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Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

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Page 1: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001
Page 2: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fixed andRemovableProsthodontics


Lecturer. Prosthetic Dentistry. School of Dentistry,The University of Birmingham, UK

A. D. V V a I m s ley BDS MSC PhD FDSRCPS

Senior Lecturer. Prosthetic Dentistry. School of Dentistry,The University of Birmingham, UK


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CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONEAn imprint of Harcourt Publishers Limited

© Pearson Professional Limited 1998© Harcourt Publishers Limited 2001

The right of C. W. Barclay and A. D. Walmsley tobe identified as authors of this work has beenasserted by them in accordance with theCopyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

All right reserved. No part of this publicationmay be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recordingor otherwise, without either the prior permissionof the publishers (Harcourt Publishers Limited, RobertStevenson House, 1-3 Baxter's Place, Leith Walk,Edinburgh EH1 3AF), or a licence permittingrestricted copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90Tottenham Court Road, London, W1 P OLP, UK

Medical knowledge is constantlychanging. As new informationbecomes available, changes intreatment, procedures, equipmentand the use of drugs becomenecessary. The authors and thepublishers have, as far as it ispossible, taken care to ensurethat the information given in thistext is accurate and up to date.However, readers are stronglyadvised to confirm that theinformation, especially withregard to drug usage, complieswith current legislation andstandards of practice.

Second Edition 1998Reprinted 2001

I SBN 0443 05813 X

British Library Cataloguing in Publication DataA catalogue record for this book is available fromthe British Library.

Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataA catalog record for this book is available fromthe Library of Congress.


policy is to usepaper manufactured

from sustainable forests

For Churchill Livingstone

Printed in China by RDC Group Limited

Publisher: Michael ParkinsonProject manager: Ninette PremdasProject editor: Jim KillgoreDesign: Erik BiglandDesign direction: Kay Hunston

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This hook is intended to be a revision aid in the field of restorativedentistry Various procedures and techniques involved in the specialityof restorative dentistry are shown. Indications and contraindications forthe different treatment modalities are discussed_ The text andillustrations are riot meant to be extensive but serve as a starting pointwhich will stimulate the reader to follow up an interest in this subjectarea.

The authors would like to acknowledge the support and assistance ofProfessor VV. R_ E. Laird. head of the teaching unit of ProstheticDentistry at the University of Birmingham, in the production of thisbook.



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With the academic and technical advances which are occurring indentistry, it is inevitable that this must be accompanied by increases inthe educational and descriptive texts available in the form of newbooks.

Dentistry, however, is essentially a relatively limited profession, andwhen one considers the international variation in clinical and technicalskills coupled with perceived need for dental care and the fundingavailable, any new textbook must be able to present in a clear manneradvances which are to the benefit of society. In particular, care must betaken to avoid repetition whilst attempting to cover the subjectadequately.

This has been achieved well by the authors in their first text, whichserves to bring together the concepts of removable and fixedprosthodontics in a single volume, and is particularly appropriate inthe current climate in the United Kingdom of General ProfessionalTraining and Specialisation. The choice of a colour atlas with a limitedamount of text is an unsurpassed way to present updates in knowledgeand technique to the busy practitioner in a manner which is easilyunderstood, not only by the clinician but also the technician and mosti mportantly, the patient. The authors are to be congratulated fori dentifying a gap in the market and for filling it so effectively. This bookwill be of benefit to all practitioners in Restorative Dentistry.


Professor W.R.E. Laird

Professor of DentalProsthetics/HonoraryConsultant inRestorative Dentistry,University ofBirmingham, UK

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1 Soft tissue examination 1

2 Hard tissue examination

3 Complete dentures 31

4 Copy dentures 43

5 Overdentures 49

6 Immediate replacementdentures 53

7 Neutral zone 55

8 Obturators 81

10 Acrylic partial dentures 71

13 11 Cohalt}Chromium partialdentures 79

12 Sectional dentures 91

13 Precision attachments 95

14 Tooth substance loss 109

15 Crown and bridgework 115

16 Removable implants 145

17 Fixed implants 157

Index 169

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Squamous cell carcinoma

Aetio0ogy acrd The aetiology of squamous cell carcinoma (Fig. 1)patfiatogy is unclear, although there appears to be a higher I

ncidence amongst heavy smokers and drinkers.Certain intraoral ronditione are also described as beingpremalignant in nature; these include lichen planus,dysplastic leukoplakia. candidosis, submucous fibrosis.

Diagnoses Differentiation by clinical examination of the lesion (Fig.2) from more common clinical lesions such as an area ofhyperplasia is often possible. However. histologicalexamination of the region (Fig. 3) is always required toconfirm the diagnosis.

Menegeenent Surgical excision, radiotherapy and chemotherapy canall be used in the trcatrnent of oral carcinoma. However,most oral cancers respond poorly to chemotherapyleaving surgical excision and the use of adjunctiveradiotherapy as the more common treatments of choice-There appears to be an increase in the incidence of oralcarcinoma, although a widespread geographicalvariance in ncidence is evident, with it being morecommon on the Indian subcontinent.

1 1 S o f t t i s s u e e x a m i n a t i o n

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Fig. 1 Squamous cell carcinoma in cheek.

Fig. 2 Close up of lesion.

Fig. 3 Microscopic appearance of the squamous cell carcinoma.

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Denture-induced hyperplasia

Aetiology andpathology

Denture-induced hyperplasia is caused by traumafrom an overextended denture periphery or anunretentive, unstable denture base. It is seen morefrequently in the lower arch rather than the upper( Figs 4 & 5) and is often related to poorlycontrolled follow-up of an immediate denture.

Diagnosis Denture-induced hyperplasia presents as single ormultiple flaps of fibrous tissue related to theborder of a denture base (Fig. 6).

Management Removal of the offending denture allows forcomplete resolution in respect of small lesions. Itmay also be possible to trim the border of thedenture and apply a tissue conditioning material toi mprove stability and retention. This will result inl ess trauma to the site. If the hyperplastic lesion isl arge, however, it is often necessary to undertakesurgical removal of the tissue. In any event thedenture must always be discarded for 2-3 weeksprior to surgery to allow as much naturalresolution as possible. Chronic irritation is apossible cause of oral carcinoma and therefore allhyperplastic tissue should be examinedhistologically to discount this.

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Mg. a Denture hyperplasia of upper ridge.

Fig. 5 Denture hyperplasia of lower ridge.

Fig. 6 Causative denture in place.

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Assorted soft tissue disordersAetiology and

pathologyPregnancy epulis (Fig. 7)Subgingival calculus or an overhanging restorationcan be the simple cause of this exaggeratedi nflammatory lesion of the attached mucosa.

Diagnosis A female patient with a localised gingival swellingwho confirms she is pregnant. On histologicalexamination the tissue is extremely vascular and isheavily infiltrated with polymorphs.

Management I mprovement of the patient's oral hygiene,sometimes combined with surgical excision of thel esion. If left untreated this condition resolvesspontaneously after birth.

Aetiology andpathology

Fibroepithelial polyp (Fig. 8)Chronic trauma from cheek biting resulting infibrous hyperplasia.

Diagnosis Differentiate from other possible soft tissue lesionsby histological examination of the excised lesion.


Aetiology andpathology

Excisional removal and histological confirmation.

Wegener's granulomatosis (Fig. 9)This disease is thought to be an immune-complexdisorder.

Diagnosis The characteristic form of 'strawberry' gingivitiscan be pathognomic. However confirmation byhistological examination will confirm this diagnosiswith a picture of necrotising vasculitis andcharacteristic giant cells.

Management Chemotherapy or co-trimoxazole are thetreatments of choice.

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Fig. 7 Pregnancy epulis.

Fig. 8 Fibroepithelial polyp.

Fig. 9 Wegener's granulomatosis.

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Denture-induced stomatitis

This is a multifactorial condition, the factorspredisposing to which include: poor denturehygiene, trauma from an ill-fitting denture base,candida albicans, endocrine imbalance, irondeficiency anaemia, reduced salivary flow, folatedeficiency, and diabetes mellitus. It has beenshown that this condition affects women morefrequently than men.

The clinical picture is classically a diffuse erythemaassociated purely with the denture bearing area( Figs 10 & 11). It is most commonly asymptomaticand therefore the synonym denture sore mouthshould be discarded.

Establishing and controlling possible generalaetiological factors (Fig. 12):• Correct oral and denture hygiene. Dentures

should be soaked in a hypochlorite solution.• Correction of the ill-fitting nature of the dentures.• Use of antifungals such as amphotericin,

miconazole and nystatin.• Removing the dentures at night.I f these simple measures do not resolve theproblem, haemotological investigations will berequired.

Aetiology andpathology



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Fig. 10 Denture stomatitis-upper arch of a complete denturepatient.

Fig. 11 Denture stomatitis-upper arch under a

cobalt/chromium partial denture.

Fig. 12 Smear taken from the denture surface of a patientshowing fungal hyphae.

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Cotton wool burn

Oral tissues may suffer localised dryness duringisolation and aspiration procedures. If a dry cottonwool roll is present and removed from the sulcus itmay adhere to the tissues, removing the superficialthin friable layer of the lining mucosa (Figs 13 &14).

The classic clinical appearance is of a largesloughed ulcer in the buccal sulcus adjacent to arecently restored tooth. Other factors which couldhave resulted in a similar appearance includei ncorrect isolation or removal of acid etch gel ordentine conditioners.

Reassurance that the area will heal unscarred.The patient should be discouraged from the use ofany proprietary gel formulations which, althoughrelieving the pain, often just burn the region (Fig.15) resulting in later discomfort. This area will heali n a few days and if required the use of topicalanaesthetic agents may ease the discomfort duringthis period.

Aetiology andpathology



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Fig. 13 Cotton wool burn-lower lip.

Fig. 14 Cotton wool burn-labial sulcus.

Fig. 15 Bonjela burn.

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Leukaemia is idiopathic in origin although variousattempts have been made to link it to radiation.Leukaemia represents a malignant proliferation ofwhite cells, replacing their normal development inthe bone marrow. This process may affect any ofthe white cell strains but most commonly occursi n the lymphocytes, monocytes or granulocytes.Leukaemia may exist in either acute or chronicforms (Figs 16, 17 & 18).

I n acute forms of this disease, it is common fororal symptoms to develop first. These can include:oral bleeding, petechiae, ulceration, mucosalpallor, oral infections-candidosis or herpetic;and extraorally cervical lymphadenopathy.Confirmation of the clinical diagnosis involveshaematological analysis and bone marrow biopsy.

Management of these patients is dependent onwhich type of leukaemia is present. Commonlypotent cytotoxic drugs are used or sometimesradiotherapy. In some types destruction of all whitecells and marrow, followed by a bone marrowtransplant is required. It is important therefore thatthese patients carry out a strict oral hygieneregime to minimise the risk of infection from theoral environment.


Aetiology and




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Fig. 18 Leukaemia-appearance of forearm.

Fig. 17 Leukaemia-appearance of tongue.

Fig. 16 Leukaemia-appearance of right cheek.

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2 / Hard t issue examinat ion


The cyst is thought to arise from the epithelium of thetooth prirnordium (dental lamina) or its residues {Figs119, 20 & 21).

The odontogenic keratocyst has a characteristic thoughnot pathognomic, radiological appearance. Ofkeratocysts 70% appear in the mandible. normally atthe mandibular angle and ascending ramus_ Theradiographic appearance is normally of a multilobularlesion, which causes expansion of the cortical hone.Aspiration biopsy may be possible and identification ofepithelial squames from this is diagnostic. Howeversuch a sample cannot always be obtained and often anincisional biopsy and histological examination isrequired to confirm the diagnosis.

The reported frequency of recurrence of these lesions isreputed to be due to incomplete removal of the cystlining in one piece_ There is conflicting evidence thatrecurrence is related to the surgical treatment of thislesion. Enucleation is the surgical treatment of choicealthough size and position may dictate the use of amarsupialisetion technique. Enucleation combined withthe removal of the overlying mucoperiostium mayfurther reduce the risk of recurrence. The mostimportant features affecting the recurrence rate appearto be the size and location of the lesion_

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Fig. 20 Keratocyst-external oblique view.Fig. 19 Keratocyst-extraoral.

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Torus palatinus and torus mandibularis

Aetiology andpathology

Genetic in origin and more commonly seen inwomen than men, they are bony, commonlyasymptomatic and slow growing.

Diagnosis • Palatal tori (Figs 22 & 23) appear in the midlineof the palate and neoplasia should be excludedfrom the diagnosis.

• Mandibular tori (Fig. 24) are bilateral, elevatedand lingual to the mandibular premolars.Unerupted teeth should be discounted in thissituation.

Management These hard tissue excrescences require nomanagement as such but often pose problems ifdentures are to be constructed in the region.Palatal relief over the palatine torus will helpprevent repeated fracture of the denture base, andcareful extension of the lingual flanges in themandibular tori region can avoid any potentialproblems.

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Fig. 22 Palatine torus.

Fig. 23 Palatine torus.

Fig. 24 Mandibular torus.

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Aetiology andpathology

Severe resorption

Residual ridge resorption occurs in the mandibleand maxilla after removal of the natural teeth andmight be considered as a form of disuse atrophy.The resorptive process occurs at different rates inthe maxilla and mandible such that the mandiblecommonly resorbs at a rate of 4: 1 to that of themaxilla. This process will continue indefinitely andcan be affected by various factors includinghormone levels, smoking and some as yetunidentified factors.

Diagnosis When severe resorption occurs, the mandible inparticular becomes very thin and all that mayremain is its lower border (Figs 25, 26 & 27). Insuch circumstances the mandible is described asbeing pipe-stemmed and the inferior alveolar nervecomes to lie on its superior surface. This canpresent the patient and clinician with severalproblems including possible physiological fractureof the severely weakened bone or pain frompressure on the nerve which is now placedsuperficially.

Management The placement of implants into the edentulousridges or maintenance of roots as overdentureabutments has been shown to preserve bone andprevent this severe bony resorption occurring.Attempts to apply bone grafts using autogenous aswell as artificial bone, and the use of barriermembrane materials have all been tried in anattempt to augment resorbed ridges.

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Fig. 25 Severe mandibular atrophy-


Fig. 26 Severe mandibular atrophy-lateral

cephalometric view.

Fig. 27 Severe mandibular atrophy-panoramic view.

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Clinical appearance of severe

mandibular resorption

Aetiology andpathology

Bone resorption occurs in the mandible at a fasterrate than the maxilla and therefore thepresentation of a severely atrophic mandible in apatient who has been edentulous for aconsiderable period is not uncommon. Theaetiological factors for this process have beenoutlined previously.

Diagnosis The clinical appearance of an atrophic mandible( Figs 28 & 29) is the loss of height and widthtogether with relative loss of the depth of thebuccal and lingual sulci. There is an accompanyingl oss of attached mucosa overlying this situation.This has important implications for the placementof a satisfactory prosthesis as the retention andstability will be affected by the ridge form and thearea available for support will also be reduced.

Management The relative superficial nature of the attachingmuscles to the mandible such as the buccinator,mylohyoid and genioglossus is a direct resultof the loss of bony height. The genial tubercles(Fig. 30) also become higher in relative terms tothe residual ridge and this may compromise theplacement of any prosthesis.

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Fig. 28 Early mandibular resorption.

Fig. 29 Mandibular resorption.

Fig. 30 Prominent genial tubercles.

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Periodontal disease/root caries

Aetiology and

Dental bacterial plaque is the major aetiologicalpathology

factor in both these hard tissue disorders. Inperiodontal disease it has been demonstratedthat organisms present in microbial plaque, orsubstances derived from them, constitute theprimary aetiological agent in inflammatory gingivaland periodontal diseases. Some plaque bacteriaferment dietary carbohydrate producing acidsthat-acting in susceptible dental sites, particularlyroot surfaces-result in carious lesions.

Diagnosis Periodontal breakdown

( Fig. 31) can be assessedclinically by the use of loss of attachment chartingused in conjunction with clinical radiographs(Fig. 32).

Rootcaries can be detected by careful examinationusing a dry field and good illumination of theregion (Fig. 33). Confirmation of the lesion can begained by either bite-wing or periapicalradiographs of the tooth involved.

Management Prevention in both cases is the best form ofmanagement. This would involve good oralhygiene measures to prevent plaque accumulationand dietary advice to reduce the amount offermentable carbohydrate available.

Clearly intervention will be required when thedisease process has progressed and thereforeconservative treatment and periodontalmanagement will no longer just involvepreventative measures.

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Fig. 31 Loss of periodontal attachment.

Fig. 32 Radiographic appearance of periodontal bone loss.

Fig. 33 Root caries.

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Periodontal acrylic veneer

Definition A facing that is placed buccal to the naturaldentition and constructed in acrylic resin. It masksany recession or postsurgical tissue loss that ispresent (Figs 34 & 35) and gives the appearance ofa normal gingival contour and level.

Management Such a prosthesis (Fig. 36) should only beconstructed for a patient whose oral hygienei s good and whose periodontal condition iscontrolled. Veneers utilise both the interproximalarea of the dental arch together with salivaryadhesion for their retention. They should not beworn when sleeping on both periodontal healthand medico-legal grounds.

Advantages • The major advantage of this appliance is thei mprovement in appearance that can be achievedparticularly in a patient who has a high lip line.

• This veneer can also have the beneficial action ofi mproving speech, as often patients who sufferfrom marked anterior recession feel that a' whistling' problem can result during speech dueto the development of large interproximalspaces. If these are filled by such an appliance,the problem is normally resolved.

Disadvantages Like most prostheses there is the potential fori ncreased plaque accumulation if the patient doesnot maintain a high level of oral hygiene.

Procedure A special impression tray which supports a buccali mpression is used. The impression is taken froma buccal path of insertion/withdrawal and modernelastomers can cope effectively with the undercutareas.

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Fig. 34 Severe gingival recession.

Fig. 35 Periodontal acrylic veneer masking recession.

Fig. 36 Periodontal acrylic veneer out of the mouth.

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A procedure where one or two roots of amultirooted tooth are amputated, leaving thecrown to be supported by the remaining root orroots (Figs 37, 38 & 39).

Single roots of a multirooted tooth that cannotbe treated by conventional root canal therapy orretrograde techniques because of lateral canals,calcification, dilaceration, pulp stones,perforations, broken instruments or loss of bonysupport for that individual root.Multirooted teeth with individual root fractures.Severe vertical bone loss affecting one root of amultirooted tooth.I nadequate maintenance of a furcation lesionbecause of access problems.

The most important factor in relation to a toothwhich has had a root resected is that the root issevered as close to the furcation as possible. Thisallows for better patient access to the regiontogether with an enhanced gingival contour,resulting in improved gingival health of the site.

Root resection




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Tetracycline staining

Aetiology and Tetracycline staining is a cause of toothpathology

discoloration which occurs when these broadspectrum antiobiotics are given to pregnantwomen or children under the age of 12 (as crowncalcification of molars has not been completedbefore this).

Diagnosis The clinical appearance is of yellow, brown orgreyish hyperpigmentation of the affected dentitior(Figs 40, 41 & 42). The teeth affected may also behypoplastic. Together with a relevant history thisshould provide a clear clinical diagnosis andshould not be confused with amelogenesisi mperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta or fluorosis.

Management Bleaching can be attempted for mild forms of thiscondition. As the staining is intrinsic, however, thisonly works in a relatively small number of cases.The more common treatment is the placement ofporcelain veneers or, for extremely severe cases,full veneer crowns.

logo 2
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Fig. 40 Severe tetracycline staining.

Fig. 41 Tetracycline staining.

Fig. 42 Tetracycline staining aesthetically exacerbated by gingival


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Amelogenesis imperfecta

Aetiology andpathology

Genetic in origin with a wide variety ofpresentations (Figs 43, 44 & 45).

Diagnosis There are three main types:


Although the enamel matrix is normalthere has been inadequate calcification. Theenamel is often opaque and may exhibit a widevariety of discolorations. It is soft and easily lost.


Although the calcification is normal theenamel matrix is defective. The enamel therefore ishard and shiny but malformed. It may be prone tostaining.


i s described as giving a snow-capped appearance, where the underlying enamelhas not matured fully but may have a thin layer ofmature enamel overlying it.

Differentation should be made from other causesof tooth discoloration.

Management The management of such cases can be part of acomplex restorative treatment plan dependingupon the severity of the condition. Restorativei ntervention may be required to protect theunderlying tooth structure because of the poorenamel quality. Treatment may be needed forpurely aesthetic reasons.

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Fig. 43 Amelogenesis imperfecta.

Fig. 44 Amelogenesis imperfecta.

Fig. 45 Amelogenesis imperfecta.

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Normal anatomy

Upper denture bearing areaThis includes the hard palate together with thefunctional sulcus. The posterior extent of the upperdenture bearing area is at the junction of hard and softpalate. In Figure 46 the ridges are well formed and thepalatogingival vestige may be seen. This, together withthe incisive papilla, is used as a biometric guideline forthe positioning of upper artificial teeth. The underlyingsupport may be firm if there is sufficient bone present.An unsupported ridge will consist of a greater amountof fibrous tissue due

to localised bone resorption withoutassociated reduction in soft tissue. The palatal areaprovides good support and is relatively resistant toresorption.

Lower denture bearing area Figs 47 & 4$iThis includes the supporting ridges and extends to thefunctional sulcus. The area of support is reduced bythe presence of the tongue and the posterior extent ishalf way up the retromolar pad. Support may be gainedfrom the buccal shelf of bone which is present buccallyto the posterior aspect of the residual ridge_ In casesof severe mandibular resorption muscle attachmentssuch as the genioglossus and the mylohyoid willbecome mare prominent and may produce problemswith soreness under the denture during function.

3 / Complete dentures

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Fig. 46 Normal anatomy-upper edentulous arch.

Fig. 47 Normal anatomy-lower edentulous arch.

Fig. 48 Normal anatomy-anterior view of arches.

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Impression materials

Materials Several impression materials are used forcomplete denture construction. These include:i mpression compound, impression plaster, low andhigh viscosity alginate, zinc oxide and eugenolpaste, low and medium viscosity elastomers (Figs49, 50 & 51).

Indications An impression material may have eithermucodisplacive or mucostatic properties.• A mucodisplacive material is of high viscosity

and will displace the underlying soft tissuessimilar to loading under function.

• A mucostatic material is of low viscosity and willresult in minimal distortion of the tissues duringi mpression taking and this may be used tooptimise retention of the denture.

Properties Each impression material will have differentproperties as outlined in the table below:

The choice of material will depend on the clinicalsituation and the clinical need. For instance apoorly fitting stock tray will benefit from the use ofi mpression compound as it will support itself andmake good the deficiencies of the tray. Alginate isan accurate material but is not dimensionallystable with time. Elastomeric materials arerelatively expensive compared to the othermaterials and are used where there are largeundercuts present.

Material Property Elastic Accuracy Stability

I mpression Mucodisplacive No Poor Poorcompound

Impression Mucostatic No Good Goodplaster

Low viscosity Mucostatic Yes Good Pooralginate

High viscosity Mucodisplacive Yes Good Pooralginate

Zinc oxide and Mucostatic No Good Goodeugenol

Low and Mucostatic Yes Good Goodmediumviscosityelastomericmaterials

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Fig. 49 Impression materials-plaster of Paris.

Fig. 50 Impression materials-zinc oxide/eugenol.

Fig. 51 Impression materials-alginate.

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Selective compression technique

This is based on the assumption that, in thepresence of an unsupported ridge, the patient hasa problem of support or stability of the denturerather than retention during function. Thetechnique aims therefore to apply controlledl oading to the tissues in order to stabilise themagainst the underlying bone and also to dissipatethe load.

1. An impression should first be obtained in amucostatic material (plaster) to record thetissues under minimal load. This is recorded ina stock tray and the resultant cast can beconsidered as an accurate reproduction of thedenture bearing area.

2. An impression is now recorded of the mastercast i n impression compound used in thinsection (Fig. 52).

3. The surface of the impression is flamed andre-adapted to the cast.

4. The impression is placed in the mouth. It shouldbe stable and retentive.

5. The area of unsupported tissue in the mouth( Fig. 53) is outlined on the impression.

6. The rest of the impression is lightly flamed andi nserted into the mouth under load.

7. This will now be the master impression. On thecast poured from this, a heat cured permanentbase should be constructed for the registrationand trial.


It is unnecessary to take a wash impression inthe compound, which may defeat the object of theexercise.



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Fig. 52 Mucodisplacive with impression compound.

Fig. 53 Anterior flabby ridge.

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Mucostatic impression technique

This is based on the assumption that, in thepresence of an unsupported ridge (Fig. 54), thepatient has a problem of retention of the dentureduring rest. The technique aims to apply mucosall oading to the supporting tissue and take amucostatic impression of the unsupported ridge.


1. An impression should first be obtained in amucostatic material (i.e. plaster or low viscosityalginate) to record the tissues under minimall oad. This is recorded in stock tray and theresultant cast can be considered as an accuratereproduction of the denture bearing area.

2. An individual closely adapted tray is constructedwith a window cut over the unsupported region.As a result of this the handle has to be placed inthe midline of the palate.

3. The tray is checked for extension in the mouthand the periphery is border moulded asrequired with autopolymerising acrylic resin.

4. A zinc oxide and eugenol paste impression isthen taken of the ridge (Fig. 55). Once this isset the impression is removed and the excessmaterial which has flowed into the windowregion is cut away using a scalpel.

5. The impression is then reseated in the patient'sI

mouth and a fluid mix of plaster applied to theunsupported ridge area. To ensure a goodjunction between the zinc oxide and eugenolpaste and plaster the three-in-one syringe isemployed to manipulate the plaster.

6. Once set the impression is removed andchecked for accuracy and then sent to thel aboratory for casting.

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Fig. 54 Ridge being displaced.

Fig. 55 Mucostatic using ZOE and Plaster of Paris.

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Conventional complete dentures

Definition A conventional complete denture is one made bytaking impressions of the upper and lower denturebearing areas; it is constructed using identifiableanatomical structures and relationships.



The replacement of natural teeth by a removableprosthesis may require that the clinician makeschanges in the overall construction which aregreater than those that can be accommodated bycopying the patient's previous dentures. In somecases there may be no previous dentures presentand construction of new dentures would follow thestages outlined above.

The clinician has control of the changes that arerequired. There is an opportunity to undertakei mpressions of the denture bearing tissues underoptimal conditions. Changes in the jaw relationshiptogether with muscle support may be modified andassessed using ideal parameters.

Disadvantages Adaptability to large changes brought about duringconventional denture construction may be poor.Copy dentures for instance have an advantage inthat the polished surfaces are often in an idealposition relative to the soft tissues of the cheeks,l i ps and tongue. Using a conventional techniquethe ideal positioning of the polished surfaces maynot be immediately apparent until the patient hasworn the dentures.

Procedure A conventional complete denture is constructed inthe following sequence:1. Preliminary impressions in stock trays followed

by master impressions in an individual trayconstructed on the preliminary cast.

2. Registration of the jaw relationship (Fig. 56).3. Trial dentures constructed in wax (Fig. 57).4. Insertion or placement of the finished dentures

( Fig. 58).5. Review of any problems during wearing of the


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Fig. 56 Upper and lower wax rims sealed with bite registration

paste and then separated.

Fig. 57 Complete dentures at wax try-in stage.

Fig. 58 Complete dentures inserted and the occlusion beingrefined.

Page 47: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Aesthetics of complete dentures



The appearance of complete dentures shouldfollow similar principles to that of the naturaldentition.


Aesthetics of a prosthesis depend upon the colour,shape and size of the artificial teeth, theirorientation relative to each other and the arch form(Fig. 59). The colour of a tooth should bei nfluenced by several features, which include theage of the patient, the race and complexion of thepatient and the patient's preference. Shape andsize of a tooth should reflect the sex, age andpersonality of the patient but most importantlytheir facial and overall contour.

The orientation or spacing of each tooth inrelation to its neighbours can have a profoundi nfluence on the overall appearance of the finisheddenture (Figs 60 & 61). If the patient had adiastema between the upper central incisors in thenatural dentition, the placement of such a featurei n the new prosthesis will reduce the oftenunwanted change that can occur in the appearanceof a patient with a new prosthesis. If possible acomplete denture should follow the arch form andocclusal plane of the previous natural dentition.This is most readily achieved if an immediatedenture has been constructed for the patient. Thisdenture will possess all the original features of thepatient's natural dentition which will then bereproduced in the new prosthesis.

Many other techniques such as tinting, colouringand contouring the gingiva on the denture basecan affect the final appearance created by adenture.

Fig. 60 Denture made by Mr DonaldCameron, University of Glasgow. Winningentry for British Institute of Surgical

Technologists Youles Award competition 1996.

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Fig. 59 Aesthetics-relationship of anterior teeth to upper

occlusal rim.

Fig. 60 Arrangement of irregular teeth.

Fig. 61 Gross irregularity of artificial teeth.

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A copy denture preserves the polished surface of theexisting prosthesis while allowing modifications to becarried out to the fitting and occlusal surfaces of acomplete denture. As a patient's adaptive potentialdecreases with age the maintenance of the shape ofthe original polished surface results in less adjustmentof the supporting musculature being required.Therefore the title 'Copy denture technique' is really amisnomer as It is only rarely that an exact copy of anexisting denture will be required.

• An elderly patient presenting with upper andlower complete dentures which have beensatisfactory for many years but are now loose orworn.

- A patient with a history of denture problemswhere it may be useful to make controlledmodifications in the copy denture of the mostsuccessful previous dentures_

Previous immediate dentures which requirereplacing after bone resorption followingextractions.- Second 'spare' set of dentures.

- No alteration or mutilation of existing denture asoccurs in a reline or rebase). - No period forpatient to be without denturesas occurs in a reline or rebase).

Reduced number of clinical stages_ -Simple duplication procedure.

- Technical support for such techniques is variable,Various clinical techniques are available (Figs 62, 63& 64) (Laboratories may prefer only one method).

- Laboratory charges can be variable.

4 / C o p y d e n t u r e s

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Fig. 62 Use of reversible hydrocolloid to copy dentures.

Fig. 63 Murray/Woolland technique.

Fig. 64 Replica record block technique.

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Standard copy technique


As previously described.


As previously described.


• The reproduction of successful design featureson which a patient's tolerance and control of theprevious dentures depend.

• The accurate alteration of undesirable features.• Simplified occlusal registration and a reduced

number of clinical visits.

Disadvantages I ncreased charges may be made by commerciall aboratories. The production of a template and theneed for the technician to follow this exactly alsooften makes this technique unpopular amongsttechnical staff.

Procedure 1. A mould of the original denture that is beingcopied is produced by whichever method theclinician wishes to use (Fig. 65). This is pouredup, with the teeth in wax and the bases in self-cured acrylic. A stone duplicate is also pouredas a guide to the original denture, both inrespect of the polished surfaces and toothposition.

2. The wax and acrylic copy denture is then eitherused as a registration block or, if minimalocclusal alteration is required, taken to the trialstage (Fig. 66 & 67).

3. The dentures are tried in and the occlusion andvertical dimension checked. If this is found to besatisfactory any undercuts are removed fromthe baseplates and a wash impression is takenwithin both the upper and lower bases using aclosed mouth technique.

4. A master cast is then poured and the finisheddentures processed in the normal manner.

logo 2
Accepted set by Ali
None set by Ali
Page 52: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 65 Standard copy denture technique-template.

Fig. 66 Templates placed on average movement articulator.

Fig. 67 Set-up of copy denture templates.

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Copy denture for severe tooth wear

Definition A duplicate denture made with as fewmodifications to the previous existing denture aspossible.

Indications Patients who present with mutilated dentures( Fig. 68) that they can comfortably wear and whohave a history of intolerance to conventionalreplacement of these dentures. Clinically, theremay be a place for providing the patient witha copy of their old dentures with as fewmodifications as possible (Figs 69 & 70). This willi mprove the chances of patient acceptance of thenew prosthesis.

Advantages It is likely that the patient's acceptance of andadaptation to such a denture will be high as it willnot be different to their 'tried and trusted' set. Afurther advantage is the reduction in numerousremakes.

Disadvantages By following such a technique, the clinician mayunknowingly copy faults that may in the long termcause such problems as TMJ symptoms anddenture instability.

Page 54: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 68 Severe tooth wear copy denture-presentation.

Fig. 69 Copy denture after modification with original dentures.

Fig. 70 Final clinical result.

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Complete upper overdenture

A prosthesis that derives its support and sometimesretention from one or more abutment teeth which mayhave been reduced in height (Figs 71 & 72).

The retention of roots of natural teeth provides improved stability to a denture as well a maintainingalveolar bone. Roots should be used as overdentureabutments when the standard of oral hygiene is highand there is good periodontal support.

The alveolar bone is retained around these teeth andalso between them_ By keeping the teeth, theproprioceptive fibres of the periodontal membrane helpin maintaining sensory feedback and allow more rapidadaptation to the dentures.

Overdentures may require advanced conservativetechniques such as endodontics and occasionally goldcopings_ Such procedures may increase the cost ofthe treatment.

The abutment teeth require to be reduced in height to 1-2 mm above the gingival margin. The coronal shapeproduced is preferably dome-shaped. The constructionof the removable prosthesis continues along traditionaltreatment lines and the overdenture encloses thereduced teeth (Fig. 73).

5 / Overdeiitures

Page 56: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 71 Classic presentation of a case suitable for overdentures.

Fig. 72 Reduction of teeth following root canal therapy.

Fig. 73 Overdentures in place.

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Tooth wear overdenture

Definition A removable tooth-borne overdenture which isused to restore a dentition that has undergonesevere tooth loss. There is some degree of overlapbetween onlay and overdentures in themanagement of such a problem.

Indications The overdenture option may be used if there hasbeen extensive loss of tooth substance (Fig. 74)and its replacement is not possible using fixedrestorations.

Advantages This option can quickly restore function andaesthetics. It is reversible if there are problemswith patient adaptation.

Disadvantages There is extensive coverage of the dentition by theremovable prosthesis. This may increase thei ncidence of periodontal problems and cariesattack. Cost may increase if there is a need for acast cobalt/chromium baseplate.

Procedure 1. Such clinical procedures will require treatmentplanning on casts mounted on an articulator.

2. The construction of the overdentures mayrequire tooth preparation prior to impressiontaking if there is inadequate occlusal clearancefor the denture base or if the coronal marginsare sharp or unsupported.

3. See Figures 75 and 76.

Page 58: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 74 Initial presentation of a tooth wear case.

Fig. 75 The reduction of the overdenture abutments.

Fig. 76 Final overdenture in place. (Courtesy of Mrs E.A.


Page 59: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

A denture that is made prior to the extraction of thenatural teeth and which is inserted into the mouthimmediately after the extraction of those teeth.

Patients may require extraction of teeth due tocaries or periodontal disease or for aestheticreasons (Fig. 77).

Original appearance is maintained by placing theartificial teeth in a position similar to natural teeth orimproved by changing the position if movementdue to periodontal disease has occurred. Suchdentures are provided at the time of extraction and thepatient adapts to the new denture.

Requires good cooperation of the patient with the needfor close clinical supervision. Alveolar bone resorptionoccurs rapidly leading to loss of adaptation. After caremay require many visits including relinesfrebases andreplacement dentures. This leads to an increasedcost. The clinician is not able to assess trial dentures.

nitial treatment should be aimed at conservation ofthe teeth and periodontal treatment.mpressions are taken and the jaw registration isrecorded. If edentulous spaces exist then a trialstage is feasible. Casts are prepared to accept thoseteeth to be extracted. Finally teeth are extracted (Fig. 78) and the dentures placed immediately overthe sockets (Fig. 79).

6 f Immediate replacement dentures

Page 60: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 77 A case requiring immediate dentures.

Fig. 78 Completion of the extractions.

Fig. 79 Immediate denture in place.

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The denture space impression

The neutral zone is that in which the forces of thecheeks and lips are said to be equalised by those ofthe tongue; it is also often described as being thezone of minimal conflict.

• Postextraction changes which may make itrnpossible to determine accurately the formerposition of the natural teeth_- Patients who have riot worn a lower denture formany years and whose lower lip has collapsed

inwards and whose tongue has expanded intothe denture space.

• Patients who have very atrophic ridges such that thestability of the denture is dependent on muscularcontrol.

- Mandibular resections resulting in differinganatomical architecture of the region andmodified tongue movements_

• Parkinson's disease or situations where muscletone and movements have altered.

A base plate (Figs 80, 81 & 82) is used to record thebuccal and lingual polished surfaces during thempression technique. The eventual tooth position is inan area where the buccal and lingual forces tending todisplace the denture are in reciprocal equilibrium. Thefinal denture therefore tends to be better tolerated.

The procedure is technique sensitive and requires acooperative patient

Page 62: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 80 Vertical fin tray in mouth.

Fig. 81 Baseplate with retentive spurs.

Fig. 82 Baseplate with greenstick occlusal pillars.

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Resection case


A patient who has had a mandibular resection(Fig. 83) with altered anatomical architecture of theregion and possible sensory and motor nervedamage to this area and surrounding structures.

Indications A tethered tongue or abnormal movements of thetongue caused by motor nerve damage which canresult in instability of a lower denture.

Advantages Patients who have had radical surgery for oralcancer want to return to 'normality' as soon aspossible, both aesthetically and functionally. Manyof these patients previously were considered tobe poor candidates for prosthetic rehabilitation.However the neutral zone technique allows theplacement of a lower denture in a number ofthese cases; the denture to be constructed has toallow for the changes in architecture and muscletone that have resulted from this type of surgery( Figs 84 & 85). Patients receiving this treatmentmay also require the use of implants to help withdenture retention.

Disadvantages Skin grafts or postsurgical radiotherapy cancomplicate the placement of a prosthesis in thisregion. Skin can react in a different manner to oralmucosa when subjected to denture loading.

Page 64: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 83 Resected mandible with skin graft.

Fig. 84 Teeth position relative to neutral

zone template.

Fig. 85 Completed case with teeth in neutral zone.

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Clinical application of a neutralzone technique



As given previously.

One of the baseplates as shown (in Figs 80 & 81, p56). The impression material will be either a tissueconditioner or an addition silicone putty materialdepending on the base chosen. The use of aviscoelastic material allows for better moulding ofthe material to take place during function over anextended time. The use of an impression materialhas the limitation of its shorter setting time andflow characteristics.

Procedure 1. The base is placed in the mouth and its stabilitychecked. Any modification to the base or fin areundertaken at this stage.

2. The height of the fin is adjusted to the desiredocclusal face height for the patient.

3. The denture space impression material is placedl ateral and medial to the fin and the patient isasked to 'pout' in order to mould the buccalperiphery and then asked to perform varioustongue movements to mould the lingualsurface.

4. The technician then pours plaster or silicone jigsof this denture space impression (Fig. 86) and awax rim is constructed into this region.

5. The teeth are set-up within the constraints ofthe jigs and the width of teeth modified asrequired (Figs 87 & 88).

Page 66: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 86 Neutral zone template.

Fig. 87 Comparison of old and neutralzone dentures.

Fig. 88 Clinical case with teeth set in neutral zone.

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Hollow glove technique

An obturator is a prosthetic appliance that closes orobturates an opening_ The opening is commonly amaxillary defect (Fig. 89) that is either congenitalin origin, such as a cleft palate, or surgicallytraumatic such as a hemimaxillectnmy.

This technique is indicated where a large defect existsand where the retention of the prosthesis may well bea problem due to its size. This obturator is made in twoparts: the elastic obturator portion can be placed intothe defect utilising arty undercut present to aid withretention of the oral prosthesis- This type of appliancecan also be used for smaller defects where the elasticnature of the material will aid in retention of theprosthesis.

This technique allows for obturation of the majority of thedefect because of the elastic nature of the materialused-most commonly a resilient lining material. Ittherefore provides a better seal„ preventing nasalsecretions into the oral cavity and air leakage from onecompartment to the other.

The technique does not provide as much softtissue support to the cheek as a rigid obturatorwill. If the malar has been resected the finalappearance may be compromised_

A base plate (Fig. 91) is made in the laboratory andadded to this is the elastic obturator (Fig. 90) which clipsonto a rim of heat-cured acrylic or utilises magnets toadhere to the prosthesis.

8 / Obturators

Page 68: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 89 Large palatal defect.

Fig. 90 First part of obturator (hollow glove).

Fig. 91 Clear baseplate covers palate and links into glove.

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Hollow box obturator


A hollow box or hollow bulb made in heat-curedacrylic; the acrylic filling the maxillary defect is lefthollow.

Indications To fill a maxillary defect (Fig. 92) and support thesoft tissue walls of the region; this type of denturei s preferable to other appliances.

Advantages The use of such a technique reduces the weight ofthe maxillary prosthesis (Fig. 93) allowingconsiderably improved retention (Fig. 94).

• If the maxillary defect is large and involves thefloor of the orbit, the size of a one-pieceobturator, coupled with the trismus that ispresent in some resection patients, may makeplacement of such a prosthesis difficult.The flasking of such a large appliance can bedifficult and the subsequent addition of thepalatal polished surface requires an additionall aboratory procedure.


Page 70: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 92 Right Hemimaxillectomy.

Fig. 93 One-piece obturator with a hollow bung.

Fig. 94 Completed denture in place.

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Acrylic surface

An acrylic appliance designed to cover the occlusaland/or incisal surfaces of the teeth to refine and/orcorrect the occlusion present (Fig. 95)_

Where an onlay is required in the anterior region. andan overdenture may be difficult to place due toundercuts, the use of a tooth-coloured resin materialcan provide both a pleasing and functional result. Theuse of acrylic resin in the posterior region, which isrequired as a functional necessity, may also provideenhanced appearance (Figs 96 & 97).

The use of a tooth-coloured removable appliancein the anterior region of the mouth to replace toothsubstance loss is often a simpler approach than themore advanced fixed restorative procedures.

Acrylic is a weak material and may not be ofsufficient strength to withstand the occlusal loading.It is prone to breakage and has to be bulky to gainadequate strength.

The use of acrylic material to compensate for toothsubstance loss has certain advantages- However thecause of the tissue loss should be addressed prior toplacement of such an appliance, otherwise subsequentwear of the acrylic will occur

Page 72: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 95 Denture onlayed on worn premolar teeth.

Fig. 96 Completed case-anterior view.

Fig. 97 Completed case-occlusal surface.

Page 73: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Acrylic/composite resin


An acrylic or composite resin moulded to coverthe incisal or occlusal surfaces of the teeth torefine/correct the occlusion present and improvethe appearance (Figs 98, 99 & 100).

Indications Hypodontia and cases of tooth substance loss. Thepurpose of a removable prosthesis isthat the change in occlusal face height can beevaluated with such treatment, and the aestheticresult can be assessed.


The use of a tooth-coloured material in aremovable appliance in the anterior region of themouth to replace tooth substance loss is oftensimpler than more advanced fixed restorativeprocedures. This type of restoration compared toa fixed design offers considerable savings bothi n finance and time.



The junction of natural tooth to acrylic is difficult tohide.

Because of the disadvantage (see above) anassessment of the patient's lip line is important.The use of composite resin to construct the onlaygives an improved appearance and also allows abetter junction to be constructed. The use of4-Meta adhesives has meant that mechanicalretention to the denture alloy is no longernecessary and therefore the onlay can be madethinner and less unsightly. This simplifies theprocedure, as the casting needs only sandblastingprior to bonding agents being applied.

Page 74: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 98 Multiple missing units and malalignment.

Fig. 99 Existing appearance.

Fig. 100 Acrylic anterior onlay partial denture.

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Cobalt/chrome surface


An onlay denture is designed to alter the shapeand height of the occlusal surfaces of the teethover which it fits. It may be constructed of: acrylicresin, gold, stainless steel or cobalt chromiumalloy.


Where there is a need to improve the occlusalcontact of teeth; or where the appliance willi ncrease the occlusal vertical dimension until it issimilar to that which was present before toothsubstance loss occurred (Figs 101, 102 & 103).


A cast metal surface is present in the posteriorsegments which will provide a robust occlusion forfunctional purposes.


I f the patient is a severe bruxist and cobaltchromium onlays are used there is the potentialfor the opposing dentition to be worn down.The appearance of metal onlay appliances mayalso preclude their use.


1. The patient is provided with a temporary acrylicappliance to increase the occlusal verticaldimension to the required height. This is wornfor a period of time in order to assesscompliance.

2. If the appliance is clinically satisfactory then aface-bow mounting on an arcon articulator isused to mount the master casts, allowing thei ncrease in vertical dimension to be waxed upbefore casting.

3. The occlusion can be refined intraorally.

Page 76: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 101 Hypodontia in upper arch.

Fig. 102 Replacement of teeth with CoCr onlay denture.

Fig. 103 Completed case-anterior view.

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Every denture

Definition A mucosa-borne denture that conforms to aspecific design to ensure gingival health. It isrestricted to the upper arch (Fig. 1 04)_

Design The denture requires the presence of boundedsaddles_ The design should incorporate thefollowing points:• Point contact between natural and artificial teeth• Wide embrasures• 'Free-occlusion'• Uncovered gingivae - Distalstabilisers (Fig. 105).

General principles of partial denture constructionshould be followed.

Advantages The open design allows a hygienic denture to beconstructed which is retentive and stable andminimises damage to the supporting and surroundingtissue&

Disadvantages It does require the presence of bounded saddles sothat the point contact can be maintained throughoutthe erchform. Even where the most distal tooth ismissing however, 'Every principles' can still beincorporated into the denture design.

Procedure The construction of the denture follows normalprosthetic technique. An accurate impression isrequired to establish the point contact between the teeth.Originally porcelain teeth were advocated but, due totheir expense and low evailabiiity. acrylic teeth are nowused. The distal stabilisers are not clasps and areconstructed from wrought stainless steel to contact thedistal surface of the most posterior teeth and maintaininterproximal contact (Fig. 106).

Page 78: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 105 Every acrylic denture with distal stabilisers.

Fig. 106 Completed Every denture.

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Spoon design upper denture


A simple acrylic denture made to replace one ortwo anterior teeth (Figs 107, 108 & 109). I t derivesits support entirely from the anterior ridge andpalate.


Where a patient has suffered the loss of one ortwo anterior teeth. There should be a wide wellformed palate with sufficient anterior clearancebetween the lower incisors and the ridge.


Spoon dentures are cheap, easy to construct andmodify. This has obvious advantages following thei nitial loss of a single tooth at the front of themouth.


Such a denture is weak and nonrigid. Thereforei t is prone to breakage with continuous wearespecially from occlusal forces from the loweranterior teeth. To avoid this, such dentures aresometimes made bulky for strength and this maynot be accepted by the patient. Furthermore thesedentures are small in size and may bei nadvertently swallowed or inhaled. It would provei mpossible to track such an object within the bodycavities as acrylic is radiolucent. Such denturestherefore should use radiopaque resin to limitmedico-legal liability.


I mpressions are taken and the shade and mouldselected. Generally the working models can bel ocated without the need for a registration visit.I f appearance and occlusion are satisfactory thenthe denture is processed.

Page 80: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 107 Spoon denture during construction.

Fig. 108 Trial denture in place.

Fig. 109 Bifid spoon denture in place.

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Acrylic lingual plate versus wroughtlingual bar connector

Definition • A partial acrylic lower denture may beconstructed as an all acrylic prosthesis.

• The anterior connector may incorporate the useof a wrought metal bar.

Indications The acrylic lingual plate connector is usedcommonly as it is technically less demanding andprovides increased tooth support to the prosthesis(Figs 110 & 111). Where there is sufficient space awrought lingual bar should take preference, as thisdesign is periodontally more favourable (Fig. 112).

Advantages The acrylic lingual plate connector has theadvantage of being easy to construct and modify.It is also less costly in laboratory time.The wrought metal connector is less obtrusive tothe patient and does not cover the gingivaltissues. It is also stronger and less bulky than theacrylic connector.

Disadvantages The acrylic connector will cover the gingivalmargins and may cause damage by:- mechanical stripping of the gingivae- interdental wedging- encouraging plaque formation on the teeth.The main disadvantage of the wrought metalconnector is the increased technical costi nvolved in production. Insufficient depth of thel i ngual sulcus may also prevent the use of thebar.

Procedure For the acrylic lingual plate connector

it is important toavoid contact with the gingiva and obtain relief byblocking out the dentogingival junction, in additionto any interdental spaces on the cast. The aim is toreduce coverage of gingival margins wherepossible.

The wrought bar

i s constructed from preformedwrought stainless steel bars that can be coldworked to conform to the archform lingually.

Oral hygiene should be of a high standard inboth situations.

Page 82: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 110 Lone standing lower anterior teeth.

Fig. 111 Acrylic lingual connector.

Fig. 112 Wrought lingual bar connector.

Page 83: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Wrought clasps to aid with retention


Acrylic partial dentures generally rely on the useof cohesive and adhesive forces of saliva togetherwith the traditional forces associated with fulldenture retention and stability. To assist thisprocess the clinician may wish to place clasps onthe denture (Figs 113, 114 & 115).

Indications Wrought clasps are placed in acrylic dentures toaid retention if potential problems in this area areenvisaged.

Advantages Such clasps are relatively easy to place. They canbe adjusted at the chairside to help increase theretention.

Disadvantages I f not correctly placed relative to the survey line,they may cause gingival damage and will alsoi ncrease plaque accumulation. If the clasp arm isnot correctly adapted it may also cause ulcerationi n the sulcus.

Procedure A wrought clasp is placed in the correct positionon the tooth after the trial denture stage has beencompleted as its positioning will not be stable inwax. The position of the clasp head and its designmust be clearly indicated by the clinician.

Page 84: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 113 Wrought gingivally approaching clasp.

Fig. 114 Assortment of wrought clasps used to help retain a

temporary obturator.

Fig. 115 Wrought gingivally approaching clasp.

Page 85: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Conventional type

Defrrrrtion A cobaltlchromium partial denture allows theprosthesis to incorporate both strength and rigidity_Such a denture may utilise these properties to obtainits support and retention from the natural teeth. Whencast in thin sections it may be of sufficient flexibility tomake use of undercuts n thick sections its rigidity willresist deformation (Figs 118. 117 & 118).

tradications Such a denture is indicated where there is good oralhygiene and high patient motivation to accept a prosthesis.Where there is a wide distribution of abutment teethwhich have adequate borie supporl and the clinicianwishes to derive the support frorr the teeth then thistype of denture is the one of choice,

Advarafayes - The extra strength and rigidity, especially in smallsections, allow for the manufacture of smaller, lessbulky dentures.

- They also have the flexibility when cast in thinsections to allow cast clasps to engage undercut andobtain retention from the teeth.

Disadvantages - Metal is unsightly and therefore cannot be used atthe front of the mouth.

• Cobalt/chromium requires casting and istherefore more costly in terms of laboratory time.

Prucedare 1. Preliminary casts are mounted and surveyed prior to adecision being made regarding the type of denturethat will be provided.

2. The master impression is taken in anelastomeric material and the resultant castpoured in reinforced dental stone.

3. This master cast is then duplicated ininvestment material and the design isconstructed in wax following the clinician'sproscription.

4. The casting is made, polished and delivered to theclinician.

Page 86: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 116 Cobalt/chromium denture with palatal connector.

Fig. 117 Cobalt/chromium denture with anterior and palatal bar


Fig. 118 Cobalt/chromium denture with lingual plate.

Page 87: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Kennedy class IV

Definition A bounded saddle which lies entirely anterior tothe abutment teeth (Figs 119, 120 & 121). It has nomodifications but the length of saddle may varyfrom a single tooth to multiple units.

Indications The treatment indicated depends on the individualpatient, and can involve the provision of a bridgeor an implant. The criteria for which treatmentmodality is indicated depends on such factors as: ifthe abutment teeth are of poor coronal form or notamenable to crowning for bridgework, or grossalveolar resorption making implant placementdifficult. The use of a cobalt/chromium denturewould therefore be indicated to replace missinganterior units.

Advantages • A cobalt/chromium denture offers strength,especially where there is limited space betweenthe opposing teeth and the ridge.

• The use of cobalt/chromium backings can alsohelp in cases of bruxism in order to preventfracture of the anterior saddle area.

• Support for the denture can be gained from theabutment teeth on either side of the saddle.

• The design may also involve the posterior teethfor further support.

Disadvantages • The forward position of the saddle makesi ndirect retention of the denture a problem. Thedesign uses support from the posterior teeth andretentive clasps are placed on the molar teeth.The clasp axis will be posteriorly placed andallow rotation of the anterior saddle duringfunction. To prevent this, indirect retainers areplaced on the most posterior teeth or the palatalconnector is extended towards the soft palate.I f this is not possible then the lack of indirectretention will be a problem.

• Unlike acrylic dentures, cobalt/chromium doesnot produce a good adhesive seal between itself,saliva and the oral mucosa.

Procedure 1. The cast is surveyed with an appropriate designwhich must consider the problems of supporttogether with direct and indirect retention.

2. A path of insertion may also be considered toutilise the anterior buccal undercut present.

Page 88: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 119 Missing anterior incisor.

Fig. 120 Replacement with cobalt/chromium denture.

Fig. 121 Completed case.

Page 89: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Lower swinglock


A cobalt/chromium plate which has a hinge andl ock which allows the utilisation of naturallyoccurring hard and soft tissue undercuts in theretention of a partial denture (Fig. 122).

Indications • Inadequate support; teeth which could notnormally support a partial denture can be utilisedi n a swinglock design.

• Missing key abutments; the transmission offorces to the remaining dentition is fundamental.

• Inadequate retention; the use of previouslyunavailable undercuts by this design allows fori ncreased retention.

• Maxillofacial prosthesis; the retention andstability of such a prosthesis is enhanced bythe swinglock design.

Contraindications Shallow vestibule.Extended fraenum.Aesthetic considerations.Occlusal interferences.Poor plaque control.


1. A master impression is taken making sure thatthe full functional depth of the sulcus isrecorded in the dentate region where theswinglock arm is going to gain retention.

2. A decision is made as to which side the hingeand lock (Fig. 123) will be positioned.

3. The cobalt/chromium casting is produced andtried in (Fig. 124).

Page 90: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 122 Swinglock denture showing anterior bar.

Fig. 123 Locked in position on cast.

Fig. 124 Completed case.

Page 91: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Rotational path of insertion

Definition Krol describes a rotational path prosthesis whichseats its first segment, containing the centres ofrotation, followed by the remaining frameworkwhich is rotated into position thus locating thesecond segment to the final position of theprosthesis. Two classifications are described:• Category 1 includes all prostheses that have

postero-anterior paths of insertion oranteroposterior paths replacing posteriorsegments.

• Category 2 includes all lateral paths andanteroposterior paths replacing anteriorsegments.

Indications This technique can be utilised particularly inKennedy Class IV situations where the clasping ofanterior abutment teeth can be unsightly. Thetechnique also offers an alternative to the principleof guide surfaces where minimal naturallyoccurring undercuts may exist.

Advantages Tooth coverage is reduced making plaque controleasier, affecting both the caries rate andperiodontal health. Appearance can be improvedwithout the need to resort to precision attachmentsor clasping of anterior teeth.

Disadvantages The complexity of the design and the surveyingprinciples involved in paralleling the rest seat wallsto the proximal retentive surface make thistechnique both clinically and technicallydemanding.

Procedure The analysis of undercuts is carried out as normalusing a traditional surveyor (Fig. 125); furtheranalysis is done using a divider to assess the pathof rotation.In this category 2 situation, the rigid proximalretainer is seated first and the posterior retainersare rotated into position (Figs 126 & 127).

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Fig. 125 Cast surveyed for rotation insertion.

Fig. 126 Upper occlusal view of partial denture.

Fig. 127 Anterior view of partial denture.

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Altered cast technique


Technique to obtain a selective impression of thedifferential support offered by the free end saddle.The objective is to obtain a displacive impressionof the edentulous under conditions which mimicfunctional loading.


A cobalt/chromium partial denture constructed fora free end saddle will need the differential supportoffered by the abutment tooth which is relativelyrigid in its socket, supported by the periodontalligament and the more displaceable denturebearing mucosa. The use of the altered casttechnique therefore takes into account thedifferential support provided by oral mucosa andteeth.


• Better support for the free end saddle as thei mpression of the tissues is taken underconditions which mimic functional load.

• It may also help to redefine the extensions of thesaddle following the master impression.


• The original technique described by Applegateused special functional impression waxes whichallowed moulding of the tissues under load.

• The technique may also disrupt the occlusalpositioning of the teeth if it is undertaken as arebasing of the finished denture, leading toconsiderable adjustment at the chairside.


1. A cobalt/chromium framework is designed in aconventional fashion (Fig. 128) and an acrylicclose fitting tray is added to it (Fig. 129).

2. An impression is taken using either zincoxide/eugenol paste or a medium viscositysilicone impression material.

3. When the framework is placed in the mouth thei mpression is taken with finger pressure appliedto the occlusal rests of the cobalt/chromiumframework.

4. The set impression is removed from the mouthand reseated on the master cast which has hadthe edentulous areas removed.

5. The new impression is poured and a compositecast is produced (Fig. 130).

Page 94: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 128 Cobalt/chromium framework for

Fig. 129 Close fitting special tray in

free end saddle.


Fig. 130 Finished denture on altered cast.

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Lingual swinglock


A cobalt/chromium casting with a hinge and lockarrangement to utilise the naturally occurringl i ngual undercuts in the lingual sulcus of a partiallydentate individual for the retention of a prosthesis.

Indications I n the posterior mandible, deep lingual undercuts(Fig. 131) often present a design problem in apartial denture situation where the use of theseareas is somewhat restricted by the bilateralapplication. Changing the path of insertion mayallow utilisation of one of these areas. However atwo-part design or swinglock principle is needed tomake use of both regions (Fig. 132).

Advantages This allows full extension of the denture into thefunctional lingual sulcus and thereby gives bothi ncreased support and retention to the prosthesisas well as maximising the lateral bracing provided( Fig. 133).

Disadvantages • The placement of such a prosthesis can be aproblem depending on where the hinge and lockcome in the arch form. The degree to which thegate can open is somewhat limited as the tonguecan interfere with this opening.

• Poor plaque control is also commonly found inthis region and therefore may be exacerbated bythe placement of such a design.

Procedure An accurate impression is taken using an elastici mpression material but often the extent of theundercuts necessitates a two-part impressiontechnique.

logo 2
Page 96: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 131 Clinical view showing severity of lingual undercut.

Fig. 132 Lingual swinglock in open position.

Fig. 133 Swinglock denture in place.

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Split pin

Definitions • A sectional denture is constructed in two parts that linktogether and utilise the undercut areas to aidretention.

- A split pin and hollow tubing may be used toretain the two parts of a sectional denturetogether.

oftioalrons Sectional dentures are able to utilise undercutsaround the teeth and associated soft and hard tissueswhich would not be available to a conventional partialdenture which used one path of insertion and removal.A split pin occupies less space than the incorporationof a lock and bolt arid this therefore looks betterespecially in the replacement of anterior saddles (Fig.134)_

Advanieges The split pin arrangement is small and therefore canbe used at the front of the mouth. It is technicallyeasier to construct than the lock and belt.

Disadvantages The continual frictional contact between the pins andthe hollow cylinder results in wear and eventually theretention is lost. This may be remedied by forcingthe pins apart to reactivate them_

Procedure 1. An accurate recording of the hard and soft tissues,correctly duplicating the undercuts present isrequired.

2. The position and angulation of the split pins inrelation to the occlusion and path of insertion of thesecond unit needs to be prepared using eparallelometer_

3. The split pin which is cast as part of thecobalt/chrome framework makes frictionalcontact within a hollow metal tube which iscontained within the acrylic portion of thedenture (Figs 135 & 136)_

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Fig. 134 Close-up of anterior bounded


Fig. 135 Acrylic section attached.

Fig. 136 Completed case-anterior view.

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Fig. 137 Exploded view with key.

Fig. 138 Use of key to unlock bolt.

Fig. 139 Completed case.

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rridication Some metal alloys possess magnetic propertieswhich can he utilised in the retention ofoverdentures or partial dentures {Fig. 140}.

Materials Two different alloys are used as magnets indentistry. These are cobalt-samarium and iron-neodymium-boron. Both of these rare earthmagnets have strong attractive forces.

Advantages There is less need for parallel abutments as a rigid line ofinsertion is not critical. Furthermore, the technique issimple, involving minimal time at the chairside and inthe laboratory.

Di.sndvanie.ge.s Magnets are brittle materials with a low corrosionresistance. Even when encapsulated in stainless steel,titanium or palladium, the coating may wear and themagnetic alloy will come into contact with saliva. Thecombination of saliva contact and wear has a deleteriouseffect on the corrosion resistance of the material_

Procedure The magnets are placed on the replica of thekeepers (Fig. 141) and cured within the denturebase material. The overdenture abutments have acast magnetic alloy post and coping which is placedin the root canal. A direct pick uptechnique can be used at the chairside where themagnets are directly attached to the denture withautopolymerising acrylic (Fig_ 142).The stainless steel capsule containing the magnetsmust be checked regularly as, if this is breached, themagnet will corrode and lose its magnetic properties-

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Fig. 140 Dental magnet.

Fig. 141 Magnets on stone replicas of the keepers.

Fig. 142 Clinical technique for attaching magnets.

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Locking bolts

A lock and bolt design is another means of holdingtogether a sectional denture which is constructedi n different parts, each with its own path ofi nsertion and removal.

A bounded edentulous span where bridgework isunsuitable either because of the length of the spanor the unsuitability of the abutment teeth. Thestudy casts may be rotated or tilted and this wouldresult in potentially useful undercut regions thatcould be utilised by such a design of denture.

This type of sectional denture is extremelyretentive as the two linked portions cannot beremoved unless the locking mechanism isreleased. The locking design means that lessocclusal clearance is required than for a split pinsectional denture.

These are related to the increased bulk of thesystem and the space required to accommodate it.I t is generally more demanding technically and thisl eads to increased cost.

The locking bolt can either be purchased as acomplete unit or it can be fabricated in thel aboratory. The locking of the bolt can beextremely precise and often a small clip is requiredto assist the patient with the unlocking of themechanism (Figs 137, 138 & 139).






Page 103: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Stud attachment

Definition A ball and socket type of stud attachment in twohalves (Fig. 143); the patrix is a circular piece ontowhich clips the matrix (Fig. 144). The matrix can bereactivated or replaced if it wears with use.

Advantages This mechanism allows an overdenture to beretained on the abutment root face. It providesi ncreased retention to the overdenture. The matrixcan either be reactivated if it is a split metal-basedcap, or replaced if it is made of a syntheticproduct.

Disadvantages • When the overdenture is not in place (e.g.overnight) the patrix projects from the rootface and can irritate or damage the tongue.

• An adequate space is required within the denturebase to house the size of this attachment.

• The leverage applied by such an attachment tothe abutment tooth is increased.

Procedure The patrix can be either cast or soldered ontoa cast post, although prefabricated posts andpatrices are now available. These are cementedwithin the previously prepared root canal and thematrix is cured within the denture base (Fig. 145).This can either be done in the laboratory or at thechairside, depending on the preference of theclinician.

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Fig. 143 Dalbo studs-occlusal view.

Fig. 144 Dalbo studs-anterior view with patrix seated.

Fig. 145 Denture with patrix in place.

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Zest anchor attachment


A modification of the ball and socket attachmentbut, unlike many similar attachments, the socket isseated within the root face (Fig. 146) and the studattached to the denture base.

Indications • A transitonal aid to provide increased retentionwhile a patient is adapting to a new prosthesis.

• A permanent attachment system if the correctcase selection is made.

Advantages • No projection is present from the abutment toothwhen the prosthesis is removed.

• The placement of the matrix within the root facei s simple and avoids major problems such astwo or more retainers needing to be parallel toeach other.

• The simple chairside kit is relatively inexpensiveand thus of major benefit to the clinician.

• Replacement of the component parts is easy andaffordable.

Disadvantages The use of such an attachment in a bruxist iscontraindicated. Patrices wear, particularly if theangulation of the abutments is significantlygreater than 15 degrees.There is a risk of caries or periodontalbreakdown if the patient is not carefullymonitored.

Procedure 1. The root face is prepared using the latch-gripbur provided in the kit and the prefabricatedmetal retainer is cemented into the root faceusing a glass ionomer luting cement.

2. The patrix is then placed within the matrix (Fig.147) and incorporated directly within thedenture using an autopolymerising acrylic resin( Fig. 148).

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Fig. 146 Patrix present on root face.

Fig. 147 Zest attachments on teeth.

Fig. 148 Male part in denture.

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Bar attachment

Definition A bar which can be connected between two ormore abutment teeth or implants. The shape of thebar can be varied and can be either round, parallel-sided or milled and cast to a customised shape( Fig. 149).


Advantages The bar provides support and retention for thedenture over its entire length. Various shapes ofbar are available which provide additional benefitsto suit the indications for use, such as lateralstability provided by a parallel-sided bar.

Disadvantages The bar or the clip may wear if made of dissimilarmaterials. The bar may need to be adapted if theabutment teeth are in a particular position in thearch, e.g. to keep the bar overlying the residualridge.

Procedure The bar is normally cast using the lost waxtechnique from prefabricated bar sections whichare prepared in the laboratory on the abutmentteeth. The clip can be processed in the laboratoryor at the chairside.

I f there is a large span between abutment teethand tooth support is required, then a bar can beused to connect the abutments. A denture can beprovided which contains a clip (Fig. 150) allowingaccurate location of the overdenture and increasedretention and support (Fig. 151).

Page 108: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 149 Anterior bar linking canine and first premolar teeth.

Fig. 150 Hader clips in denture.

Fig. 151 Denture in place.

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Extracoronal attachment

Definition An attachment involving two parts: the first halfhas a ball joint or a similar component cantileveredfrom the abutment unit; the second part, thesocket, is housed within the denture base (Fig.152). This may contain a spring for resilience.

Indications This type of attachment is used in a free-endsaddle situation where stress-breaking is a risk( Fig. 153). The patrix is connected to the distalabutment to align with the saddle and allowflexion of this portion in relation to the residualdentition.


The attachment compensates for the differentialcompressibility of the supporting structures of thedenture base, i.e. the mucosa and teeth. Thesupport provided by abutment teeth and oralmucosa is not equal and would result in instability


of the denture base during function.

Disadvantages • This type of attachment requires at least onecentimetre of distal crown height of theabutment tooth to be able to house thecomponent parts.

• The extracoronal nature of this attachmentresults in an altered contour of the abutmenttooth which may be difficult to clean (Fig. 154).

• Loss or fracture of the spring housed within thematrix could result in the denture sinking andcausing possible damage to the supportingstructures.

Procedure This type of attachment involves advancedl aboratory support and requires careful clinicalassessment of the supporting structures and theocclusion.

Page 110: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 152 Extracoronal attachment.

Fig. 153 Casting incorporating attachment.

Fig. 154 Crowns with attachment.

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Ceka attachment


An attachment which has a patrix conical portionwith a split head for activation and a matrix capportion (Figs 155 & 156).

Indications The Ceka attachment was developed as anextracoronal attachment. However, it can also beused for both root face abutments and bars. Inthe latter case it allows increased retention of thesuperstructure where a clip may not be provided.I f the bar is short the placement of a clip maynot be possible and therefore the use of suchan adjustable attachment can provide thesolution.

Advantages The attachment can be used for many differentclinical situations (Fig. 157). The matrix ringretainer can be placed in a variety of locations andthe patrix component comes in different formsallowing it to be cast, soldered or bonded intoplace. The patrix has a cross split allowing foractivation of this attachment with wear.

Disadvantages The attachment requires adequate space and thecorrect angulation relative to the path of insertionof the denture.

Procedure The technical stage of positioning this attachmentparallel to the path of insertion of the denturerequires the use of a parallelometer.

Page 112: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 155 Ceka attachment in place.

Fig. 156 Occlusal view.

Fig. 157 Denture in place.

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Intracoronal attachment



As the name suggests, a matrix component parthoused within the coronal tissue of the abutmenttooth.

Indications • As a resilient intracoronal attachment in theplacement of a removable bounded saddleprosthesis (Fig. 159).

• As a nonresilient intracoronal attachment in thefixed movable design of a fixed prosthesis (Fig.160).


• The contour of the abutment tooth is not alteredas in the extracoronal types.

• In fixed prosthodontics this attachment canovercome the problem of nonparallel abutments.

Disadvantages • The size of this attachment may result in itencroaching upon the pulp chamber, if the toothi s small or pulpal resorption has not occurred.

• Wear of the component parts of a removableprosthesis is inevitable and therefore reactivationi s required.

• Adequate preparation of the tooth is requiredwhere the component part is to be housed.

Procedure The crown is prepared with the matrix componentenclosed within its cast structure. This has to beparalleled to the other portion of the secondabutment tooth.

Page 114: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 158 Intracoronal attachments.

Fig. 159 Inlays incorporating intracoronal attachments.

Fig. 160 A bridge split into smaller units using an intracoronal


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14 / Tooth substance loss



Loss by wear of tooth substance or a restoration,caused by factors other than tooth contact (Figs161, 162 & 163).

Aetiology The commonest aetiological agent involved inabrasion is described as resulting from over-vigorous toothbrushing or abrasive dentifrices onexposed dentine. However this is now not thoughtto be the only mechanism affecting cervicalabrasion cavities and chemical erosion may wellbe an additional factor. Abrasion has beensubdivided into:• two-bodied abrasion, where two surfaces move

against each other, e.g. biting or chewing a hairgrip or pipestem, and

• three-bodied abrasion where an interveningslurry is at work, e.g. toothpaste or food.

Management The management of tooth surface loss is firstlypreventive to stop further deterioration andsecondly restorative if the degree of lossnecessitates the replacement of the lost toothsubstance. Aetiological factors should always bei dentified and addressed prior to any restorativetreatment being instigated.

Page 116: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 161 Abrasion of upper central incisor.

Fig. 162 Abrasion affecting the cervical margins of all lower leftteeth.

Fig. 163 Abrasion cavity in the lower right first premolar.

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Aetiology This type of wear results in the loss of tooth tissueat contacting surfaces. Over a period of time slightwear might be expected at approximal contactpoints resulting in a flatter, broader contact area.Attrition is often more clearly seen, however, at theocclusal or incisal surfaces of teeth, and suchtypical wear patterns can be seen clearly inbruxists (Fig. 166). The causes of bruxism areunclear but factors such as stress, uneven occlusalcontacts and an habitual tendency have all beensuggested.


Loss of tooth substance or of a restoration as aresult of occlusal or approximal contact betweenopposing or adjacent teeth (Figs 164 & 165).

The management of tooth surface loss is firstlypreventive to stop further deterioration andsecondly restorative if the degree of lossnecessitates the replacement of the lost toothsubstance.• The aetiological factors should be identified and

addressed prior to any restorative treatmentbeing instigated.

• The use of occlusal appliances to reduce boththe damage caused by attrition, and also torestore the lost occlusal vertical dimension in theshort term, is the first-line approach in thetreatment of this problem.

Page 118: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 164 Attrition of upper teeth.

Fig. 165 Attrition of lower teeth with some erosive element.

Fig. 166 Upper and lower arch attrition causing loss of occlusalface height.

Page 119: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001


Progressive loss of hard dental tissues by achemical process without bacterial or mechanicalaction (Fig. 167).

Regurgitation and dietary erosion are recognisedaetiological factors (Figs 168 & 169). The acidicnature of many foodstuffs or drinks can causeerosion of the dental hard tissues. If a patientsuffers from gatrointestinal problems then gastricreflux may result and will produce an acidic oralenvironment. The clinician should always be awareof erosion caused by anorexia nervosa andbulimia. Other features which influence theerosive effect are the buffering capacity of salivaand medical conditions such as alcoholism.

The aetiological factors implicated in the diseaseprocess should be identified and addressed assoon as possible. This preventive approach willstop further deterioration and may obviate theneed to restore the eroded tooth surface.The restoration of a dentition ravaged by thejoint erosive/attrition action is a more commonlyencountered problem that demands high levelsof restorative skill to resolve.




Page 120: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 167 Erosion of anterior teeth.

Fig. 168 Erosion of palatal surfaces of teeth.

Fig. 169 Erosion of teeth caused by bulimia.

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Fixed/fixed bridge

fefinition A prosthesis where the artificial tooth or teeth tpontic)is supported rigidly on either side by one or moreabutment teeth (Figs 170 & 171).

knaicadions Where missing units are bound by abutment teethwhich are capable of supporting the functional I ead ofthe missing teeth.

Advantages A fixed/fixed bridge is a strong and retentiverestoration for replacing missing teeth. It can be usedfor single or multiple missing units with the abutmentteeth splinted together in the latter case. This can beseen as an advantage as well as a possibledisadvantage of this technique as the design of linkedabutment units must be considered carefully to allowaccess for oral hygiene measures.

Di dvantages. • This technique requires the preparation of theabutment teeth to be parallel to each otherwhichmay mean: overpreparation of the teeth, structuralweakening of the tooth and endangering the pulpaltissues-

• Teeth do move independently in function and thiscan lead to cementation failure of a fixedlfixedbridge.

Procedure The abutment teeth are prepared with parallel taper (Fig. 172). This can be particularly arduous if the teethare widely separated, and often means overtaperedpreparations which are less retentive.

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Fig. 170 Fixed/fixed porcelain bridge.

Fig. 171 Fixed/fixed gold bridge with sanitary pontic design.

Fig. 172 Tooth preparation for crown or bridgework.

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Fixed/movable bridge

Definition A prosthesis where the artificial tooth or teeth isrigidly supported on one side, usually the distalend by one or more abutment teeth (Figs 173 &174). One abutment will contain an intracoronalattachment which allows a small degree ofmovement between the rigid component and theother abutment tooth or teeth (Fig. 175).

Indications Where abutment teeth are tilted or rotated inrelation to each other and the preparation neededto make them parallel would be highly destructiveto tooth structure. The construction of large unitsof bridgework means that the complex task ofparallel preparations is increased. The use ofmovable joints allows for the separation of largeunits into several smaller more manageablesections.

Advantages Divergent abutments can be used in this techniqueand are more conservative of tooth structure. Sucha bridge allows minor movements of abutments inrelation to each other. The parts can be cementedseparately.

Disadvantages • This bridge is more demanding of laboratoryti me leading to increased expense.

• The construction of a temporary bridge is moredifficult due to the tilting of the abutment teeth.

Procedure Each abutment tooth can be preparedi ndependently although special considerationshould be given to the placement of the movablejoint as this is preferably placed intracoronally.

Page 124: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 173 Fixed/movable bridge.

Fig. 174 Fixed/movable bridge.

Fig. 175 Occlusal view showing intracoronal attachment for fixed/movable design.

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Cantilever bridge

A prosthesis where the artificial tooth or teeth aresupported on one side only by one or moreabutment teeth (Figs 176, 177 & 178).

Where the abutment tooth can carry the occlusall oad of the artificial tooth and where the occlusioni s protected against potentially damagingrotational forces.

This bridge design is generally the mostconservative design in terms of tooth preparation(excluding resin retained designs).There is no problem of paralleling abutmentteeth during preparation.

The size of pontic is limited to one or two unitsas leverage forces on the neighbouringabutments can be potentially damaging.I f a contact point from the pontic to theneighbouring tooth is not placed then potentiallyrotational forces could be destructive to this typeof design.

A single tooth preparation is carried out on to theabutment tooth in a similar manner to aconventional crown preparation.






Page 126: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 176 Anterior cantilever bridge.

Fig. 177 Posterior cantilever bridge.

Fig. 178 Cantilever bridge: occlusal view.

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Spring cantilever bridge

A prosthesis where the artificial tooth is supportedby a connecting bar to the abutment tooth or teeth.This connecting arm can be of various lengthsdepending on the position in the arch of theabutment teeth in relation to the missing unit/s.The arm follows the contour of the palate to allowfor patient adaptation (Figs 179, 180 & 181).

This type of restoration is placed where a patienthas sound anterior teeth with one missing unit orwhere diastemas are present around an anteriormissing unit.

The pontic does not require support from lessfavourable adjacent teeth.Anterior teeth that are sound and might normallybe prepared to support a missing unit do notneed to be involved. Posterior teeth are morecommonly restored than anterior teeth andtherefore their use as abutments is lessdestructive of sound tooth substance.Diastemas can be preserved.

Some patients find the connectingpalate uncomfortable.The bar may distort if it is too thin or theocclusion on the pontic is excessive.

bar in the

Posterior teeth are prepared for the support of theanterior missing unit. Commonly, the connectingbar does not carry the anterior unit but a core ontowhich the anterior unit is cemented. This means itcan be replaced if the colour needs modificationwithout removing the posterior retainer.






Page 128: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 179 Laboratory die with spring cantilever bridge.

Fig. 180 Spring cantilever.

Fig. 181 Linked abutments for spring cantilever bridge.

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Porcelain jacket and porcelain bonded crown

A porcelain jacket crown (PJC) consists of a layerof porcelain which covers the entire crown of thetooth (Fig. 182).A porcelain bonded crown (PBC) is one which isconstructed in metal alloy with porcelain fused toeither all or most of its surfaces (Fig. 182).

PJC: When the anterior teeth are heavily restoredwith composite restorations or where toothmaterial has been lost as a result of trauma.PBC: In situations where a stronger restoration isrequired, such as the presence of minimali nterocclusal clearance (Fig. 183).

PJC: Improved appearance. The shade andtranslucency of adjacent teeth can be recreatedi n porcelain work.PBC: The strength of this type of restoration is itsmajor advantage.

PJC: The brittleness of all-porcelain units and thenecessity to remove at least 1 mm of toothsubstance are the two main disadvantages ofthis crown.PBC: The necessity to remove at least 1.5 mmof tooth substance buccally to allow for theplacement of the alloy and porcelain layers.Unsightliness can result from the difficulty inrendering opaque the alloy layer (Fig. 184).





Page 130: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 182 PJC on upper right central and PBC on upper left centraland lateral.

Fig. 183 Post and core preparations for PBCs.

Fig. 184 PBCs in place.

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Gold veneer crown





A gold veneer or gold shell crown (GSC) is a fullveneer crown made of a gold alloy (Figs 185, 186& 187).

For posterior restorations where appearance is nota consideration. In some cultures a full gold veneercrown on an anterior tooth may denote a sign ofwealth or be used as a decorative restoration.

• Gold can be cast accurately in very thin sections,and can resist repeated loading withoutdistortion.

• Minimal tooth reduction is required whencompared to a PBC.

• The incorporation of retention areas for a partialdenture, such as rest seats or undercuts, is easilymanaged with this type of restoration.

• Adhesive gold restorations are now possibleby heat treating certain gold alloys to allowadhesive technology to bond the gold to naturaltooth structure.

• There are few if any disadvantages of such arestoration other than cost.

• Some people would find it unsightly and its usei s therefore mainly limited to posterior units.

Page 132: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 186 Gold crown and complex inlay.

Fig. 187 Full veneer gold crowns.

Page 133: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Resin bonded bridge (Maryland)

A prosthesis constructed of a cast metal frameworkwhich is luted to the enamel of an abutment toothby an adhesive composite resin (Figs 188 & 189).

To replace anterior teeth where the abutment teethare unrestored and the use of conventionalbridgework would cause unnecessary toothdestruction.

Minimal preparation of the abutment tooth isrequired and is all within enamel, as the retainer isattached to the abutment tooth using acid-etchadhesive techniques.

• These restorations can debond if good isolationi s not obtained at the time of cementation.

• If insufficient enamel is present then this type ofrestoration is unsuitable.

• The restoration is contraindicated where there isevidence of severe tooth wear, parafunction ori nsufficient interocclusal clearance.

Cantilevered units are advised (Fig. 190) because ifthe 'wing retainer' debonds then the bridge will bedisplaced. Double abutments result in one sidedebonding but the remaining fixture staying firm.This may lead to caries developing under thedebonded retainer. The teeth are prepared withslots or grooves for additional mechanicalretention and full lingual coverage to maximise theadhesive bond. The use of a rubber-dam isrequired to provide the isolation necessary foradhesive bonding techniques.






Page 134: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 188 Conventional Maryland-upper arch.

Fig. 189 Conventional Maryland-lower arch.

Fig. 190 Conventional cantilevered Maryland.

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Rochette bridge






An older design of bridge similar to a Marylandbridge, in that it derives its attachment to theabutment tooth using adhesive technology(Figs 191 & 192). The major difference is thatthe adhesive bond to the metal wing supporti s mechanical, unlike the chemical andmicromechanical adhesion used with a Marylandbridge.

As for a Maryland bridge; however its use islimited and is most often a temporary solutionto a failed Maryland bridge.

• The retention of the composite resin to the metalalloy is mechanical, by counter sunk holes in theretainer. The risk of debonding at the metal/resini nterface is dependent on the strength of theresin and not the bond.

• If the restoration does debond recementation isrelatively straightforward.

The use of holes in the retainer requires a thickercross-section of alloy for strength. This may lead toocclusal problems or may feel bulky to the patient.

I n the early days of Maryland bridgeworkdebonding was common, initially due to theunpredictable nature of the bond between the alloyand the resin. As a result many of the Marylandbridges were converted to a Rochette designby drilling holes in the retainer (Fig. 192). Thisoften was a poor idea as the metal retainer in aMaryland was much thinner than its predecessorand the retainer was significantly weakened by thistechnique.

Page 136: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 191 Rochette bridge-occlusal view.

Fig. 192 Rochette bridge-lingual view.

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Porcelain veneers






A veneer is a thin tooth-shaped porcelain (acrylicor composite) facing cemented to the underlyingtooth structure using a filled resin and acid-etchtechnique to mask discoloured or malformed teeth

To mask intrinsic staining or surface defects thatresult in discolouration of anterior teeth (Figs 193& 194). To correct malformations of tooth shape,spacing (Figs 195 & 196) or tooth chipping due totrauma. Good oral hygiene is essential whenconsidering this type of restoration. A diagnosticwax up to assess the aesthetic result is alsoadvisable.

Minimal tooth preparation is required. They canprovide a superior aesthetic result to full porcelaincoverage, as in a PJC, as they allow for somenatural tooth colour to show through if desired.

I f a substantial amount of natural tooth structurehas been lost then a PJC may offer a betteralternative as the strength of these restorations isnot great. Chipping and cracking of the porcelainbecause of the thin nature of this restoration canresult. This type of restoration is not advised inpatients who are bruxists.

As with all bonding techniques, this procedure isextremely technique sensitive and correct isolationat the time of placement of these restorations isessential.

Page 138: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 193 Anterior teeth prepared for

veneers because of tetracycline


Fig. 194 Anterior teeth-veneers in


Fig. 195 Spacing of anterior teeth.

Fig. 196 Correction with veneers.

Page 139: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Resin-bonded porcelain crowns






A resin-bonded porcelain crown is a thin section ofprocelain which encompasses the whole peripheryof the tooth unlike a labial or palatal porcelainveneer.

Resin-bonded crowns are indicated for restoringdamaged (Fig. 197) or unaesthetic anterior teeth,where a veneer would be inappropriate but aconventional porcelain jacket crown would be toodestructive of the remaining tissue.

These crowns (Figs 198 & 199) require minimalpreparation to the tooth. The crown is cementedusing adhesive resin technology and, therefore,where diminutive crowns are present there is noadvantage to crown lengthening to increase theretention form.

The crown is thin and therefore cannot withstandhigh occlusal forces. The procedure like so manyof the acid-etch techniques is extremely techniquesensitive and success is dependent on bondingbeing carefully followed.

A reduction of between 0.5 and 0.75 mm shouldoccur allowing adequate enamel to remain forbonding. The incisal region should be reduced by1 mm to allow enough thickness of porcelain forstrength in this region. Margins are preferablyproduced using a full chamfer and otherwisegeneral crown preparation principles should apply.These include no undercuts or sharp line or pointangles.

Page 140: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 197 Erosion of anterior teeth.

Fig. 198 Placement of resin-bonded crowns.

Fig. 199 Resin-bonded crowns on lower incisors with lower

swinglock denture in place.

Page 141: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Guide surfaces/milled crowns





Two or more parallel surfaces on abutment teethwhich limit the path of insertion of a denture.Guide surfaces may occur naturally on teeth ormay require to be prepared in the tooth or within arestoration such as an amalgam or gold veneercrown.

• Increased stability by resisting displacement ofthe denture.

• Efficient reciprocation of a clasp arm.• Prevention of clasp deformation during removal

of the denture.• Improvement of the appearance of saddle and

tooth (anterior guide surfaces).

The preparation of guide surfaces in the naturaldentition will require the removal of toothsubstance. However this disadvantage is overcomeby the use of naturally occurring guide surfaces orthe incorporation of restored teeth.

• Guide surfaces are produced by removing aminimal and uniform thickness of enamel-usually not more than 0.5 mm-from around thetooth. It should extend vertically for about 3 mmand should be kept as far as possible from thegingival margin.

• The incorporation of a guide surface withina cast restoration may be prepared moreaccurately with a surveyor in the laboratory( Figs 200, 201 & 202).

Page 142: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 200 Porcelain bonded milled crown.

Fig. 201 Close up of crown.

Fig. 202 Guide surface on gold crown.

Page 143: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Telescopic crowns



Advantages The abutment teeth do not require to be paralleland therefore the amount of tooth preparationrequired is reduced. Removal of the outer crownwork is relatively straightforward and allows closermonitoring of the abutment units (Figs 203 & 204).


Procedure • The abutment teeth are prepared usingconventional procedures and the impression isrecorded.

• The inner collars are constructed to allow for aparallel path of insertion for the outer crowns( Figs 205 & 206).

A restoration made in two parts: an inner sleeve ofhard gold and an outer full crown which coversthis inner unit.

• To overcome differences in the inclination ofteeth.

• To provide a removable outer portion for thei nspection of the interdental areas or theabutment tooth itself.

• To splint neighbouring teeth.

• Because of the change of the emergence angleof the outer crown from the abutment tooth,particular attention must be paid to plaqueremoval around the margins.

• The technical stages involved make this moreti me consuming and therefore more costly thanconventional bridgework.

Page 144: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 203 Anterior view of telescopic


Fig. 205 Telescopic abutments in place.

Fig. 206 Telescopic superstructure

i ncorporated within denture.

Fig. 204 Telescopic crowns in place.

Page 145: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Gold inlays






An intracoronal restoration which is fabricatedextraorally and then luted into the prepared cavity.

To give strength in a posterior tooth. Some peopleprefer gold inlays in anterior teeth, as it isconsidered aesthetically pleasing or a symbol ofwealth.

• The strength of the alloy when compared todirect restorations.

• The margins of a gold inlay can be thin enoughto allow burnishing of the margins intraorally toallow for better marginal adaptation.

The design of an inlay cavity requires thatsufficient tooth structure remains to resist the' wedge' effect. This is where during occlusall oading the inlay creates lateral forces on the wallsof the cavity and can result in fractured cusps.Therefore this type of restoration is not suitable forweakened teeth. An onlay design would providecuspal coverage and prevent the fracture ofunsupported tooth tissue (Figs 207 & 208).

1. The isthmus of the inlay preparation must be nogreater than one-third of the intercuspal widthor this would result in significant weakening ofthe tooth.

2. The cavity must not have any undercuts andkeep a good retention form.

3. A bevelled margin of approximately 135° isrequired for gold inlays to allow the featheredge of gold to permit burnishing of the margin( Fig. 209).

Page 146: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 209 Gold inlays in posterior teeth.

Page 147: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Porcelain inlays/onlays




A posterior restoration where the majorconsideration is one of appearance.

• The aesthetic result with these restorations canbe very pleasing particularly when compared toamalgam (Figs 211 & 212).

• The use of resin-bonded techniques to lute thesei nlays/onlays in place means that this type willprovide support and strengthen a weakenedtooth, in contrast to a gold inlay.

• This restoration offers a viable alternative tomore radical preparations such as crowning.

Disadvantages • A porcelain inlay is more liable to fractureparticularly if the margins are incorrectlyprepared. Repair of the damaged restorationi s difficult.

• These inlays also require the use of hydrofluoricacid to etch the fitting surface so that the lutingcement will adhere to the porcelain. This etchantmaterial has to be used in a fume cupboard andhandled carefully.

• Adjustment of the occlusal profile of thisrestoration is difficult compared to otherrestorative materials.

• A porcelain inlay may produce excessive wearof the opposing tooth structure where there isparafunctional activity.

Procedure • Castable ceramics can be used to fabricate thei nlay on an investment model in the laboratory.

• Computer-aided design and fabricationtechniques are now available so that the inlaycan be machined from a block of porcelain.

An intracoronal or onlay restoration made ofporcelain (Fig. 210).

Page 148: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 210 Porcelain inlay.

Fig. 211 Porcelain onlay preparations.

Fig. 212 Porcelain onlays cemented.

Page 149: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Composite inlays

An intracoronal restoration fabricated from acomposite resin material.

Restoration of a premolar tooth where theappearance may be compromised by othermaterials.

Apart from the aesthetic advantages previouslymentioned, this type of inlay may be of benefit in atooth that is more radically broken down andrequires support before restoration can take place.Assuming sufficient enamel remains then resinbonding techniques are used to support theweakened tooth structure.

• The poor abrasion resistance of theserestorations means that they are not suitablewhere there is parafunctional activity.

• They are not indicated in posterior teeth thatcarry excessive loads.This property of composite resins has restricted

their use in the posterior regions of the mouth.Although the materials have improved andtechniques for strengthening these materials havebeen developed, they still do not fulfil the criteriafor an ideal posterior restorative material.

The cavity is prepared with a slightly increasedi nternal taper than that for a gold inlay (Fig. 213). Agold inlay requires a 5° taper approximately whilethis is increased to around a 8-10° taper for acomposite inlay. This is because the material isweaker and more liable to fracture prior tocementation (Figs 214 & 215).






Page 150: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 213 Composite inlay preparation.

Fig. 214 Composite inlay.

Fig. 215 Composite inlay. (Courtesy of Dr A.C. Shortull)

Page 151: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

161 Removable implants

Subperiosteal implant

Definitions • Implant with a removable superstructure.Cobalt/chromium casting that is insertedbetween the periosteum and the bone to support a

denture (Fig. 216).

Hisfery The first subperiosteal implant was placed by Dahl inSweden in 1943 and this technique was employed untilthe early 1980s_ The technique was slowly discontinuedand replaced by blade-vent i mplants and subsequentlyby endosseous implants_

Advantages This technique provided additional support andretention in an atrophic ridge situation_ Whilst themplants had a reasonable success rate at fiveyears it dropped dramatically after this period.

Disadvantages • The technique involved the taking of an impressionof the underlying bone, necessitating a surgicalprocedure, and a subsequentprocedure to place the metal casting.

• Bone resorption progressed and therefore theseframeworks soon no longer fitted the underlyingbone

• Commonly infections tracked down the implant postcausing infections in the underlying bone andexposure of the metal casting (Fig_ 217)_

Procedure 1 A surgical procedure was carried out to expose thebone and an impression of this was made.

2 This was then used to cast a cobalt/chromiumframework which was placed under the periostcum;sometimes anchorage screws were placed to secureit to the underlying bone. This was allowed to healand a casting which had previously been made to fitthe implant posts was incorporated into the denturebase i Fig. 21$).

Page 152: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 216 Subperiosteal implant structure.

Fig. 217 A failing maxillary subperiosteal implant.

Fig. 218 Fitting surface of overdenture.

Page 153: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Dental implants and bar


Indications An edentulous patient who has problems withthe retention of complete dentures due to ani nadequate ridge form.

Advantages • The prosthetic treatment is straightforward.Therefore there is reduced time and expensewhen compared to other types of implantreconstruction.

• Fewer implants are required than for fixedi mplant prostheses and therefore treatment canbe performed even if the bone availability isseverely reduced.

• A removable prosthesis can compensate fordefects in the ridge form as well as providing lipsupport.

• The patient's oral hygiene is simpler than forfixed implant prosthesis.

• The load is equally distributed between thei mplant fixtures.


Procedure 1. Impressions are taken of the fixtures and theneither a direct or indirect technique is used toconstruct the bar.

2. This is then fabricated and tried in the mouth.3. The overdenture is constructed in the normal

manner and the clip is placed at the processingstage.

A type of restoration where two to four implantsare commonly placed in the edentulous arches andli nked by a bar connector (Figs 219, 220 & 221).

• Patients may object because the prosthesis isstill removable.

• The prosthesis is mucosal borne and thereforeregular checks are required for relining.

• The patient is still wearing a removableprosthesis and therefore the biting force andchewing efficiency is not that of a dentatei ndividual.

Page 154: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 219 Maxillary bar for overdenture.

Fig. 220 Lower bar retained by 2 implants.

Fig. 221 Lower bar retained by 3 implants.

Page 155: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Implant and Hader bar in the reconstruction

of a resection patient

Definition Surgical excision of a tumour results commonly inan oral environment which is difficult toreconstruct. Implant placement can thereforeprovide added retention for the placement of aremovable prosthesis (Figs 222, 223 & 224).

Indications Patients who have had tumours resected oftenhave problems with retention of prostheticappliances. Even if the patient has hadpostoperative radiotherapy, implants can be placedunder certain conditions.

Advantages The placement of implants can allow forretention of a large maxillofacial appliance whichmay not only replace the missing teeth but alsothe resected bony support as well.These appliances help in the rehabilitation ofpatients who have undergone a major traumaticexperience.

Disadvantages • Many patients who have had such radicalsurgery would prefer not to have further surgicalepisodes for the placement of implants.

• It may not always be possible to place implantsaround the resected site dependent on thequantity and quality of bone in that region.

• The use of implants in a region that has hadradiotherapy may not be possible if certaincriteria cannot be met.

• Implants can be placed within 6 months ofradiotherapy or after hyperbaric oxygentreatment.

Procedure The procedure is the same as previously outlined.However, it is also often beneficial to consider theuse of a neutral zone technique when constructingthe prosthesis, to determine the zone of minimalconflict for denture placement.

Page 156: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 223 Hader bar in a patient who has had a resection and

radial forearm flap repair.

Fig. 224 Retentive clips in denture.

Page 157: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Implants, bar and Ceka attachments in themanagement of a resection patient

Method An overdenture normally attaches to an implantbar using a clip attachment, however it may benecessary to utilise other forms of retention (Fig.225).

Indications Where additional retention is required to attach theremovable superstructure to the bar, attachmentsother than clips can be utilised (Fig. 226). Thei mplants may have been placed so that insufficientspace between the fixtures exists for a clip to beplaced. The use of other smaller precisionattachments can solve this problem (Fig. 227).

Advantages • The dentures are retained by a resilientattachment to the bar and therefore noanteroposterior rocking associated with somedesigns of bar can occur.

• The attachment can be activated as and whenwear of the component parts occurs rather thanhaving to replace the clip or bar.

Disadvantages The additional cost of such attachments might beprohibitive.These attachments give a more rigid connectionbetween the overdenture and implants andtherefore the denture may potentially place morel oading on the implant fixtures.

Procedure The precision attachments are either cast orsoldered into the bar during its construction stage.

Page 158: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 225 Occlusal view of bar in a patient who has had aresection.

Fig. 226 Implant with bar and Ceka attachments.

Fig. 227 Fitting surface of overdentures.

Page 159: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Magnets in implants



Advantages • The housing is simply positioned within thedenture base (Fig. 230).

• From a biomechanical viewpoint magneticretention places virtually no force on thei mplants.

Disadvantages • The magnets corrode with time and needreplacement on a regular basis.

• This type of retention provides no lateral stabilityto the denture.

Procedure The implant attachment is placed in the normalway and the magnet within its housing is curedi nto the denture base either in the laboratory or atthe chairside.

A metal alloy that possesses magnetic propertiesand therefore attracts a similar metal alloy.

This type of attachment offers an alternative toother implant systems (Fig. 228). It will result in al ess obtrusive implant coronal surface in themouth when compared to most other attachmentmethods (Fig. 229).

Page 160: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 228 Implant fixtures in place.

Fig. 229 Magnet keepers on implant fixtures.

Fig. 230 Magnet retained overdentures in place.

Page 161: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001


Stud attachments


Indications The placement of a stud attachment is one ofpersonal choice (Figs 231 & 232). The indicationsfor its use are the same as for that of bars andmagnets (Fig. 233).


Disadvantages • The resilient 'washers' or 'O' rings perish withti me and need to be replaced.

• They provide less retention than that of a bar.

Procedure The patrix is attached to the implant and thematrix is placed within the denture base either atthe processing stage or by using a direct techniqueat the chairside.

A system where the patrix component is attachedto the implant and the matrix is housed within thedenture base.

The size of the attachment is smaller than a barand therefore less room is required in the denturebase. This may be of great benefit in a case wherei nterocclusal clearance is limited.

Page 162: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 231 Studs placed on implant fixtures.

Fig. 232 Four stud attachments on implant fixtures.

Fig. 233 Radiographic appearance of implants.

Page 163: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

17 / Fixed implants

Single tooth implant (blade-went)

Defrrrrtiorr A thin section of perforated titanium that is placed ntothe jaws and allowed to heal (Fig. 234).

Indications When a tooth or multiple teeth were Inst and a fixedor removable replacement was required withoutusing the adjacent dentition. These implants weredeveloped in the 1970s.

Advantages • Because the implants were flat in cross-section, thewidth of remaining bone was irrelevant. • Theplacement procedure was easy to perform_

Dr's-advarriayes Many of these implants failed to integrate with boneand were kept in place by fibrous scar tissue. Whilst thisallowed the implants to function for many years, theyoften became infected.

Procedure 1 A full thickness flap is reflected and the crestal boneis exposed.

2 A bur is used to cut a channel and any debris isremoved.

3. The implant is placed in the slot and tappeduntil the shoulder is level with the crestal bone_ 4

The flap is replaced with multiple sutures andthe area allowed to heal.

5. The superstructure is constructed after asuitable period for healing (Figs 235 & 236).

Page 164: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001


Smoking, 1, 17periodontal disease, 21

Speech problemsroot caries, 21

gingival recession, 23Plaster of Paris, 34, 38

maxillary implants, 163Polyps, fibroepithelial, 5

Split pins, 91Porcelain

Spoon dentures, 73bonded crown, 123

Spring cantilever bridge, 121bonded milled crown, 136

Squamous cell carcinoma, 1fixed/fixed bridge, 116

Stomatitis, denture-induced, 7inlays, 141

Stud attachments, 97jacket crown, 123, 131

i mplants, 155veneers, 131

Subperiosteal implants, 145Precision attachments, 95-108

Swinglock dentures, 83bar attachments, 101Ceka attachment, 105

Telescopic crowns, 137extracoronal, 103

Tetracycline staining, 27, 132i ntracoronal, 107

Titanium implants, 157, 161magnets, 95

Tonguestuds, 97

motor nerve damage, 57zest, 99

tethered, 57Pregnancy epulis, 5

Tooth substance loss, 109-114onlay dentures, 67, 69

Radiopaque resin, 73

Tooth wearRadiotherapy, 1, 11, 57

copy dentures, 47i mplants, 149

overdentures, 51Replica record block technique, 44

Torus mandibularis, 15Resection patients, 57, 149, 151, 165

Torus palatinus, 15Resin bonded bridge (Maryland bridge), 127, 129

Trismus, 63Resin-bonded porcelain crowns, 133

Tubingen implant, 159Resorption see Bone resorption

Tumour resection see Resection patientsRetromolar pad, 31Rochette bridge, 129


caries, 21

gold, 125periodontal acrylic, 23

fractures, multir e teeth, 25

peelain, 131

resection,o section, 2 25 abutments, 49


staining, 27Vertical fin tray, 56

Rotational path prosthesis, 85


materials, 59

Sectional dentureslocking bolts, 93

Wedge effect, 139split pin, 91

Wegeners granulomatosis, 5

Selective compression technique, 35Single tooth implants, 157-162

Zest anchor attachments, 99Skin grafts, 57

Zinc oxide/eugenol paste, 33, 37

Page 165: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 234 Blade-vent implant.

Fig. 235 Radiographic appearance.

Fig. 236 Lateral view showing angulation of

blade-vent implant.

Page 166: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Tubingen (Frialet-1) ( Figs 237 & 238)A ceramic artificial root that can osseointegrate toreplace a single missing unit.

Where an immediate implant placement systemi s needed. If a tooth requires extraction andan implant replacement is viable then bothprocedures can be done in the same visit.

This implant is described as an 'open' implant inthe sense that the coronal portion is exposedduring the healing period: only one surgicalstage is required.The ceramic nature of the implant means thatthe margin can be prepared with an air rotor toprovide the desired margin.

Success rates of this implant system are poorerthan for other systems because:e the implant might be placed in a socket that is

still infected, and therefore a delayed placementtechnique is advocated;

• the implant material itself is brittle and liable tofracture;

e the success of osseointegration seems to be lessthan that of titanium implant systems.

1. The tooth root is extracted as atraumatically aspossible, the socket is prepared, and this singlestage implant fixture is placed (Fig. 239).

2. A temporary restoration is placed to protect thei mplant from loading during the healing phase.

3. An impression is then taken after integration forthe superstructure to be constructed and finallycemented.






Single tooth implant

Page 167: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 239 Clinical appearance of implant prior to loading.

Page 168: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001


Single tooth implant

Branemark (Cera-one abutment) ( Fig. 240)A titanium implant fixture used to replace a singletooth.

Indications Where sufficient bone (height and width) exists forthe placement of the implant fixture. Where a toothhas been lost but the supporting bone is stilladequate and the neighbouring teeth are soundand the occlusion favourable.

Advantages • Adjacent teeth do not require preparation for useas abutments for resin-retained bridgework.

• Good appearance can be achieved and theproximal surfaces can be cleaned easily.

Disadvantages Surgery is required.The placement of an implant may not bepossible if there is inadequate bone or ifanatomical structures or occlusal relationshipsare unfavourable.

Procedure 1. The implant is placed using an internal coolantdrill so that the bone does not overheat.

2. It is covered over and allowed to integrate fora period of between three and six months.

3. The Branemark single tooth system allows forseveral types of connection to this abutment,which can be either cemented or screw-retained( Figs 241 & 242).

Page 169: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 241 Radiographic appearance showing

superstructure to be fully seated.

Page 170: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Maxillary implants with acrylic bridgework

(I MZ)



A rigid prosthesis that is nonremovable by thepatient and is supported purely by the implants.

Where adequate bone exists for the placement ofmultiple implants and both the functional andtherapeutic benefits are considered to be greaterthan those of a removable implant-borneprosthesis.

Advantages There is clearly increased stability of therestoration when compared to a removableappliance and the load is evenly distributedamongst the implant fixtures.There is no direct contact of the prosthesis to thealveolar mucosa therefore no forces aretransmitted to the crestal bone. Alveolarresorption is likely to be reduced.

Disadvantages • Phonetic, functional and aesthetic problems mayresult because of the height of the superstructurei n relation to the residual ridge.

• Oral hygiene is more difficult to maintain sincethe appliance is not removable.

Procedure 1. An impression is taken of the implant fixturesand a casting constructed to determine that thefit is good around all the implant fixtures( Fig. 243).

2. The acrylic superstructure is then processedonto this bar by conventional techniques( Figs 244 & 245).

Page 171: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 243 Try-in of duralay bar prior to superstructure being cast.

Fig. 244 Acrylic fixed superstructure.

Fig. 245 Occlusal view of fixed implant retained bridge in place.

Page 172: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Mandibular implants in a resection patient

with acrylic bridgework (IMZ)



Advantages • The prosthesis is stable and can be toleratedeven although the normal architecture of theregion may have been destroyed by the ablativesurgery.

• The fact that the patient can eat and talk asnormal after such radical surgery haspsychological as well as functional benefits.

Method • If a flap containing skin has been used to repairthe surgical site it is advisable to reduce thethickness of the tissue prior to placing thei mplant superstructure.

• A graft is placed around the necks of thei mplants with oral epithelium, as skin does notprovide a suitable gingival collar for an implant.

Procedure 1. The implants are placed using a surgical stent tol ocate the implant fixture in the ideal position.

2. The implant is left unloaded to integrate.3. Impressions are taken and the superstructure

constructed in the normal manner (Fig. 248).

Fixed bridgework that has been rigidly fixed toseveral implants (Figs 246 & 247).

This type of prosthesis is indicated in a patientwho has had a mandibular resection andreconstruction using, for example, a radial forearmflap. The construction of a conventional prosthesisor even a removable implant-borne prosthesis forsuch a patient may be unsatisfactory for manyreasons, including loss of sensation and muscletone of that region. Therefore the placement ofa fixed prosthesis in this case provides manybenefits.

Page 173: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 246 Fixed mandibular prosthesis.

Fig. 247 Occlusal view of fixed prosthesis showing screw


Fig. 248 Finished result of a complete upper denture opposed by

a fixed implant bridge.

Page 174: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

I mplants with fixed bridgework (Astral

Definition • Implants with a fixed superstructure.• The placement of several implants to provide

support for fixed bridgework (Fig. 249).

Indications • Where multiple tooth units have been lost andsufficient height and width of bone exists for theplacement of implants.

• Where sufficient interocclusal clearance ispresent to allow for subsequent implantsuperstructure placement.

Advantages • The metal superstructure can be cast in onepiece instead of multiple single units.

• The splinting of two adjacent crowns shouldprovide better load distribution.

• Linking multiple implant units resolves rotationproblems, overcome by other implant systemsby having internal coronal hexagons.

Disadvantages The occlusion of fixed implant bridgework must beadjusted so that the implant-borne crowns areadjusted to be about 0.1 mm out of occlusion toavoid overloading during maximal intercuspation.

This is still an area of much debate as is thequestion of the best method of linking implant andnatural tooth units.

Procedure 1. The implants are placed in the conventionalmanner and allowed to integrate.

2. The porcelain-bonded superstructure isconstructed and fastened onto the implantsusing screw attachments (Fig. 250).

3. The occlusion should be checked and refinedcarefully (Fig. 251).

Page 175: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Fig. 249 Two Astra implants at time of insertion.

Fig. 250 Laboratory construction of porcelain fixed superstructure.

Fig. 251 Completed bridgework in place.

Page 176: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001


Atr asrrn 1!17Acid moman 113Rtid e[tlling, 1A1Acrylic, ciDnlposire resin allay dentures 67Acrylic onley dentures, 65 Aoyllc carnaldentures Fvsny denk.: 71lingual filar: rx,nnox:lur. 75apdon dentl,fee, 731.Mfough1 bar, 75wrought I5upa. rfAdlundlv6 radlolherepy. 1RI4I,EKic [

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dar etla€h menls, 1[11, 151paw:plau,x3i nr•-n4111:11 rx:[:IL,.s,sl pill aril 5nrele1Llae Spur a, 5$613de-sent 1m Slanls. 151blea#1Ing. 2 fdone resarpilon

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ESbnjele bum. 10Elr3ne1114r lS implarll, 161

1 .16111619, 1 1 5Inlrxilunwnnln 117

.. in Ex,nucd iM:u ylurxi), 127. 177Rncherle, 129

spring can!!lever, 12104US1Sl71allrmon. 111cakisll chi urnwrn krsrk ing s, Illnnluy elarHUrex. 67

restorations contraindicated, 99, 1316uccinator muscle, 14

Caadlda a)Aicerrs Inleollon (cendldoa155. 1, I, 11Canhlrn rn Imidirr, 119Cal ir:x ued 71CELLS atlSChmenl, 105, 151Ceramic. Ilnplanls. 159Ce rvloal lymphadenopathy. 1.1Chemotherapyssqua nxoux o,ll r::usanrrria. 1Wi ps in i 'x bn3nulon4ili xix. SC13309, skrtugll 77Cleft palate, &1COLal[ cllfanium

bruxism, 91d elay dent Ures. 89 partial denlure9see I'artlai den1ure5. cobalt chrom lum

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g eld. 125milled. 135rpoi r:I ~l;rirI torridi ci. 1 21porcelain bonded milled, 135porcelain jacket, 123. 131resin-banded porcelain, 133telescopic. 1 3(C.ykrltrx ii: d1 ugs. 11

DaILei studs, 98Denial implants and bar. 147Denture bearing a r m . 31Diabetes mall ales. fLileslemes. 1inlrkNO drs1liries. 41epiirig cisrdilewrr biirlgi:. 171DieCeleu red teethsmelegerlesee im eerteCl3. 23tetra:ycll ne.2f. 131

Flasrurnrirx 13Fndudnnlirec 49Cpulik. pregrlency, 5CI r 7 3 1 o n . 113, 134Every denture, r1Latracdrenei attacnmgnts, 1Q8

Fibrosis. suirluurvus 13 ixedllixed brid3es 115f ixedlmou able brid3e. 1171-01ate detlciency, r 1 -

t 9 9 end saddle..5( Fii:rlil 1 lrnpl:ull, 159Furcrninn 1rssinns 75

Gentile reflex, 113Genial tubercles. prominent. 19Len ioglossue mu cle. 141. 31 Gi14v.11 nnaes s N]rl . 7:1Gingrnd is. xli:wbcriy. 5 Gl dcopings CiverdeilLurea 49l iac i l li:<etl bridge. 11fr lnays, 1341eholl nl rrrvrl 175

r. crown. 125Guid▪ erSu rTaee3 138

Hader bar, 1441Hader clips. 1 i12

Page 177: Fixed and Removable Pros Tho Don Tics 2001

Hemimazillectomy, 61, 64Herpes simplex infection, 11Hollow box obturators, 63Hollow glove technique, 61Hydrocolloid, reversible, 44Hydrofluoric acid, 141Hyperbaric oxygen treatment, 149Hyperplasia

cheek biting, 5denture-induced, 3

Hypodontia, 70onlay dentures, 67, 70

Hypoplastic teeth, 27

I mmediate dentures, 41, 53I mplants

Astra, 167blade-vent, 157Branemark (Cera-one abutment), 161ceramic, 159fixed, 157-168with fixed bridgework (Astra), 167mandibular with acrylic bridgework, 165maxillary with acrylic bridgework, 163maxillofacial appliances, 149neutral zone technique, 149osseointegration, 159radiotherapy, 149removable, 145-156single tooth, 157-162study attachments, 155subperiosteal, 145titanium, 157, 161Tubingen (Frialet-1), 159tumour resection, 149, 151

I mpression compound, 33I mpression materials

complete dentures, 33mucodisplacive, 33mucostatic, 33neutral zone technique, 59

I mpression plaster, 33, 37I ncisive papilla, 31I nferior alveolar nerve, 17I ntracoronal attachments, 107I ron deficiency anaemia, 7I ron-neodymium-born, 95I rritation, chronic, 3

Kennedy class IV partial dentures, 81Keratocysts, 13

Leukaemia, 11Leukoplakia, dysplastic, 1Lichen planus, 1Lingual bar, wrought, 75Lingual plate connector, 75Lingual swinglock dentures, 89Locking bolts, 93

Magnets, 95i n implants, 153

Mandibleatrophy, 17, 19deep lingual undercuts, 89

i mplants, 165pipe-stemmed, 17resection, 57severe resorption, 17, 19, 31ton, 15

Maryland bridge, 127, 129Master cast, 35Maxilla

atrophy, 17i mplants, 163resorption, 17

Maxillofacial appliancesi mplants, 149swinglock dentures, 83

4-Meta adhesives, 67Miconazole, 7Milled crowns, 135Mucostastic impression technique, 37Multirooted teeth, 25Murray/Woolland technique, 44Muscle tone, 55, 165Mylohyoid muscle, 19, 31

Necrotising vasculitis, 5Neutral zone technique

clinical application, 59denture space impression, 55i mplants, 149resection case, 57

Nystain, 7

Obturatorshollow box, 63hollow glove technique, 61

Onlay denturesacrylic/composite resin, 67acrylic surface, 65cobalt/chrome surface, 69

Oral cancerchronic irritation, 3implants, 57, 149, 151, 165incidence, 1neutral zone technique, 57treatment, 1

Overdenturescomplete upper, 49maxillary bar, 148tooth wear, 51

Palatal ton, 15Palatogingival vestige, 31Parkinson's disease, 55Partial dentures, cobalt chromium, 79 90

altered cast technique, 87anterior/palatal bar connector, 80conventional, 79Kennedy class IV, 81li ngual plate, 80li ngual swinglock, 89lower swinglock, 83palatal connector, 80rotational path of insertion, 85

Patrices, 97, 99Periodontal disease, 21Periodontal membrane, 49

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