps

3 Laser Type Cooled SLM

4Wavelength range

100 GHz channel grid in the C-band:191.70-196.0 THz, wavelength selected

4.1 Wavelength stability (over life &temperature)

 12.5 GHz ( 100 pm)

5 Spectral width (-20dB) modulated 0.5nm

6 Side mode suppression ratio > 30 dB

7  Average launch power 0 dBm to + 4 dBm

8 Extinction ratio > 9 dB (BOL), 8.2 dB (EOL)

9 ITU-T G.957 STM-16 Mask Margin 15%

10 Receiver Types APD

11 Minimum overload -9dBm

12 Rx sensitivity @BOL -30dBm

13 Rx sensitivity @HT. -29dBm

14 Rx sensitivity @EOL. -28dBm

15 Path Penalty 3 dB

16 Receiver reflectance < -27 dB

17 Dispersion tolerance -2400 ps/nm … + 2400 ps/nm

18 Digital diagnostic function Yes

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Note:

1. 44 channels DWDM SFP are supported. It can support STM-16 and STM-16 FEC application. Its channel

spacing is 100GHz. Its wavelength table is as follows. DWDM SFP should be compatible with DWDM SFPMSA (Sept., 2005)

2. Please notice that 192.7THz (1555.75nm) DWDM SFP will be used for 180km ultra-long haul transmissionapplication.

3. Other items are the same as the above.

Figure 40 - hiT 7025 DWDM Optical Interface Specifications

ITU ChannelNumber

Frequency(THz)

Wavelength(nm)

ITU ChannelNumber

Frequency(THz)

Wavelength(nm)

60 196.00 1529.55 38 193.8 1546.92

59 195.9 1530.33 37 193.7 1547.72

58 195.8 1531.12 36 193.6 1548.51

57 195.7 1531.90 35 193.5 1549.32

56 195.6 1532.68 34 193.4 1550.12

55 195.5 1533.47 33 193.3 1550.92

54 195.4 1534.25 32 193.2 1551.72

53 195.3 1535.04 31 193.1 1552.52

52 195.2 1535.82 30 193.0 1553.3351 195.1 1536.61 29 192.9 1554.13

50 195.0 1537.40 28 192.8 1554.94

49 194.9 1538.19 27 192.7 1555.75

48 194.8 1538.98 26 192.6 1556.55

47 194.7 1539.77 25 192.5 1557.36

46 194.6 1540.56 24 192.4 1558.17

45 194.5 1541.35 23 192.3 1558.98

44 194.4 1542.14 22 192.2 1559.79

43 194.3 1542.94 21 192.1 1560.61

42 194.2 1543.73 20 192.0 1561.42

41 194.1 1544.53 19 191.9 1562.23

40 194.0 1545.32 18 191.8 1563.05

39 193.9 1546.12 17 191.7 1563.86

Figure 41 - hiT 7025 DWDM Wavelenthes

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6.4.7 GE Optical Transmitter and Receiver Interfaces

6.4.7.1 1000 Base-SX interface parameters

Parameter 62.5 µm MMF 50 µm MMF Unit

Laser Type Shortwave Laser -

Signal Rate 1.25 ± 100 ppm GBd

Wavelength Range 770 to 860 nm

Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80%;ë> 830 nm) 0.26 ns

Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80%;ë= 830 nm) 0.21 ns

Maximum RMS Width 0.85 nm

Mean Launch Power (Maximum) -3 dBm

Mean Launch Power (Minimum)  –9.5 dBm

Mean Launch Power when transmitter is OFF (max) 

 –30 dBm

Minimum Extinction Ratio 9 dB

RIN (max)  –117 dB/Hz

Coupled Power Ratio (CPR) (min) c  9 < CPR dB

a. The 1000 Base-SX launch power is the lesser of the class 1 safety limit as defined by IEEE Standard 802.3Clause 38.7.2 or the average receive power (max) defined in herein.

b. Examples of an OFF transmitter are: no power supplied to the PMD, laser shutdown for safety conditions,activation of a “transmit disable” or other optional module laser shut down conditions. During all conditionswhen the PMA is powered, the ac signal (data) into the transmit port will be valid encoded 8B/10B patterns(this is a requirement of the PCS layers) except for short durations during system power-on-reset ordiagnostics when the PMA is placed in a loopback mode.

l overfilled launches as described in IEEE Standard 802.3 Clause 38A.2, while they may meet CPR ranges,e avoided.

Figure 42 - 1000 Base-SX transmitter interface parameters

Parameter 62.5 µm MMF 50 µm MMF Unit

Signal rate 1.25 ± 100 ppm GBd

Wavelength Range 770 to 860 nm

Mean Receiving Power (Max.) 0 dBm

Receiving Sensitivity  –17 dBm

Minimum Return Loss 12 dB

Stressed receive sensitivitya,

 –12.5  –13.5 dBm

Vertical eye-closure penaltyc  2.60 2.20 dB

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Receive electrical 3 dB upper cutoff frequency (max) 1500 MHz

a. Measured with conformance test signal at TP3 (see IEEE Standard 802.3 Clause 38.6.11) for BER = 10 –12

at the eye center.

b. Measured with a transmit signal having a 9 dB extinction ratio. If another extinction ratio is used, thestressed receive sensitivity should be corrected for the extinction ratio penalty.

c. Vertical eye-closure penalty is a test condition for measuring stressed receive sensitivity. It is not a requiredcharacteristic of the receiver.

Figure 43 - 1000 Base-SX receiving interface parameters

6.4.7.2 1000 Base-LX Interface Parameters

Parameter 62.5 µm MMF 50 µm MMF 10 µm MMF Unit

Laser Type Longwave Laser

Signal Rate 1.25 ± 100 ppm GBd

Wavelength Range 1270 to 1355 nm

Trise/Tfall (max; 20%-80% responsetime)

0.26 ns

Maximum RMS Width 4 nm

Mean launch power (Max.) -3 dBm

Mean launch power (Min.) -11.5 -11.5 -11.0 dBm

 Average launch power of OFFtransmitter (max)

-30 dBm

Minimum Extinction Ratio 9 dB

RIN (max) -120 dB/Hz

Coupled Power Ratio (CPR) (min) 28 < CPR < 40 12 < CPR< 20 NA dB

* Due to the dual media (single-mode and multimode) support of the LX transmitter, fulfillment of thisspecification requires a single-mode fibre offset-launch mode-conditioning patch cord described in IEEE

Standard 802.3 Clause 38.11.4 for MMF operation. This patch cord is not used for single-mode operation.

Figure 44 - 1000 Base-LX Transmitter interface parameters

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Parameter 62.5 µm MMF 50 µm MMF 10 µm MMF Unit

Signal rate 1.25 ± 100 ppm GBd

Wavelength Range (ë) 1270 to 1355 nm

Maximum Mean ReceivingPower

-3 dBm

Receiving Sensitivity -19 dBm

Minimum Return Loss 12 dB

Stressed receive sensitivitya,

-14.4 dBm

Vertical eye-closure penaltyc  2.60 dB

Receive electrical 3 dB uppercutoff frequency (max)

1500 MHz

red with conformance test signal at TP3 (see IEEE Standard 802.3 Clause 38.6.11) for BER = 10 –12 at theer.

ured with a transmit signal having a 9 dB extinction ratio. If another extinction ratio is used, the stressedensitivity should be corrected for the extinction ratio penalty.

al eye-closure penalty is a test condition for measuring stressed receives sensitivity. It is not a requiredristic of the receiver.

Figure 45 - 1000 Base-LX receiver interface parameters

6.4.8 Electrical Interface Performances

This section provides the E1 and T1 electrical interface specifications:

1) 2,048 Kbit/s digital interface

2) Allowable bit rate deviation of 2,048 Kbit/s, and 10/100M Base-T Output Signals

3) Allowable attenuation at the 2,048 Kbit/s input port

4) Allowable frequency deviation at the 2,048 Kbit/s, and 10/100M BaseT interface5) Anti-interference capability of the 2,048 Kbit/s input port

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6.4.8.1 Electrical Interface Parameters Specification

The following table shows the parameters for the 2048 Kbit/s digital interface:

Pulse Shape(Nominally Rectangular)

All marks of a valid signal must conform to the maskirrespective of the sign. The value V corresponds to

the nominal peak value.

Pair(s) in each direction One coaxial pair

Test load impedance 75 Ohms resistive

Nominal peak voltage of a mark(pulse)

2.37 V

Peak voltage of a space (no pulse) 0 ± 0.237 V

Nominal pulse width 244 ns

Ratio of the amplitudes of positiveand negative pulses at the center ofthe pulse interval

0.95 to 1.05

Ratio of the widths of positive andnegative pulses at the nominal halfamplitude

0.95 to 1.05

Maximum peak-to-peak

itter at an output port

Rate

Interface Threshold MeasurementFilter Bandwidth

20 Hz – 100 kHz

18 kHz – 100 kHz

2048 kbit/s 1.5 UI 0.2 UI

Figure 46 - 2048 kbit/s Electrical Interface Parameters

6.4.8.2 Allowable Bit Rate Deviation of Output Signals

 Allowable Bit Rate Deviation of Output Signals is the difference between the actual signalbit rate and the nominal bit rate measured under AIS output condition. hiT 7025 meets thestandard requirements of output signal allowable bit rate deviation as shown in tablebelow:

Electrical Interface Types Standard Requirements (ppm)

2048 kbit/s ±50

10/100M Base-T ±100

Figure 47 - Electrical Interface Output Signals Bit Rate Allowable Deviation

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6.4.8.3 Allowable Attenuation at the Input Port

hiT 7025 meets the standard requirements for the allowable attenuation at the input port:

Electrical Interface Types Standard Requirements (dB)

2048 kbit/s 0 ~ 6

34 368 kbit/s

860 to 1720 kHz

1720 to 34 368 kHz

34 368 to 51 550 kHz

155 520 kbit/s 0 ~ 12.8

Figure 48 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Attenuation

6.4.8.4 Allowable Frequency Deviation at the Input Port

 Allowable input signals frequency deviation is the signal bit rate variation range that thesystem can tolerate. The following table shows the standard requirements for theallowable frequency deviation at the input port:

Electrical Interface Types Standard Requirements (ppm)

2048 kbit/s ±50

10/100M Base-T ±100

Figure 49 - Electrical Interface Allowable Input Port Frequency Deviation

6.4.8.5 Anti-interference Capability of the Input Port

hiT 7025 meets the standard requirements for the anti-interference capability of the inputport:

Electrical Interface Types Standard Requirements (dB)

2048 kbit/s 18

155 520 kbit/s ≥15 

Figure 50 - Electrical Interface Input Port Anti-interference Capability

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6.4.9 Timing and Synchronization Performance

6.4.9.1 Output Jitter

The following table shows the maximum acceptable level of network output jitter for thetiming (synchronization) interface:

Output Interface Measuring band(-3dB frequencies)

Peak-to-peak Amplitude (UIpp)

PRC 20 ~ 100 K 0.05 UI

SSU 20 ~ 100 K 0.05 UI

SEC20 ~ 100 K 0.5 UI

49 ~ 100 K 0.2 UI

SECPDH Synchronization(2048 kbit/s)

20 ~ 100 K 1.5 UI

18 ~ 100 K 0.2 UI

Figure 51 - Timing Output Jitter

6.4.9.2 Internal Timing Source Output Frequency

The following table shows the output accuracy of the timing interface in its free-run mode:

Timing Interface Standard requirement (ppm)

System Clock ± 0.5

Figure 52 - Internal Timing Source Output Frequency

6.4.10 Jitter Performance

Jitter and wander tolerance, transfer, and production specifications comply with the ITU- TRecommendations G.783, G.813 Option 1, G.823, G.824, G.825, and G.958, the ChinaMII standard YD/T 1146-2001 and ETSI standards.

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6.4.11 STM-N Interface Output Jitter

The following table shows the maximum acceptable level of output jitter at any STM-Noutput within a digital network (measured of a 60 second interval):

InterfaceMeasuring band

(-3dB frequencies)Peak-to-peak Amplitude (UIpp)

STM-1 (Optical)500 Hz ~ 1.3 MHz 1.50 UI

65 KHz ~ 1.3 MHz 0.15 UI

STM-1 (Electrical)500 Hz ~ 1.3 MHz 1.50 UI

65 KHz ~ 1.3 MHz 0.075 UI

STM-4 (Optical)1000 Hz ~ 5 MHz 1.50 UI

250 KHz ~ 5 MHz 0.15 UI

STM-16 (Optical)5000 Hz ~ 20 MHz 1.50 UI

1 MHz ~ 20 MHz 0.15 UI

Figure 53 - STM-1/-4/-16 Interface Output Jitter

6.4.11.1 STM-N and PDH Input Interface Jitter Tolerance

The following tables show the input jitter tolerance for the STM-N interfaces:

Interface Frequency (Hz) Peak-to-Peak Jitter Amplitude

STM-1 (Optical)

10 < f <= 19.3 38.9 UI (.25 us)

19.3 < f <= 68.7 750 f-1

 UI

68.7 < f <= 500 750 f-

 UI

500 < f <= 6.5 k 1.5 UI

6.5 k < f <= 65k 9.8 x 103 f-1

 UI

65 k < f <= 1.3 M 0.15 UI

STM-1 (Electrical)

10 < f <= 19.3 38.9 UI (.25 us)

19.3 < f <= 500 750 f-1

 UI

500 < f <= 3.3 k 1.5 UI

3.3 k < f <= 65 k 4.9 x 103 f-

 UI

65 k < f <= 1.3 M 0.075 UI

Figure 54 - STM-1 Interface Jitter Tolerance

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Interface Frequency (Hz) Peak-to-Peak Jitter Amplitude

STM-4 (Optical)

9.65 < f <= 100 1500 f-

 UI

100 < f <= 1000 1500 f-1

 UI

1 k < f <= 25 k 1.5 UI

25 k < f <= 250 k 3.8 x 104 f-

 UI

250 k < f <= 5 M 0.15 UI

Figure 55 - STM-4 Interface Jitter Tolerance

Interface Frequency (Hz) Peak-to-Peak Jitter Amplitude

STM-16 (Optical)

10 < f <= 12.1 622 UI

12.1 < f <= 500 7500 f P-   P UI

500 < f <= 5 k 7500 f P-1P UI

5 k < f <= 100 k 1.5 UI

100 k < f <= 1 M 1.5 x 105 f P-   PPP UI

Figure 56 - STM-16 Interface Jitter Tolerance

G.703(PDH)

Interface

Filter CharacteristicsMaximum Peak-to-Peak Jitter

Mapping

f1High pass

f3High pass

f4Low pass

f1-f4 f3-f4

1 544 Kbit/s10 Hz20 dB/dec

8 kHz40 kHz

 –20 dB/dec0.7 (A0)

2 048 Kbit/s20 Hz20 dB/dec

18 kHz(700 Hz)20 dB/dec

100 kHz –60 dB/dec

0.075 UI

34 368 Kbit/s100 Hz20 dB/dec

10 kHz20 dB/dec

800 kHz –60 dB/dec

0.075 UI

44 736 Kbit/s 10 Hz 30 kHz400 kHz

 –20 dB/dec0.40 UI (A0)

139 264 Kbit/s200 Hz20 dB/dec

10 kHz20 dB/dec

3 500 kHz –60 dB/dec

0.075 UI

Figure 57 - PDH mapping jitter generation specification

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G.703

(PDH) Interface

Filter CharacteristicsMaximum Peak-Peak Jitter

Combined

f1high pass

f3high pass

f4low pass

f1-f4 f3-f4

1 544 Kbit/s10 Hz

20 dB/dec8 kHz

40 kHz –20 dB/dec

2 048 Kbit/s20 Hz

20 dB/dec

18 kHz(700 Hz)

20 dB/dec

100 kHz –60 dB/dec

0.4 UI0.075 UI

34 368 Kbit/s100 Hz

20 dB/dec10 kHz

20 dB/dec800 kHz

 –60 dB/dec

0.4 UI0.75 UI

0.075 UI

Figure 58 - hiT 7025 PDH interface combined jitter generation spec

6.5 Timing

hiT 7025 provides the following timing clock interfaces:

External clock source (T3): 2 input port, 2048kbit/s (G.703-6) or 2048 kHz (G.703-10)75 

Synchronize output (T4): 2 output port, 2048kbit/s (G.703) or 2048 kHz 75 

hiT 7025supports the selection of the following 4 timing references:

 Line/tributary timing (STM-1/-4/-16 lines, or E1 tributary)

 External station clock timing

 Internal clock (ITU-T G.813 option 1)

 E1 tributary timing (any E1 port can be selected as the timing source)

 Additionally, hiT 7025 is able to provide retiming for E1 (2Mbit/s) traffic interfaces toprovide synchronized reference to another equipment.

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6.6 Power Source

6.6.1 Power Supply

hiT 7025 supports -48V/60V (-40.5~-72.0 V) DC power supply, support load balanced1+1 power supply modular protection.

6.6.2 Power Consumption

Maximum power consumption: 250W (Full Configuration)

 Average power consumption: 122W (Typical Configuration)

6.6.3 Cooling

The equipment is assembled with one fan unit. It is field replaceable. Fan failure does not

affect service.

6.7 Mechanical Structure

hiT 7025 chassis mechanical parameters:

 Height: 238mm (5U)

 Width: 445mm

 Depth: 240mm (300 mm back-to-door)

hiT 7025 can be installed in the following types of racks:

 EIA 310 19” 

 2200mm(Height)  600mm (Width)  300mm (Depth)

2600mm(Height)×600mm(Width)×300mm(Depth)

Depending on the electrical cabel load you can install up to six hiT 7025 chassis into a2200mm high ETSI rack or an EIA 310 19” rack ( typically four systems per rack ).

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6.8 Environment Requirements

hiT 7025 system is designed to comply with the following ETSI requirements (ETS 300019) on environmental conditions:

 ETSI Class 3.2 on Environment

 ETSI Class 1.2 on Storage

 ETSI Class 2.3 on Transportation

The environmental conditions required by hiT 7025 are as follows:

Environmental Condition Temperature Relative Humidity

Transport and storage -20º ~ 60ºC 2% ~ 98%

Operation for long term -5º ~ 45ºC 5% ~ 90% (30ºC)

Operation for short term -10º ~ 50ºC 5% ~ 90% (30ºC)

Figure 59 - hiT 7025 Environment Requirements

6.8.1 Enhanced Temperature Variant

Depending on the used chassis variant of hiT 7025 also an operating temperature up to55 degree is available.

This enhanced temperature variant has a more powerful fan assembly and is introducedwith system software R4.2. To comply with the operation in a higher temperature range,the chassis has to be mounted in vertical position.

Performance Guaranteed:

Operation for long term: -5°C~55°C

Relative Humidity: 10%~100% (30°C)

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6.9 Electromagnetic Compatibility

hiT 7025 meets the present customer oncoming mandatory requirements

Of ETSI EN 300 386 v1.4.1, which is based on EN 55022 (emission) and EN 61000-4-x series (immunity)

Emission (EN 55022)

Radiated emission EN 55022, Class A

Conducted emission EN 55022, Class A

DC power port EN 55022, Class A

Signal ports EN 55022, Class A

Immunity (EN 61000-4-x series)

Electrostatic Discharge EN 61000-4-2, level 2

Radiated immunity EN 61000-4-3, level 2 & level 3

Electrical fast transients EN 61000-4-4

DC power port EN 61000-4-4, level 1

Signal ports EN 61000-4-4, level 1

Surges EN 61000-4-5

Indoor signal ports EN 61000-4-5, level 1

Continuous wave EN 61000-4-6

 All ports (telecom ports, AC, DC) EN 61000-4-6, level 2

Note

This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interferencein which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.

hiT 7025 meets the present customer oncoming mandatory requirements

Of FCC 47 CRF Ch.1, Part 15 Subpart B, Class A, radiated emission limit for unintentional radiators

Emission (FCC 47 Ch.1, part 15 Subpart B)

Radiated emission FCC 47 Ch.1, part 15 Subpart B, Class A

Conducted emission N/A for DC power port

hiT 7025 meets IEC TS 61000-6-5 (2001), immunity requirements for the power station and substation.Which is based on the IEC 61000-4-x series (immunity)

Immunity (IEC 61000-4-x series)

Electrostatic Discharge IEC 61000-4-2 level 3

Radiated immunity IEC 61000-4-3 level 3

Electrical fast transients IEC 61000-4-4

DC power port IEC 61000-4-4 level 3 for power station and MVsubstation

level 4 for HV substation

Signal ports IEC 61000-4-4 level 3 for local connection

ii

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level 4 for in field connection

Surges IEC 61000-4-5

DC power port IEC 61000-4-5 level 2 for line to line

level 3 for line to ground

signal ports IEC 61000-4-5 level 2 for local connection

level 3 for in field connection

Continuous wave IEC 61000-4-6

 All ports (signal ports, AC, DC) IEC 61000-4-6 level 3

Damped wave IEC 61000-4-12

DC power port IEC 61000-4-12 level 2 for power station and MVsubstation

level 3 for HV substation

Indoor signal ports IEC 61000-4-12 level 2 for in field connection

Mains frequency voltage IEC 61000-4-16

DC Power port IEC 61000-4-16 level 3 for power station and MVsubstation

level 4 for HV substation

Signal ports IEC 61000-4-16 level 4 for in field connection

Ripple on DC port IEC 61000-4-17 level 3

Voltage dips & interruption IEC 61000-4-29  ΔU 30% for 0.1s Criteria B

 ΔU 60% for 0.1s

 ΔU 100% for 0.05s

hiT 7025 meets IEC 61000-6-2 : 2005, immunity requirement for industry environment. Which is based onthe IEC 61000-4-x series (immunity)

Immunity (IEC 61000-4-x series)

Electrostatic Discharge IEC 61000-4-2 level 2 and level 3

Radiated immunity IEC 61000-4-3 level 1, level 2 and level 3

Electrical fast transients IEC 61000-4-4

DC power port IEC 61000-4-4 level 3

Signal ports IEC 61000-4-4 level 2

Surges IEC 61000-4-5

DC power port IEC 61000-4-5 level 1

signal ports IEC 61000-4-5 level 2

Continuous wave IEC 61000-4-6

 All ports (signal ports, AC, DC) IEC 61000-4-6 level 3

Figure 60 - hiT 7025 Electromagnetic Compatibility Requirements

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6.10 Vibration Tests

6.10.1 Shipping Test

hiT 7025 meets the following shipping test standards.

Test Test Standard

 Amplitude (>= 0.6 mm) ETSI

 Acceleration (>= 15 m/s—X, Y, Z three directions) ETSI

Test time (>=3 hours) ETSI

Figure 61 - Shipping Test Standards

6.10.2 Office Test

hiT 7025 meets the following office test standards.

Test Test Standard

 Amplitude (>= 0.6 mm) ETSI

 Acceleration (>= 15 m/s—X, Y, Z three directions) ETSI

Test time (>= 3 hours) ETSI

Figure 62 - Office test standards

6.11 Alarms and Events

6.11.1 Alarm Types

There are five types of failure in the system:

  Communication Failure: Failures related to communication status (such as LOS,LOF, AIS, DEG and LAN) or other communication protocol related failures (such

as, STMfLOS).  Quality of Service Failure: Failure related to system performance, such as

responding time too long, threshold crossing, and performance degrading.

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  Equipment Failure: Failures related to the hardware equipment, such as powersystem defect, timing interface failures, processor defect, transmit/receiver

equipment defect or any other equipment component faults (such as, EQfFLT).  Processing Error Failure: Failures related to the software, memory overflow,

version incompatibility, software errors, program illegal interruption, NEconfiguration errors and NE inaccessible.

  Environmental Failure: Failures related to environment changes, such asunacceptable temperature and humidity, ventilation or cooling system faults,excessive vibration, and door open/close.

6.11.2 Alarm Severity Level

There are five alarm severity levels defined in the system:

  Critical—Service-interrupting alarms.

  Major —Service-affecting alarms.

  Minor —Non-Service-affecting alarms, but can potentially become service-affectingalarms. You need to perform fault inspection and any necessary fixes to prevent itfrom becoming worse.

  Warning—Non-Service-affecting, information presented to the operator for the

purpose of maintenance.  Indeterminate—The alarm severity level is undefined.

The system has a red LED alarm indicator for Prompt (service-affecting) and a yellow LEDalarm indicator for Deferred/Info (non-service-affecting).

6.11.3 Alarm Reports

The Element Management software logs the 10,000 latest failures in the alarm log andindependently reports the failure status change to the EMS. hiT 7025 allows users toquery alarm logs using a variety of criteria.

6.11.4 Events

There are three types of events defined in the system: Management, Hardware, and

Software. hiT 7025 requires every event to be time-stamped. An Event (as defined by ITU-T Recommendation M.2410) is an instantaneous occurrencethat changes the global status of an object. This status change may be persistent or

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temporary, allowing for surveillance, monitoring, and performance measurementfunctionality, etc. Events may or may not generate reports; they may be spontaneous or

planned; they may trigger other events or may be triggered by one or more other events.(Recommendation M.60)

6.11.4.1 Management Events

The attributes of the management events include: Event name, Timestamp, User nameand privilege level, and Description.

Name Description

User login Identifies the user that has just logged in.

User logout Identifies the user that has just logged out.

User auto-logout due to timeoutIdentifies the user that was just logged out by the system

because of inactivity.

User password change The password of a user account has been changed.

Unauthorized login attempt A user has attempted and failed to log in.

 Alarm log cleared A user has cleared out the alarm log file.

Event log cleared A user has cleared out the event log file.

Figure 63 - Management Events

6.11.4.2 Hardware Events

The object (located as precisely as possible) that generates the event is also reported.

Name Description

 Auto acceptance A module of a different type from the previous module was installed and

booted. The configuration of the previous module was automaticallydeleted.

Card booted The module has been booted.

Card reset The module has been reset.

Card disabled The module has been disabled.

Card removed The module has been removed from its slot

SFP changed The SFP module has been changed.

Figure 64 - Hardware Events

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6.11.4.3 Software Events

Some of these types of software events may never happen on a certain products.

Name Description

Protection switch completedThe protection switch occurred and was completed. (It applies to

all types of protection schemes. The protection group isidentified.)

Protection switch back completedThe protection group switched from the protection state to the

normal state. (It applies to all types of protection schemes. Theprotection group is identified.)

Software download started

Software files are being downloaded to the backup storage place

through FTP.

Software download completedSoftware files are successfully downloaded to the backup storage

place through FTP.

Software upgrade startedThe software files in the backup storage place have started to be

activated.

Software upgrade completed A software upgrade has completed.

MIB upload startedThe MIB files in the backup place are being uploaded to a server

through FTP.

MIB upload completedThe MIB files in the backup place are successfully uploaded

through FTP.

MIB download startedThe MIB files are being downloaded from a server to the MIB

backup place through FTP.

MIB download completedThe MIB files are successfully downloaded from a server to the

MIB backup place through FTP.

MIB backup started The active MIB files are being backed up.

MIB backup completed The active MIB files are backed up.

MIB restore started The MIB files in the backup are being restored to active MIB files.

MIB restore completed The MIB restoration has successfully completed.

System reset The system is resetting.

System start The system is starting up.

Timing configuration changed One or more timing sources/references changed.

Port administratively down A port has been administratively set to down.

Port administratively up A port has been administratively set to up.

Figure 65 - Software Events

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7. Standard Compliance

The design of the hiT 7025 system is based on the following documents:

ITU-T G.691 Optical interfaces for single channel STM-64 and other SDH systemswith optical amplifiers

G.692 Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers

G.703 Physical / electrical characteristics of hierarchical digital interfaces

G.7041/Y.1303 Generic Framing Procedure

G.7042/Y.1305 Link Capacity Adjustment Schema (LCAS) for virtual concatenated

signals

G.707 Synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH) bit rates

G.708 Network node interface for the synchronous digital hierarchy (SDH)

G.709 Synchronous multiplexing structure

G.773 Protocol suites for Q interfaces for management of transmissionsystems

G.781 Structure of recommendations on SDH multiplexing equipment

G.783 Characteristics of synchronous digital hierarchy multiplexingequipment functional blocks

G.784 SDH management

G.803 Architecture of transport networks based on the synchronous digitalhierarchy

G.811 Timing requirements for the plesiochronous digital hierarchy (PDH)

G.813 Timing characteristics of slave clocks suitable for operation of SDHequipment

G.823 The Control of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks which arebased on the 2048 kbps Hierarchy

G.824 The control of jitter and wander within digital networks which arebased on the 1544 kbit/s hierarchy

G.825 The Control of Jitter and Wander within Digital Networks which arebased on the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

G.841 Types and characteristics of SDH network protection Architectures

G.842 Interworking of SDH network protection architectures

G.957 Optical interfaces for equipment and systems relating to SDH

G.692 Optical interfaces for multichannel systems with optical amplifiers

IEEE 802.1p Standard for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks Supplement toMedia Access Control (MAC) Bridges: Traffic Class Expediting andDynamic Multicast Filtering

802.1q IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks: VirtualBridged Local Area Networks

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802.1s IEEE Standards for Local and Metropolitan Area Networks

802.1w IEEE Standard for Information Technology -Telecommunications and

Information Exchange Between Systems - Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Common Specifications - Part 3: Media AccessControl (MAC) Bridges:

802.17 Resilient Packet Ring

802.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method & Physical Layer Specifications

802.3u Local and Metropolitan Area Networks-Supplement - Media AccessControl (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer, Medium Attachment Unitsand Repeater for 100Mb/s Operation, Type 100BASE-T (Clauses 21-30)

CISPR 22 Limits and methods of measurement of radio interferencecharacteristics of information technology equipment

EN 55022 Limits and methods of measurement of radio interferencecharacteristics of information technology equipment

6100-6-5 Immunity requirements for the power station and substation

6100-6-2 immunity requirement for industry environment

ETS 300 019 Climatic conditions

300127 Electromagnetic compatibility and Radio spectrum Matters (ERM);Radiated emission testing of physically large telecommunicationsystems

300 386 Electromagnetic compatibility

ChinaMIIStandardYD/T1146-2001

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8. Appendix 1: Definitions and Abbreviations

 Abbreviation Definition

 ADM Add-Drop Multiplexer

 AIS Alarm Indication Signal

 APS Automatic Protection Switching

 ASON Automatic Switched Optical Network

 ASTN Automatic Switched Transport Network

 ATM Asynchronous Transfer Mode

 AU Administrative Unit

 AU-n  Administration Unit,level n

 AUG Administration Unit Group

 AU-PTR Administration Unit Pointer

BA Booster Amplifier

BBE Background Block Error

BBER Background Block Error Ratio

BER Bit Error Ratio

BITS Building Integrated Timing Supply

BML Business Management Layer

BoD Bandwidth on Demand

B-RASBroadband-Remote Access Server

(or Broadband Access Management Switch)

CDV Cell Delay Variation

CLR Cell Loss Rate

CMI Coded Mark Inversion

C-n Container- n

CORBA Common Object Request Broker Architecture

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 Abbreviation Definition

CTD Cell Transfer Delay

CV Code Violation

DB Data Base

DBMS Data Base Management System

DCC Data Communications Channel

DCE Data Circuit-terminating Equipment

DCF Data Communications Function

DCN Data Communications Network

DDN Digital Data Network

DNA Distributed Network Architecture

DNI Dual Node Interconnection

DNU Do Not Use for Sync.

DTE Data Terminal Equipment

DWDM Dense Wavelength-division Multiplexing

DXC Digital Cross Connect

ECC Embedded Control Channel

EM Element Management

EMC Electromagnetic Compatibility

EMI Electromagnetic Interference

EML Element Management Layer

EMS Element Management System

EOS Ethernet Over SDH

ES Error Second

ESD Electronic Static Discharge

ESR Error Second Ratio

ETSI European Telecommunication Standards Institute

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 Abbreviation Definition

FDM Frequency Division Multiplexing

FDDI Fiber Distributed Data Interface

FEBBE Far End Background Block Error

FEES Far End Errored Second

FESES Far End Severely Errored Second

GMPLS Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching

GUI Graphical User Interface

HDLC High Digital Link Control

HPC Higher order Path Connection

IP Internet Protocol

ITU-TInternational Telecommunication Union-TelecommunicationStandardization Sector

L2 Layer 2

LAN Local Area Network

LAPD Link Access Procedure On D-channel

LCT Local Craft Terminal

LMS Local NE Management System

LOF Loss Of Frame

LOM Loss of Multi-Frame

LOP Loss Of Pointer

LOS Loss Of Signal

LPC Lower order Path Connection

MAC Medium Access Control

MAN Metropolitan Area Network

MCU Micro Control Unit

MDI Miscellaneous Discrete Input

MDO Miscellaneous Discrete Output

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 Abbreviation Definition

MM Multi Mode

MS Multiplex Section

MS-AIS Multiplex Sections - Alarm Indication Signal

MS-PSC Multiplex Sections - Protection Switching Count

MS-PSD Multiplex Sections - Protection Switching Duration

MS-SPRing Multiplexer Section Shared Protection Ring

MSAP Multiple Service Access Platform

MSOH Multiplex Section Overhead

MSP Multiplex Section Protection

MSTP Multiple Service Transport Platform

MSSP Multiple Service Switching Platform

MTBF Mean Time Between Failures

MTIE Maximum Time Interval Error

NE Network Element

NEF Network Element Function

NEL Network Element Layer

NML Network Manager Layer

NMS Network Management System

NUT Non-preemptible and Unprotected Traffic

OAM Operation, Administration and Maintenance

OFS Out of Frame Second

OOF Out of Frame

OS Operation System

OSF Operation System Function

OSI Open System Interconnect

PCB Printed Circuit Board

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 Abbreviation Definition

PCM Pulse Code Modulation

PDH Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy

PGND Protection GND

PJE+ Pointer Justification Event +

PJE- Pointer Justification Event -

POH Path Overhead

PPP Point to Point Protocol

PRC Primary Reference Clock

QA Q Adaptor

QoS Quality of Service

RAM Random Access Memory

RDI Remote Defect Indication

REI Remote Error Indication

REG Regenerator

RFI Remote Failure Indication

RIP Router Information Protocol

RMII Reduced Medium Independent Interface

RS Regenerator Section

RSOH Regenerator Section Overhead

SD Signal Degrade

SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

SEC Station Equipment Clock

SES Severely Errored Second

SESR Severely Errored Second Ratio

SETS Synchronous Equipment Timing Source

SF Signal Failure

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 Abbreviation Definition

SFF Small Form Factor

SFP Small Form Factor Pluggable

SM Single Mode

SMCC Sub-network management control center

SML Service Management Layer

SMN SDH Management Network

SMS SDH Management Sub-Network

SMT Surface Mount Technology

SNCP Sub-network Connection Protection

SOH Section Overhead

SPRING Shared Protection Ring

SSM Synchronous State Message

STM-N Synchronous Transport Module Level-N

TCP Transport Control Protocol

TDEV Time Deviation

TDM Time Division Multiplex

TIF Telemetry Interface

TM Terminal Multiplexer

TMN Telecommunications Management Network

TU Tributary Unit

UAS Unavailable Second

VC Virtual Container

VC-n Virtual Container level n

VDN Virtual Data Network

VLAN Virtual Local Area Network

WAN Wide Area Network

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 Abbreviation Definition

WDM Wavelength Division Multiplexing

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9. Appendix 2: Basis Technologies

In this section, the following key basis technologies for hiT 70series are described:

Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

Virtual Concatenation (VCat, a standard way of packing lower bandwidth circuits intoSDH/SONET frames)

Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)

Ethernet Functions

RPR (Resilient Packet Ring)

9.1 Generic Framing Procedure (GFP)

GFP/G.7041 provides a framing procedure for octet-aligned, variable-length payloads forsubsequent mapping into SDH VC-groups.

GFP differs from other packet mappings (e.g., Packet over SONET) because it is Layer 2independent and maintains the Layer-2 header information, in a manner such that thedestination node may reproduce the entire stream of Layer-2 frames. This in turn, allows

the transport network to transparently connect two Layer-2 devices.GFP standard includes two modes: transparent and frame-mapped.

Transparent Mode (GFP-T) allows block-coded LAN and SAN signals, such as GigabitEthernet, Fiber Channel, Ficon, and Escon, to be transported and switched across anoptical network, while preserving the full client-signal information

Frame-Mapped Mode (GFP-F), on the other hand, is used to adapt Protocol Data Unit(PDU)-oriented signals – client signals that are already framed or packetized by the clientprotocol – and may operate at the data-link layer (or higher) of the client signal. GFP-Fmaps one frame or packet of the client signal, such as IP/PPP or Ethernet MAC, into oneGFP frame. GFP frames, each associated with different clients, can be multiplexed onto a

single TDM channel before SDH transport. This packet aggregation capability providesgreater bandwidth efficiency.

hiT 7025 supports the GFP-F mode. The FCS of the GFP frame may optionally be used,additionally to the FCS of the Ethernet frame.

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VC

Overhead VC Payload

GFP Frame

Preamble SFD control0x11 DA 6-bytes SA 6-bytes T/L 2-bytes Payload CRC 4-bytesEthernet Packet

PLI 2-bytes HEC 2 b yte t ype 2-b ytes HEC 2byte GFP Ex Payload FCS 4-bytes

Core Header Payload Header

Variable 4-65535 Byte

GFPFrame

SDHFrame

 

Figure 66 - GFP mapping

Benefits of GFP

The key benefits of GFP are the uniform mechanism to support all L2 protocols and highencapsulation efficiency. This provides convergence of next-generation services withexisting infrastructure investment to provide network consolidation and cost savings. GFPprovides:

 Uniform and deterministic mapping of packet and future services to SDH/SONET

transport protocols which is more robust frame delineation than flag-basedmechanisms such as HDLC.

 Efficient network resource utilization via GFP’s low overhead characteristics, andcompatibility with virtual-concatenation processing

 Flexibility of Extension Headers: This allows topology application specific fields to bedefined without affecting frame delineation functions

 Payload independent frame expansion, and therefore no byte stuffing.

 Greater bandwidth efficiency through GFP-F frame-mode’s support for packet-levelmultiplexing, which allows aggregation of multiple client streams into a single TDM

channel The ability to identify the encapsulated client protocol separately from the Extension

Header. This could be used to allow frame forwarding based on Extension Headerfields without requiring recognition of the encapsulated client protocol.

 GFP provides the interworking condition among different vendors, which is not soeasy to obtain with other alternatives of the Ethernet over SDH, like PPP. Thefollowing table provides with a comparison between the two methods.

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GFP Multilink PPP, PPP

Support of topologies Point to point, ring andlinear

Point to point

Frame delineation No need for specific frameflags, using therelationship between thePLI and cHEC to delineateframes. More stable.

Specific frame flags(opening/closing flags) areneeded.

Bit/Byte stuffing No Mandatory

Class of ServiceYes, GFP frame containsdata priority bits which

supports for congestioncontrol

Not supported

Extendibility Excellent Not supported

Mapping method Framed, TransparentMapped

Framed

Jumbo frame support No limitation on the framelength

Not supported

Figure 67 - Comparison between GFP and PPP

9.2 Virtual Concatenation (VCat)

In order to transport payloads exceeding the payload capacity of the standard set ofVirtual Container Group (VC-Group), Virtual Concatenation was defined. There are twotypes of concatenations defined in ITU standards: contiguous and virtual concatenation.

Contiguous concatenation has been part of SDH from its early days. It was conceived toaccommodate high-speed data applications that use protocols such as ATM. The ITUG.707 defined contiguously concatenated containers only to support certain ratesincluding: STM-4c, STM-16c and STM-64c.

The basic idea of virtual concatenation (VCat) acc. to ITU-T 707 is to create a finergranularity of payloads than contiguous concatenation can offer. In addition, some legacySDH equipment may not support contiguous concatenation transport switching, andvirtually concatenated traffic is transported as individual VC-groups across the SDHnetwork and recombined at the destination node. Carriers can map any arbitrarybandwidth to a corresponding and appropriate number of VC-12 or VC-3 or VC-4channels. The benefits of VCat are:

Efficiency: little bandwidth is wasted and carriers now have a more efficient scenario for

carrying data over the SDH network.Compatibility: Virtual concatenation works across legacy networks. Only the end nodes ofthe network need to be aware of the virtually concatenated containers.

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Intermediate SDH nodes forward the single Containers transparently throughout thenetwork. Hence, with virtual concatenation, such channels can be routed over legacy

networks that do not support contiguous channels.Reliability: Virtual Concatenation, along with LCAS, allows new and efficient sharedprotection mechanism.

9.3 Link Capacity Adjustment Scheme (LCAS)

LCAS (ITU-T Recommendation G.7042/Y.1305, approved by the ITU-T in November2001) is a protocol to synchronize the re-sizing of a virtual concatenation group in use, soit can be changed without corrupting packets in the process. LCAS provides automaticrecovery of a link after member failures.

LCAS builds on Virtual Concatenation. While the virtual concatenation is a simple labelingof individual VC members within a virtual concatenation group, LCAS is a two-waysignaling protocol that runs continuously between the two ends of the pipe and ensuresthat commands from the network management system to alter the pipe capacity do notimpair the user’s traffic. LCAS adds several highly significant features to SDH’scapabilities:

 The combination of VCat and LCAS creates fine-tuned and variable capacity SDHpipes to match the needs of packet data QOS (quality of service) and customer SLAs

(service-level agreements) – and to boost carriers’ traffic-handling scalability andefficiency. LCAS allows adjustment of the size of a virtually concatenated group ofchannels.

 The combination of VCat and LCAS can also provide soft protection schemes. UsingVCat, traffic is distributively mapped into several SDH containers (e.g. VC-12s) andsent by different paths. When certain VC-12s in the same VC group fail, LCAS candelete the failed VCs from the group. The traffic can then be dynamically adapted tothe rest of the VC12s bandwidth for transmission. Otherwise – without LCAS - afailure in one path of a channel built up of diversely routed paths would lead to loss ofall the traffic.

9.4 Ethernet Functions and Services

Layer 2 Ethernet functions implemented in state-of-the-art transport system may includethe following:

 Layer 2 aggregation

 Layer 2 switching

 802.1p QoS/CoS based on Ethernet port and/or VLAN

 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) to provide Layer 2 traffic protection

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 Rate limiting function per port and policing per Port or per VLAN basis, the maximumallowable rate per port or per VLAN is user provisionable

 VLAN function

 Ethernet Shared Ring (ESR): Layer 2 switch and Aggregator cards: all the traffic goesthrough the shared ring.

 Ethernet / (virtual) Private Line / Ethernet Private-Line (EpL)

 Ethernet (virtual) LAN (EvLAN) / Ethernet-LAN (ELAN)

9.5 Port Cross Connection and Port+VLAN Cross

Connetion

Port Cross Connection means the frame from ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will beforward to egress port (both WAN or LAN) according to the ingress port. At the ingressport a forward table is configured by operator to define the egress port base on the ingressport.

Figure 68  – Port Cross Connection

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Under port aggregation mode, four types of VLAN operation on the input packet can betaken:

(1) One port direct forwards packet to the other port without any VLAN manipulation

(2) One port direct forwards packet to the other port with adding Tag PVID,

i. In coming untagged frame will be added a PVID (TPID default 0x8100)

ii. In coming tagged frame with TPID 0x8100 will be forwarded without VLANmanipulation

(3) One port direct forwards packet to the other port with stack a VLAN Tag,

i. Untagged frame and tagged frame will always be added an VLAN id and

(4) One port direct forwards packet to the other port with Stripping VLAN tag at the egress

Port+VLAN Cross Connection (VLAN aggregation) means the frame from ingress portfrom ingress port (both WAN or LAN) will be forward to egress port (both WAN or LAN)according to its VLAN tag. At the ingress port a forward table is configured by operator todefine the egress port based on VLAN. Untagged frame will be discarded.

Figure 69 – VLAN aggregation

Under port aggregation mode, four types of VLAN operation on the input packet can betaken:

(1). Forwarding the packet without any VLAN manipulation (new request)

(2) Forwarding the packet with stacking a VLAN tag (double tag tunneling)

(3) Forwarding the packet with translating a VLAN ID (VLAN id replace)

(4) Forwarding the packet with stripping the VLAN tag at the egress (new request)

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Different ingress VLAN id can be forward to the same egress port, but frame with sameVLAN ID cannot be mapped to the different egress port.

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10. Appendix 3: Related Documents

 Technical Description hiT 7020

 Technical Description hiT 7030

 Technical Description hiT 7035

 Technical Description hiT 7050

 Technical Description hiT 7060

 Technical Description hiT 7060 HC

 Technical Description hiT 7065

 Technical Description hiT 7070 SC/DC

 Technical Description hiT 7080


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