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Fire and Gas Recovered]

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    1

    Fire and Gas system

    A basic understanding with our day

    to day job

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    WHY DO WE NEED FIRE & GAS PROTECTION

    SYSTEM????

    How it

    Works

    Looks?

    Fire Detection /Mitigationsystems:

    Fire Detection

    Gas Detection

    Fire Suppression systems

    CO2, FM200, Deluge

    Emergency Shutdown (ESD)Systems

    ICSS DCS/F&G/ESD systems.

    Emergency Alarm Systems

    PA system

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    Combustible Gases-Lower & Upper Limits*

    Too lean for ignition Too rich for ignition

    Clean Air

    Combustibles

    LowerExplosiveLimit (LEL)

    UpperExplosiveLimit (UEL)

    Typical CombustibleGas Detector Range

    of Measurement

    50%

    *No differentiation between the terms Explosive and Flammable as applied to the lower and

    upper limits of flammability

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    How does Gas Detector work?

    Detect & measurevapor beforehazardousconcentration is

    present

    Provide outputs toenable emergencyaction

    24 VDC+ -

    LEL

    00

    Flammable

    hydrocarbon

    gas

    No fault

    4.0 milliamperes

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    Types of Gas Detectors

    As per operating principle:

    1. Catalytic: Combustibles

    2. Infrared: Combustibles

    3. Electrochemical: Mainly Toxic gases (H2S,Oxygen,Cl, SO2,)

    In our plant, we are having Catalytic and Infrared types, they again may bedivided into point or open path detectors

    1. Pointwatch Eclipse 2. Open Path Eclipse 3. Catalytic Sensor/CGS

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    Catalytic Sensor Operation

    Combustible Gas Sensor (CGS)with DCUEX Tx

    Flammable

    gas

    Active Element - Hot wire resistor

    coated with catalytic material

    Reference Element - Same as active but

    without catalyst

    Catalytic reaction when contact with

    flammable gas generates heat &

    changes Active resistance; reference

    resistance unchanged

    Explosion is prevented by Flame

    Arrestor

    Constant E or I power source required

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    Point Infrared Detector Elements

    GasConcentration

    (LEL)

    IR Source LampPermeable GasCell

    ReferenceSignal Detector

    Measurement

    Signal Detector

    Optical Beamsplitter

    Optical Filters

    IR Transparent Window

    Microprocessor

    andElectronics

    Permeable GasCellSapphire Mirror Theory of OperationThe infrared (IR) method of

    gas detection relies on the IR

    absorption characteristics of

    gases to determine their

    presence and concentration.

    IR gas detectors consist of anIR light source (transmitter) and

    light detector (receiver) to

    measure the intensity both at

    the absorption wavelength and

    a non-absorbed wavelength.

    If gas is present in the optical path, it will affect the intensity of

    light transmitted between the light source and the detector.

    This change in intensity provides the data for determining that a

    specific gas, or type of gas is present.

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    8

    Open Path Gas Detector System Elements

    IR Source

    Microprocessor

    and

    Electronics

    Gas

    Concentration

    (LEL)

    Reference

    Signal Detector

    Measurement

    Signal Detector

    Optical Beamsplitter

    Optical Filters

    10 - 60 m

    Flammable

    hydrocarbon

    gas

    As the IR beam reaches the receiver, it passes through a focusing lens and then passes

    through two narrow band IR filters an active and a reference wavelength. The detector

    computes the ratio between the two signals

    The instrument's output is a function of gas concentration times the length of thesurveillance path

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    9

    Fail-Safe Operation

    DirtyOpticsandCleanAir

    Active Reference

    IR Signal Level

    HydrocarbonGas

    Active Reference

    IR Signal Level

    CleanAir

    Active Reference

    IR Signal Level

    Active Reference

    IR Signal Level

    FailedSensor

    Active Reference

    IR Signal Level

    FailedIR-Source

    Failed Microprocessor = 0 mA

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    EQP Field Devices - Flame

    UV/IR (X5200) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector

    UV (X2200) UV flame detector

    IR (X9800) - Single Frequency Infrared Flame Detector

    Multispectrum IR (X3301) -

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    Ultraviolet Sensor Operating Principle

    Anode

    Cathode OiTest Source

    Plastichousing

    connectors(a,b,c,d)

    QuartzEnvelope

    Det-Tronics UV Sensor

    circuit board

    UV photons strike tube cathode

    Cathode releases electron

    Electron strikes gas molecule

    Cascade effect occurs to anode

    Discharge is quenched, creates pulse(count) output

    Pulse output measured in CPS (countsper second)

    counts/gate: # of pulses (cps) requiredto occur within one gate in order toqualify

    gate length: unit of time consec. gates: # of consecutive gates

    required to be satisfied before a firealarm output is provided

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    Arc Rejection Signal Processing

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    Analyzes the raw IR sensor signal randomness

    Rejects signals that do not meet randomness criteriaNo Fire Alarm

    Fire Alarm!

    Signal Processing

    Automatic optical integrity calibrated to

    perform at all operating temperaturesInternal lamps test each sensor at theprecise wavelength once per minuteto verify operation.

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    LOGIC & C&E SYMBOL LEGEND

    CUSTOMER:

    PROJECT: REVDRAWING NUMBERSIZE

    B

    DRAWING TITLE

    CONFIDENTIAL-

    THISDRAWINGAND SPECIFICATIONCONTAIN PROPRIETARYINFORMATIONAND ANYREPRODUCTION,DISCLOSURE,OR USETHEREOFIS EXPRESSLYPROHIBITED WITHOUTWRITTENPERMISSION OFDETECTORELECTRONICSCORPORATION

    SCALE: NONE DETECTOR ELECTRONICS CORPORATION

    6901 WEST 110TH STREETMINNEAPOLIS, MN 55438DESIGN BY:

    DATE:

    CHECKED

    BY:

    P.O.

    F.O.

    ONEPLACETWOPLACESTHREEPLACESFRACTIONSANGLES

    0.00.000.000X/XXDEGREES

    +/-.020+/-.010+/-.005+/-1/32+/ -1

    TOLERANCEUNLESSOTHERWISESPECIFIED

    DESCRIPTIONDATEREV

    12345678

    D

    C

    B

    A

    D

    C

    B

    A

    12345678

    INITIAL RELEASE03/12/01AA

    XXX

    Simon Pate

    03/12/01

    XXX

    DETECTOR ELECTRONICS

    EAGLE QUANTUM

    Lube Oil console

    Fuel Gas System

    GT Exit/Entry

    Enclo

    sure

    exha

    ust

    System Cabinet

    RRFlextronics

    Control Net

    X3301

    Thermals

    DUCTWATCH

    DCIO

    Area with Detection & Suppression

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    Fire Detector Cone of Vision

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    How it Communicates

    UV/IR Fire Detection

    X5200

    IR Fire

    Detection

    X9800

    Supervised Inputs Heats,

    Smokes and MACsAgent Release

    PRESSHERETRYKK HERKNUS GLASSET

    BREAK GLASS

    BN-300BRANNALARM

    Tilpasningsenhet

    FIREALARM

    Interfaceunit

    Nr.

    No.

    UV Fire DetectionX2200

    Premier Controller

    Operator Interface

    Stationrunning S3

    software

    Ver 2.8

    Ports

    Configuration (serial port) RS-485 serial Link (Modbus RTU) Redundant media ControlNet

    OPC

    option

    MIR Fire Detection

    X3301

    24 vdc

    power supply

    Battery PSM

    DCIOModule

    HC Gas Detection

    Eclipse

    Network

    Extender

    ARM

    Signal / Audible

    Devices

    SAM

    IDC

    Supervised

    Digital

    inputs

    Toxic Gas Detection

    DCU / DCUEX

    I/O ModulesRelayAIMIPM

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    X3301 Multispectrum Infrared Flame Detector

    Extended Cone of VisionCombines the longest detectionrange with the best false alarm

    rejection capabilities

    a calibrated performance test that isautomatically performed once per minute toverify complete detector operationcapabilities. No testing with an external testlamp is required. The detector automaticallyperforms the same test that a maintenanceperson with a test lamp would perform

    Automatic oi

    Magnetic oi / Manual oi

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    Smoke Detector

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    Ionization Smoke Detector

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    Sensing chamber is black molded to prevent light

    The chamber consists of a infrared LED and aphoto diode

    Every 3 seconds LED emits a bunch ofcollimated lights. The light from LED does not fall

    directly to Diode as it is kept in some angle

    When smoke enters into the chamber, some ofthe light is scattered and detected by the photodiode.

    If the resulting signal from diode is above athreshold value, LED will emit two more bunch atan interval of 2 sec. If it goes high then alarmstate will be latched.

    Optical Smoke Detector

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    Heat Detector

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    Fire Detection Systems

    Fusible loop Smoke detector UV/IR detector

    3IR detectorThermal detector

    Sprinkler

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    Suppression Systems

    TPP- EG LQ-MCC

    TCPP Control Room

    TCPP Deluge

    ATFDeluge

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    Fire & Gas Panel

    Mini-vesda for LQ MCC

    FGP#2 - Mimic Panel FGP#1 FGP#3 TCPP Mimic Panel

    TPP FGP computer

    Fusible loop panel

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    Alarms

    Platform Emergency AlarmAbandon Platform Alarm

    Extinguishing Gas to be Released alarm

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    Emergency Manual operation

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    Enclosed Area Protection

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    Manual Release

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    Manual Release

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    Emergency Beckons

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