2. Personal Statement
As a child I dreamed of earning a college degree in a field which would allow me to help people. Back then I did not know about Psychology and the possible careers in the field. As a high school student I was introduced to the subject through a college level psychology class. I knew then what I wanted to pursue when I went to college. Then life interfered with my plans. I have a good friend who says that life happens while we are busy making plans. He is so right. Life threw me a curveball and I was in the position of rethinking my plans.
Over the years I have experienced much heart ache and many events that have made me a strong individual. Recently I gained custody of two of my grandchildren. My son, their dad, is bipolar just like his father. He and their mother are incapable of caring for the little ones. My husband and I adopted them and we made the decision that I would retire from real estate and stay home and care for them. With this decision I realized I now had the opportunity to return to school and fulfill my childhood dream. That is to earn a college degree, preferably a doctorate in family counseling with an emphasis on children.
3. Personal Statement
I am very interested in the psychosocial effects upon the well siblings of a chronically ill child. Do older children have a more difficult time dealing with the issues than the younger children? I ask these questions because I have a daughter born with a life threatening illness. She has older and younger siblings. I have often wondered how her health issues and the toll her illness has taken on our family affected her siblings. I hope to be able to research this and many other questions as I worked towards a doctorate in child and adolescent psychology.
Over the years, I have worked and volunteered in many different capacities. Some of my work has been caring for the disabled and elderly. I have worked as a hospice provider, and I have counseled parents of seriously ill children, helping them make sense of the doctors terms. Most recently, I started a group for grandparents raising their grandchildren. I help them negotiate the emotional roller coaster they have involuntarily or voluntarily climbed on.I have found that when emotions are high it is difficult to think things through and it is a comfort to have someone you trust with you as you make sense of what the attorneys and other family service providers say to you.
4. Personal Statement
As a full time mother, grandmother, foster mother and working part time, I do not have a lot of spare time to volunteer. Over the years I have taught Sunday school to the children and youth of our church. I have had pastoral counseling training through our church and seminary classes, and I volunteer for our Disaster relief team. I have been involved in a lot of parent training through our grandchildrens school and have been on the school council. I have been a foster parent and have had many a young people come through our home that have had emotional issues which we lived with and helped them find ways of coping.
Debora Ferrier860-618-5216 home
160 Laurel Hill Rd.860-601-3877 cell
Torrington, CT [email protected]
My objective is to enter the Masters program at University to pursue a Masters in psychology with the eventual goal of entering a doctoral program to specialize in family and child psychology. I plan to research the effects of trauma on families and children. I have a special interest in the psychosocial effects upon the well sibling of a chronically ill child.
Bachelor in Science 2011
Associates in Science1992
Parent Leadership Training Institute
Community Organizer and Founder
Grands Raising Grands 2005-2011
This group was started after I was granted custody of my grandchild. After having to deal with family court and the department of children and families I realized there were many grandparents out there fighting to protect their grandchildren but they had no idea how to do so.
Real Estate Agent 1998 2006
As an independent agent I worked with a variety of people and had a reputation as the agent to deal with the difficult and obnoxious. I held a license in two states and worked in this job until I took early retirement to stay home with my grandchildren.
American Psychological Association
Connecticut Association of Foster and Adoptive Children
Cognitive Development Association
Community Organizer Grands Raising Grands support group.
Pastoral counseling in disaster relief situations as part of the BCNE disaster relief team.
Sunday school teacher to children and teens and teen counselor at my church.
References are available and will be provided upon request.
8. Table of Contents
Cognitive Abilities; Critical Thinking and Information Literacy
Communication Skills: Oral and Written
Ethics and Diversity Awareness
Foundations of Psychology
**Include work samples and projects with a Title Page and organized accordingly to demonstrate each of the Program Outcomes above
9. Cognitive Abilities
Biopsychosocial Effects of Substances
Intensive inpatient treatment programs are available for those who need to be supervised by a medical staff and are in need of medications to help alleviate withdrawal symptoms (Hart, Ksir, & Ray, 2009). The client who would need to participate in this type of program would present with severe medical conditions or mental health issues (Argosy University, 2010). This type of program includes individual and group therapy sessions which start after a client has finished with the physical
10. Cognitive Abilities
detox stage (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). Also family therapy is highly encouraged in an effort to help family members understand the addiction problems and to help the family heal (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). A client who would avail himself of this program is one who is truly committed to getting clean and staying clean (Hart, et al., 2009). This would be a necessary characteristic of the prospective client because once the detox process begins it would be very difficult to stop the process. Also the client will have to be separated from their family, friends and workplace which would require a commitment of not only the client but the clients family and place of work (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). This can be a major drawback to intensive inpatient treatment.Along with the time required and the expense of this form of treatment (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009).
11. Cognitive Abilities
Outpatient medical programs are much less expensive than the inpatient form and also allow a client to stay with their family and continue working while undergoing treatment (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). Medication is still used to help alleviate withdrawal symptoms and counseling is still an integral part of the treatment program (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). Family members are encouraged to take part in therapy sessions a couple of times a week (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). A client who is committed to making a change in their life would be able to participate in this program (Hart, et al., 2009). If a client is taking medication to help with detox and they drink they run the risk of becoming very ill from the alcohol interacting with the medication (Hart, et al., 2009).Part of the therapeutic process would be the involvement with self help groups in the community (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). This type of program is beneficial for a client who cannot take time from work or home and the treatment takes place in the clients own backyard.
12. Cognitive Abilities
Alcoholics Anonymous is a self help program recommended for someone who has made the commitment to change their habits and become clean with the support of others with a similar problem (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). This is the original 12 step program for substance abuse recovery and is committed to keeping individuals as anonymous as possible (Argosy University, 2010; Hart, et al., 2009). This type of program is very flexible and there are a number of meetings weekly which a client can attend (Argosy University, 2010). There are no professionals and no medication available which makes this type of program appropriate for clients who have no serious medical conditions which are a result of years of alcohol abuse. The client will be paired with a sponsor who has gone through this process and has a number of years sober (Argosy University, 2010).One drawback that many have pointed out is that these programs seem to be too spiritual for some (Argosy University, 2010).
13. Cognitive Abilities
Self-management and recovery training or SMART is beneficial for the client who is willing to take responsibility for their own addiction (Argosy University, 2010). This program promotes abstinence as the only choice and is based on cognitive-behavioral therapy, which focuses on helping the client to manage their cravings, find out what caused them to start abusing alcohol, help the client to change their surroundings to promote abstinence and develop balance within their lives (Argosy University, 2010). This type of program is very similar to Alcoholics Anonymous and would benefit the same type of committed client.
14. Cognitive Abilities
Argosy University. (2010). Biopsychosocial effects of substances. Retrieved June 13, 2010, from www.myeclassonline.com
Hart, C.L., Ksir, C., & Ray, O. (2009). Drugs, society and human behavior (13th ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
15. Research Skills
Racism, Classism, Sexism
Racism, Classism, Sexism
An individuals beliefs are formed during their early years. By the time a child is five years of age their family belief system has been ingrained into them and has become the groundwork for all information that is processed as they grow and interact with others (Santrock, 2009). If the child is raised in a family that makes no distinction between ethnicity, gender or racial differences of those within their circle of friends and associates the child may grow to not have any bias in these areas (Santrock, 2009). A child who grows in a household that does make distinctions in these areas will have this as their grounding in their beliefs (Santrock, 2009). Life experiences will also have an effect upon a person as they grow and interact with those of different backgrounds (Santrock, 2009).
16. Research Skills
Education in private and public schools is a stepping stone for many children into the world of class, ethnic diversity, and gender roles (Bakanic, 2009; Santrock, 2009). US history was written by white males to reflect their views and beliefs in the formation of our country. These views are taught to children from the moment they enter the school system (Bakanic, 2009; Santrock, 2009). Not only these views but also the views of the teachers and the other students within the school will have an effect upon a childs beliefs (Santrock, 2009; Bakanic, 2009). In every school the children will congregate with those of like background and mindset (Santrock, 2009). As shown in the video experiment of Mrs. Elliots third grade class you find the children taking on the personas of the roles assigned to them (Argosy University, 2010). The children being split into two groups based upon their eye color with one being dominant and then switching roles the next day learned a lesson in being treated badly due to the difference in their eye color (Argosy University, 2010). In a social structure these roles are assigned at birth depending on the childs gender, and familys race, ethnicity, and wealth or social standing (Bakanic, 2009).
17. Research Skills
In Michael Parentis speech about the subjugation of women the role of gender discrimination is spelled out clearly (Bakanic, 2009; Argosy University, 2010). Exploitation of women by men was perpetuated for hundreds of years in patriarchal societies due to the advantage for the men (Argosy University, 2010; Bakanic, 2009). Jobs were for the males in the community. Women did all the work that men felt were beneath them, used for sex willing or not, were considered possessions (Argosy University, 2010). Male dominance spilled over into the rest of society outside of the family (Argosy University, 2010). What was taught to children and the way women were treated in the presence of children showed how women should be treated. Today women are still not considered equal to their male counterparts. Women who perform the same job as a man will be paid at a lower rate. Women who choose to stay home and raise their children are treated as second class citizens. Today many men are choosing to stay home and take the role of the stay at home parent. They are commended and treated with respect for their sacrifice. When the most important job a parent can have is to raise a child and be there for them, women are ridiculed and ashamed to state that they are stay at home moms. One woman described her job as a researcher in child development because she did not want to be looked at with pity.
18. Research Skills
Is it possible to change a racist society? No, it is not. There will always be racism and prejudice based upon one aspect in society or another. India has a caste system that has been in place for hundreds of years. No matter how one works to improve their lives they will never rise above the station into which they were born. In many countries one can rise above their birth station but there will never be a way to rise above another persons prejudice or beliefs.
Argosy University. (2010). Sociological perspectives on class, ethnicity, and gender. Retrieved October 28, 2010, from http://www.myeclassonline.com
Bakanic, V. (2009). Prejudice: Attitudes about race, class, and gender (1 ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Santrock, J. W. (2009). Life-Span Development (12th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Negotiations & Conflict Resolution
Every one of the people in the flight crew worked to save the lives of the passengers on flight 232. They all tried to maintain a calm and professional manner throughout the whole situation in an effort to keep all of the passengers calm and enable them to follow instructions for a crash landing. The pilot and copilot did what they could to keep the plane in flight and find a way to land without crashing. Denny Fitch was a passenger on this flight who happens to be a DC-10 Training pilot on his way home from an instructor session who offers his help to the pilots. He finds a scene he did not expect to ever encounter, a scene which will take the ingenuity and knowledge of the whole crew to solve; how to land a plane without controls or braking capabilities (Aircrashinvestigatios: United Airlines Flight 232, 2008).
Denny Fitch becomes a fourth member of the crew due to his willingness to step in and offer his help. He did not just walk in and take over, ordering the pilot and co-pilot around. He asked if he could help by offering to take over the throttles while the pilot and co-pilot fought to control and steer the plane. He deferred to the pilot as the one in charge during this crisis and did as the pilot directed. Denny earned the trust of the pilot as they fought together to find a solution to this extreme situation. He stayed in the cockpit right to the end trying to help land the DC-10 without loss of life. Denny and the rest of the crew are trapped inside the wreckage of the cockpit and are the last to be rescued. All four are seriously injured but survive the ordeal. It is not until later they find out that 111 passengers are killed (Aircrashinvestigatios: United Airlines Flight 232, 2008).
Denny Fitch went into this situation with informal power based on his expertise which gave him expert power in being able to help the pilot (Argosy University, 2011). Dennys expert power came from his expertise in training individuals in flying DC-10s. Denny knows he is knowledgeable about flying DC-10s and is confident in his ability to help the pilot and offer advice on how to deal with the situation. With his experience he feels ready for anything but discovers that what is happening in the cockpit is much worse than
anything he has ever experienced before or could ever possibly imagine happening. This does not stop him as he steps in offering his help and doing as directed by the pilot. The pilot came to trust him and accepted him as a fourth crew member (Aircrashinvestigatios: United Airlines Flight 232, 2008; Argosy University, 2011).
I do not feel that there could be anything equitable about the outcome of this situation. The crew thought of this as a loss due to the loss of life and the fact that they crashed despite all their efforts to avoid this. There is nothing that could have been done better by Denny or the crew. They did all they could and Denny did what he knew was the only thing he could do. He offered his expertise and help in a terrible situation.
Aircrashinvestigatios: United Airlines Flight 232. (2008). Retrieved April 17, 2011, from Google: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=7664206256212725581#
Argosy University. (2011). Negotiation and Conflict Management. Retrieved April 8, 2011, from http://www.myeclassonline.com
22. Ethics and Diversity
Oratorical Leaders and Stereotypes
Sociological Perspective on Class, Ethnicity, and Gender
Oratorical Leaders and Stereotypes
Severn Suzuki is the daughter of David Suzuki, a well known environmentalist and scientist. Miss Suzuki was raised in a home where the environment was the number one topic of discussion. Her parents taught her about the world and how it works along with all the bad things that they and their colleagues felt were wrong with this world. At the age of nine she gathered together a group of like minded children from her school into the Environmental Childrens Organization. This groups main goal was to teach other children about environmental issues (Rooney, 2006; Skyfish, 2004; Suzuki, 1992).
23. Ethics and Diversity
Thevideo in the webliography was fascinating because of the outspokenness of a twelve year old girl in front of United Nations delegates (Suzuki, 1992). She was very certain of her facts and was determined to make a difference in the world. This young girl and her friends were so determined to attend this conference that they worked hard to raise the funds to pay their way (Rooney, 2006; Suzuki, 1992). Miss Suzuki included many facts in her impassioned plea to the delegates and was able to make her point clearly. This speech earned her the name The girl who silenced the UN for five minutes (Rooney, 2006). Some of the delegates were moved to tears (Rooney, 2006). Years later Miss Suzuki came to the conclusion that she must work to make change, not starting at the top, but working with each individual (Rooney, 2006; Skyfish, 2004).
Miss Suzuki speaks about many commonly held stereotypes which she grew thinking to be true because of her privileged upbringing. She was living in a nice, comfortable home not wanting for anything. She was able to travel with her family to many places around the world and she was able to interact with different cultures, learning from them as she grew. Miss Suzuki was not aware of the poverty that surrounded her own home due to her privileged life. She makes reference to different regions of the world with typical stereotypes and does not see the irony of what she is saying (Rooney, 2006; Suzuki, 1992).
24. Ethics and Diversity
The in-group of this scenario is the children of the Environmental Childrens Organization. Miss Suzuki is speaking to all adults about the waste they produce and the things that are being destroyed in the environment (Suzuki, 1992). She is saying that children like her and her friends will never get to see many of the things in the environment that her parents and grandparents were able to see (Suzuki, 1992). The unifying values of the in-group are the desire for the delegates to put a stop to the destruction of the environment in their respective countries (Suzuki, 1992). The in-group is asking that each of the UN delegates return home to their own countries and make changes in how the people of their countries consume goods and practice farming and distribution of those goods and foods (Suzuki, 1992). The delegates are being asked to make radical changes in the way their people use and develop the earth and all that live and grow here (Suzuki, 1992). This group wants the delegates to go home and enact laws and rules that the people will have to live their lives by (Suzuki, 1992). This is without understanding of how these changes would impact the environment or the economy of these different countries.
25. Ethics and Diversity
The in-group is also asking for the adults who have attended this conference to live up to their words. For the adults in the world to live up to what they tell their children to do (Suzuki, 1992). The in-group wants the adults to do what all children are taught in kindergarten to do (Suzuki, 1992). They are asking the adults to put up or shut up. Global warming and animal extinction, loss of water reserves, rain forests and the ozone layer are topics which are raised by the group to point out what the adults in this world have done to damage the environment (Suzuki, 1992). They are asking adults to stop damaging things they do not know how to fix (Suzuki, 1992).
One of the stereotypes the in-group is challenging is the belief held by adults that there are never ending resources on this planet. The attitude that these resources are there to be used by the adults in the world without regard for the children or the future. One example of this would be that, in 1992, when this speech was given, the ozone layer was found to be depleted in some way (Suzuki, 1992). Scientists came up with the theory that this happened because of the way the worlds resources were being used. Another example would be the extinction of some animals from the world (Suzuki, 1992).
26. Ethics and Diversity
This theory was put forth before enough evidence was gathered to support it. Other examples would be the depletion of the rain forests as areas were being cleared for the raising of cattle or other money crops, and the lower water reservoirs at the time of this speech (Suzuki, 1992).
Another stereotype is that children are unaware of what is happening in the world around them or are unaffected by those changes. Miss Suzuki states that children are aware of their plight in this world and the plight of the world (Suzuki, 1992). She pointed out that children understand hunger and poverty, loss of family and home, and what war can do to them (Suzuki, 1992). She also pointed out that the children seem to know how they would fix some of the worlds problems if they just had the wherewithal to do so (Suzuki, 1992).
The out-group in this scenario are the adults of the time and those who have gone before them. Miss Suzukis speech lumped all adults into the category of wasteful people who take but do not give back or help the economy or ecology (Suzuki, 1992). These adults are not the bad guy in this scenario. They are imperfect people who live in an imperfect world and do business as their parents and grandparents have done, many for more generations. Some may even believe that what they are doing has little or no impact upon the world.
27. Ethics and Diversity
Why should they change the way they live or ask the people in their countries to do so? Their societies work in the way they have done so for a long time and the adults work within the confines of their societal laws and expectations. How are the adults at the conference supposed to make societal changes within their communities without undermining the societal structure?
My attitudes toward prejudices, subordination or discrimination have been influenced by the individual contact I have made with different individuals from the different groups. My family and community in which I was raised had the biggest impact upon the beliefs I had as a child and young adult. I grew up in a small community of mixed heritage. In the town there were many different religious groups. These were represented by the many different buildings which were set aside for worship. There was the Roman Catholic Church, the Evangelical church, the Baptist church, the Protestant church, the Synagogue, and a few others. Many of my friends went to these different churches and practiced these different religions. I remember being allowed to attend the different services when invited by a friend to go with their family, even the synagogue. My friends were from all different races and ethnicities and I was taught to not judge them by their appearance.
28. Ethics and Diversity
As an adult in the world and interacting with different people from around the world my attitude changed somewhat. I still accepted each individual for who they were but I became reserved and cautious about whom I associated with. This was mainly due to the prejudices of others who I came into contact with.To avoid trouble I would try to steer clear of any situation that could get a person hurt and while living in different countries I would bow to the societal rules and live as they did to avoid shaming those I became friends with. Today I believe my attitude is based on my past experiences with the different people I have come into contact with here in the States and in other countries. Contrary to popular belief, the United States does not have a monopoly on prejudice. There are many countries whose societal prejudices are a part of everyday life and are out in the public eye for all to see.
29. Ethics and Diversity
(2004). Retrieved November 14, 2010, from Skyfish: www.skyfishproject.org/skySevBio.html
Rooney, F. (2006, November 28). Severn Cullis-Suzuki. Retrieved November 14, 2010, from section15.ca rebel without a cause: http://section15.ca/features/people/2006/11/28/cullis_suzuki/
Suzuki, S. (1992). Severn Suzuki speaking before the UN earth summit, 1992. Retrieved November 14, 2010, from youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Sb6RmRMbBY&feature=related >
30. Foundations of Psychology
Advanced General Psychology
According to Jean Piaget human development happens in a series of stages progressing from infancy into adulthood. He said that it did not matter where a child was from or what culture they were brought up in their cognitive development would progress at the same pace and in the same stages. The first stage consist of infancy and the sensorimotor stage then moves on to the toddler and early childhood stage which is pre-operational and then the concrete stage in which you find the elementary age and preadolescent child. Then we move on to the formal operational stage of adolescents and adults. Piaget claimed that as a person matures biologically they will automatically move through the cognitive stages (Argosy University, 2011).
31. Foundations of Psychology
Kohlbergs moral stages go beyond Piagets stages of moral judgment which fit into a two stage theory. First children under 10 years of age think about moral dilemmas as rules that are fixed and absolute while older children know that rules are used by humans to get along cooperatively. According to Kohlberg there are six stages in moral development. One is that young children believe that if they are obedient they will avoid punishment. The second stage is when children recognize that there are different viewpoints by every individual. Stage three is when a child, tweens or teens, believe that people should live up to their family and community expectations and must behave in a good way. Stage four is when the teen starts to become concerned with society as a whole. This is when they expect all to respect authority and obey the laws. Moving into stage five of moral development is where the person starts to look at society outside their own looking to see if these societies uphold the rights and values of their citizens. Stage six, the final stage is the stage of universal principles where we work towards a conception of good society (Gerrig, 2010).
32. Foundations of Psychology
Parents need to be aware of both the cognitive stages and moral stages of their child in order to teach them what they need to know at their stage of understanding and moral development. Young children are very concrete and literal in their thinking. If you tell a child the moon is made of cheese they will believe you. As the child grows into the next stage and they start to think and understand abstract thoughts the moon being made of cheese is silly and the teenager will just look at you, roll their eyes and groan.
Teachers must understand the stage of development for the age of the children they are teaching. Pre-school and Kindergarten teachers have the children do a lot of movement and music, changing activities at specific intervals. They are not going to teach anything abstract and will stick to what a child can see and touch. Elementary school teachers start to introduce abstract thoughts and mathematics, reading and comprehension since at this stage the children can understand that the scribbles on the paper are letters and words. High school teachers are going to teach abstract and difficult math as the teens grow into adulthood.
33. Foundations of Psychology
Juvenile court judges and attorneys need to be aware of the development of both cognitive and moral stages. If a young child under ten comes before the judge they need to know the literal nature of the childs thoughts and their belief that they are being punished because they broke the big peoples rules. The older children have the ability to understand that just because they did this the other guy did something even worse and so their punishment will not be as severe. Then teens and adults who know they broke the law and know that they will receive punishment for their actions.
Argosy University. (2011). Advanced general psychology. Retrieved May 31, 2011, from http://www.myeclassonline.com
Gerrig, R. &. (2010). An overview of psychlogy: It'd past and present, your future. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
34. Applied Psychology
Science or Myth
There are myths that surround the field of psychology that many people today still believe. Some think that a psychologist can give an analysis of their behavior in the time it takes for them to say hello and others even think that a psychologist can read their minds and are afraid to be themselves. This is impossible. It takes time for a psychologist to study the behavior of a person and gather enough information to make an analysis which is based on information gained from carefully controlled experiments. Psychology is the study of human and animal behavior which makes this a science and not a field of speculation (Myers, 2010). Psychology is a body of knowledge gained from controlled observations and measurements carefully made through research which can be verified and done again by a different group of scientists at a later time (Argosy University, 2009). Science is defined as being a body of study using systematic and well-designed experiments and observations. This definition makes psychology a science.
35. Applied Psychology
The Human Brain and Nervous System
The human brain is a complex muscle made up of many different structures that makes our bodies and minds work. There is the Frontal Lobe which is responsible for abstract reasoning and our bodys motor functions (Argosy University, 2009). The Parietal Lobe is responsible for processing the sensations we feel on our skin and in our muscles (Argosy University, 2009). There is the Occipital Lobe which gives us the ability to see and then we have the Temporal Lobe without which we could not hear (Argosy University, 2009). The Hind brain controls primitive and basic functions such as our internal organs (Argosy University, 2009). All this is connected to the spinal cord through the brainstem which carries our nerves and veins from the body into the brain. All aspects of human behavior can be explained by how the brain and mind work. If a portion of the brain has been injured then the correlating part of the body will not function as it should (Myers, 2010). If you damage your occipital lobe you will have either decreased or no vision. If your frontal lobe is damaged you will have difficulty understanding abstract thoughts and making decisions.One other part of the brain we can not forget is the Limbic system. It is here that our emotions and the stress we experience are found.
36. Applied Psychology
There are three different theories of learning. We have Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Learning by Observation (Argosy University, 2009). 2000 years ago Aristotle came to the conclusion that we learn by association. Since then other philosophers have come to the same conclusion (Myers, 2010). A sequence of events causes our minds to connect or associate the event with whether it was a good experience or bad experience. If you associate a sound or smell with a positive event you will come to expect that positive chain to happen again. The same goes for a negative consequence (Myers, 2010).
Classical Conditioning is learning by association (Myers, 2010). We learn by experience that when two things happen which are associated with each other then we can anticipate the consequences of that sequence. Such as Ivan Pavlovs experiment in which he taught a dog to expect food with a certain sound (Myers, 2010). The dog would hear the sound and would start to drool in anticipation of the food. This is known as a conditioned response. If you stop the stimuli the conditioned response will become extinct but if after a bit of time you reintroduce the stimuli there will be spontaneous recovery of the conditioned response (Myers, 2010).
37. Applied Psychology
Operant Conditioning (Myers, 2010) is where we learn to associate the consequences of our responses to different stimuli. If it is a positive consequence we will repeat our response to that stimuli, such as if we perform a task correctly and we are rewarded then we will want to complete the next task correctly also. If we receive a negative consequence then we will not want to repeat whatever action we did to receive that negative consequence.
Now we have Observational Learning (Myers, 2010). This is where we learn to act and react according to what we observe in our lives as we are growing from childhood to adulthood. If a child is exposed to a negative non-nurturing and violent environment as they grow that child will become an adult who deals with stressful and negative aspects with violence. Whether it is verbal or physical violence it is hurtful to the undeveloped mind and attitude of the young child. If the child grows in a loving and nurturing environment exposed to as little violence as possible in todays society then that child will grow to be able to deal with negative and stressful aspects in a positive way. If little Sara grows in a household with very little physical comfort and with role models who use violence in some form to deal with issues then little Sara will also become the same kind of adult. If little Sara grows in a loving and nurturing home with adults who model positive reactions to stress and negative occurrences, then little Sara will grow to become that kind of adult. This is not set in stone for there are some children who grow with either model that decide to do things differently than the adults in their lives.
38. Applied Psychology
Personality is what makes us unique. The way we think and feel, perceive things, learn and remember as we go through our individual life stages develops our unique personalities.
Sigmund Freud developed the Psychoanalytic Theory of personality (Myers, 2010). This encompasses the structure of an individuals personality and the mechanisms used in defense of our selves, the individuals unconscious and the psychosexual stages in development. He believed the human self is a battleground for the id, ego, and superego which are in essence the selfspleasure ordesire, reason, and conscience (Argosy University, 2009). The id, ego, and superego are in constant battle according to Freud. The id tells the self what it desires and wants while the ego is telling the id you can not and keeps the id under control. Throw in the superego and you have an added dimension to the ongoing battle. The superego will only allow the self to do what is perceived as morally right (Argosy University, 2009). For instance if Sam has been taught all his life that stealing is wrong but he desires to have that game system everyone else has and he can not afford to pay for it his id will fight his ego because he can not always have what he desires and the superego will not allow him to do something that is morally wrong such as stealing.
39. Applied Psychology
Freuds theory shows a pessimistic view of man which caused others to develop different theories of personality (Myers, 2010). One of those is the Behavioral or Social Learning Theories. Behaviorists believe that an individuals personality is determined by childhood experiences (Argosy University, 2009). The way a child is raised by their parents and treated by other adults are key in how an individuals personality develops.The way our personality interacts with and is influenced by our environment will determine an individuals personality. Behaviorists look at observational learning as being a determinant in the way an individual reacts to a given situation (Myers, 2010). If the role model in a childs life acts a certain way then the child will mirror that reaction in the same situation. Also Behaviorists believe that a parents reaction to a childs aggression and sexual urges are responsible for whether a child develops a normal way of handling these subjects (Argosy University, 2009).
Another theory is the Trait Perspective. Psychologists use traits to describe an individuals personality (Myers, 2010). Traits are easily indentified characteristics of an individual which are stable and enduring. There are five personality dimensions that offer a pretty complete picture of someones personality. They are stability, openness, agreeableness, extraversion and conscientiousness (Myers, 2010). An individuals traits remain consistent over time although their reactions may vary.
40. Applied Psychology
Finally we have the most modern theory, the Humanistic Theory. Those who practice this theory have an optimistic view of human behavior (Myers, 2010). This theory proposes personal responsibility with which a person has the ability to make informed choices to determine the course of their own lives. Carl Rogers believed that to become a fully functioning successful person you need to be in harmony with your deepest feelings (Myers, 2010). He stated that you need to be genuine and honest, empathetic and accepting of an individuals actions. Critics claim that this theories assumptions are very simplistic and nave and that it adheres too closely to the values of Western self-centered concepts (Myers, 2010).
Argosy University (2009), Personality: Module 4, Retrieved August 20, 2009 from http://myeclassonline.com/
Myers, D. G. (2010). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.
41. Interpersonal Effectiveness
Stages of a Relationship
Stages of a Relationship
In all the relationships in which I have had to initiate the ones with the older foster children are the hardest to initiate. Small children and babies are very easy to get to know very quickly by giving them love and attention. The older children and teens are much harder. In the first minute to initiate a conversation (Adler, 2010) is an introduction asking name, age, introducing you and your family and showing them where they will sleep and can put their clothes.
42. Interpersonal Effectiveness
From there we would progress into experimenting with different questions about the child and their family (Adler, 2010). At this point you must tread very carefully. You must be alert to any changes in the childs body language and facial expression. Watching their eyes for any little thing will let you know how far you are likely to be able to progress at this first stage. This is also when you must look for the clue that says STOP. They all give them, some to a greater degree than others and it is very important to be aware of their stop signs so that you do not put up more barriers than there already are.
After some time, longer for some than others, we can approach the intensifying stage as we speak together about their families and their home life. This I normally leave up to the child how much they are willing to self-disclose. This stage is only reached with careful listening and observational skills. Many of these children come from homes so unlike ours that it is difficult for them to understand that what they left was not normal according to society. This is a critical time as we will never start the integrating stage of our relationship if the child is not allowed to speak of what they feel is important instead of trying to follow your own agenda. This is also a time where for any reason you end up back at the experimenting stage and have to slowly work your way back again.
43. Interpersonal Effectiveness
During the integrating stage (Adler, 2010) is when the child actually starts to become part of the group by interacting with the family for chores and mealtimes. This is the time when they start to see themselves as part of the family and some start calling me Mom because everyone else does. This is also the time when many leave us and move on, either back home or into more permanent placement. Many times there is very little warning that this will occur and there is no time for any of the stages of Mark Knapps relationship termination model. Depending on the amount of progress in our relationship this can be very difficult for all involved.
Sometimes the child stays for a much longer period of time and we reach the bonding stage in our relationship. This is when the child will publicly call me Mom and introduce the others as their siblings. This is also when they start calling our house home and will inform those involved that they are never leaving. When a child has reached this stage there is the possibility for them to regress after a painful court date or home visit. The child may shut down and close themselves off for a period of time. When this happens we sometimes have to start back at the intensifying stage and try to get the child to open up and to become a part of the family again
44. Interpersonal Effectiveness
. When we do have to step back to another stage it does not take as long to be able to work our way from the intensifying stage into and through the integrating stage and back into the bonding stage again.
Sometimes we never get past the intensifying stage with a child. There is too much for the child to process and this will hold a child in one stage of a relationship due to fear or even an inability to go beyond that point due to not knowing how. Sometimes we have a child that has been in too many different homes and they hold themselves back because they fear relational commitment and the process of terminating the relationship when they are sent home again. These children never learn how to implement Knapps relationship escalation model or the termination model because of fear or the fact that very little warning is given to the children when they are going to be moved again. All of the factors for these children point to a life without relationship commitment of any kind due to this fear and the fact that they are never given a chance to implement a relationship to the fullest.
45. Interpersonal Effectiveness
At all stages you must watch for anything that can make a child pull back into themselves as they try to deal with what is happening in their world. This normally happens after a court hearing or after a family visit. These are the times when a child has to deal with all the emotions that they are holding bottled up inside and these are the dangerous times for them psychologically. You must be prepared for a myriad of reactions and know when to step in and to try and initiate a new dialog with the child which may move you along the stages of a relationship or shut you out completely.
As we look at Knapps relationship termination model I see areas where long term relationships may go without termination being the outcome. If we look at the differentiating stage we come across having different interests and hobbies being a first sign of termination. I disagree with that. Every relationship is made of two unique individuals who do not always think alike and will most likely have different interests. I like the printed word where my husband likes to watch television. My husband is into sailing and you will not get me out on a boat in the open sea. These are only two examples of where we are different and although we have many interests the same, I feel the combination of the two is what makes a relationship work.
46. Interpersonal Effectiveness
When we look at the circumscribing stage I agree this could be a sign of a relationship dissolving, but I also would like to point out that every relationship has times when there is not as much communication as others. Do we start looking to end this relationship because of it? I do not believe so. Yes, this is true for work situations where a project is coming to completion and constant communication is not necessary anymore (Sias, 1998). This can also be true of a friendship that was formed based on a mutual interest that one or both are losing interest in.
As Knapps model moves this relationship along we reach the stagnating and avoiding stages which seem to happen at the same time. This is the time when outsiders will notice there is a problem because the couple is seen separately instead of together. As these stages progress they role into the termination stage where the relationship is done. This can happen by mutual agreement or negatively through divorce or anger between past friends. In the case of foster children this can be a very trying time. They can choose, as anyone can, how they will react to terminating their time in our home. With positive reinforcement, knowing they can call, any time they feel they have a need to.
47. Interpersonal Effectiveness
. Many of them leave our home with a positive attitude. Some we hear from and they bring their children to meet us and they call us Gramma and Grampa. Some we never hear from again and we pray that their lives are better for the short time we were a part of it.
Adler, R. B. (2010). Interplay; The Process of Interpersonal Communication. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bonebrake, K. (2002). College Students' internet use, relationship formation, and personality correlates. Cyber Psychology & Bhavior, 5 (6), 551-557.
Sias, P. &. (1998). From co-workers to friends: The development of peer friendships in the workplace. Western Journal of Communication, 62, 273-299.
Yum, Y. &. (2005). Computer-mediated relationship development: A cross-cultural comparison. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 11 (1), 133-152.
48. My Future in Learning
Learning is a lifelong process. How do you envision your future as a lifelong learner?
My future is to continue to pursue a Masters in Family and Child Psychology and eventually a Doctorate in Child, Adolescent Psychology. I am a reader and will continue to read what is available about psychology and will continue with the research I have started. I will pursue every line that catches my interest.
49. Contact Me
Thank you for viewing my ePortfolio.
For further information, please contact me at the e-mail address below.
Click here to load reader