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  • 2011 EPA Tier 4 Interim & EU Stage IIIB

    Emissions Regulations

    For Engine Power Outputs over 174 hp (130 kW)

    Frequently Asked Questions

  • Contents

    This Frequently Asked Question document is intended to help better understand the low emissions regulations commencing January 2011 which introduce clean diesel technology with exhaust after treatment to the off-highway industry.

    Information is provided on performance and operational characteristics applicable to the latest Cummins generation of QSB6.7 & QSL9 engines covering the 174 to 350 hp (130-220 kW) power range. This FAQ features the following sections

    Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB Emissions Regulations 41. What is the Tier 4 Interim and Stage IIIB emissions standard in 2011? 42. What is the Tier 4 Final and Stage IV emissions standard in 2014? 53. What are Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM)? 54. Is CO2 also a part of the Tier 4 Interim or Stage IIIB standard? 55. When will engines below 174 hp need to meet the low emissions regulations? 56. Will all equipment supplied into the affected market areas be equipped with a

    Stage IIIB / Tier 4 Interim engine from January 2011? 67. Can I export Stage IIIB / Tier 4 Interim trucks between the EU and US/Canada? 6

    Technology 68. Which technologies are available to achieve Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB emission standards? 69. How will Hyster meet the Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB emissions standards in 2011? 710. Is Cummins the right engine manufacturer for Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB? 711. Has the Particulate Filter after treatment been used before? 712. Why is the Hyster/Cummins Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB approach better than others? 813. Will Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engine performance be the same as Tier 3 / Stage IIIA? 814. How will equipment operating costs be impacted by Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB?? 815. How will Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB impact the cost of equipment? 816. Why is the SCR system less effective than cooled EGR and Particulate Filter for Tier 4 Interim /

    Stage IIIB? 917. Is SCR a technology option for Tier 4 Final / Stage IV? 9

    Systems and New Parts 10

    EGR Cooled and Variable Geometry Turbocharger 1018. How does cooled EGR reduce NOx emissions? 1019. What are the key components of the EGR System? 10 20. How does the Variable Geometry Turbocharger improve performance? 11

    Diesel Particulate Filter After Treatment 1121. How does the Diesel Particulate Filter remove PM? 1122. What is passive regeneration? 1223. What is active regeneration? 1224. What is stationary regeneration? 1225. Does the Particulate Filter get hotter than a typical muffler during active regeneration? 13

    2

  • Engine Cooling 1326. Why is cooling on demand required on Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB? 13

    Filtration Enhancements 1327. What new filtration systems are used on the Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB trucks? 1328. How is the Cummins Direct Flow air cleaner different from other air-intake filters? 1329. Can Direct Flow extend filter change intervals? 1430. How does the crankcase ventilation filter improve the engine? 14

    Electronic Enhancements 14 31. How does the Electronic Control Module (ECM) differ from Tier 3 / Stage IIIA? 1432. Does Cummins use the same electronic system for all engines? 1433. Will electronic diagnostic tools change for Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB? 15

    Service Requirements 1534. Will Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB equipment uptime remain the same as Tier 3 / Stage IIIA? 1535. What service does the Cummins Particulate Filter require? 1536. What causes ash in the Particulate Filter? 1537. How is the Diesel Particulate Filter serviced? 1538. What is the life of the Diesel Particulate Filter? 1639. Is low ash lube oil required for Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB? 16

    Fuel Requirements 1640. Is ULSD fuel legally required for Tier 4 Interim engines? 1641. Does the European Union have the same fuel requirements for Stage IIIB engines? 1642. Will ULSD be available outside of North America and the European Union? 1743. Could todays fuel be used in Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engines? 1744. What happens if higher sulphur fuel is inadvertently used? 1745. Is the engine warranty affected if ULSD is not used? 1746. Can ULSD be used in Tier 3 / Stage IIIA or other engines? 1747. When will ULSD fuel be available? 1848. Can biodiesel fuel be used with Cummins Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engines? 18

    Warranty 1849. Does Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB technology change the current warranty coverage

    on engines? 1850. What happens if Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engines are operated outside of their

    intended emissions region? 18

    Field Test Experience 1951. What Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB field test experience does Cummins / Hyster have? 1952. How are the Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB engines performing? 1953. What is the opinion of the Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB field test operators? 19

    54. Where can I find out more? 20

    3

  • STRONG PARTNERS. TOUGH TRUCKS

    2011 EPA Tier 4 Interim & EU Stage IIIB Emissions Regulations For Engine Power Outputs over 174 hp (130 kW)

    4

    Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB Emissions Regulations

    1. What is the Tier 4 Interim and Stage IIIB emissions standard in 2011? Tier 4 Interim is the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) emissions regulations for off-

    highway diesel engines in North America. Stage IIIB is the equivalent emissions regulations for

    the European Union (EU) member states. In terms of effectivity dates and emissions levels, the

    EPA and EU are closely aligned.

    The regulations commence in January 2011 across the 174 to 751 hp (130-560 kW) power

    category, requiring diesel engines to reduce PM exhaust emissions by 90% and NOx exhaust

    emissions by 45% compared with the current Tier 3 and Stage IIIA emissions standards.

    The emissions standards for this power category are: 2.0g/kW-hr Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and

    0.02 g/kW-hr Particulate Matter (PM).

    2. What is the Tier 4 Final and Stage IV emissions standard in 2014? Beginning in 2014, EPA Tier 4 Final and EU Stage IV will require another major emissions

    reduction for the industry. Off-highway diesel engines from 174 to 751 hp must reduce NOx

    emissions by a further 45% compared to the 2011 level. By 2014, both NOx and PM exhaust

    emissions will be reduced by 90% compared with current Tier 3 and Stage IIIA levels.

    The emissions

    standards for this

    power category are:

    0.4g/kW-hr Oxides

    of Nitrogen (NOx)

    and 0.02 g/kW-hr

    Particulate Matter

    (PM). These extremely

    low levels can be

    described as near

    zero emissions levels.

  • 5

    5. When will engines below 174 hp need to meet the low emissions regulations?For engines within the 75 hp to 173 hp (56 129 kW) power category, Tier 4 Interim and Stage

    IIIB regulations will commence in January 2012. The Tier 4 Final and Stage IV regulations will

    be applied in January 2015. Emissions levels are less severe for this power category at Tier 4

    Interim and Stage IIIB, enabling more simplified after treatment.

    3. What are Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM)?Oxides of Nitrogen are a regulated diesel emission which is a collection term for gaseous

    emissions composed of nitrogen and oxygen. Particulate Matter is a regulated diesel emission

    composed primarily of carbon soot and other combustion by-products.

    4. Is CO2 also a part of the Tier 4 Interim or Stage IIIB standard?No, CO2 is not regulated in the Tier 4 Interim or Stage IIIB regulations. Governments and

    national bodies can force end users to use products with lower CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions

    can only be reduced by lowering the fuel consumption.

    Many Hyster Big Trucks with Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB compliant engines will benefit from a

    reduction in fuel consumption of in the region of 15%, when compared to their predecessors,

    and will experience no change in performance.

  • STRONG PARTNERS. TOUGH TRUCKS

    2011 EPA Tier 4 Interim & EU Stage IIIB Emissions Regulations For Engine Power Outputs over 174 hp (130 kW)

    6

    Technology

    6. Will all equipment supplied into the affected market areas be equipped with a Stage IIIB/Tier 4 Interim engine from January 2011?

    No, both EU and EPA permit a certain degree of flexibility in its enforcement. Hyster can offer

    either a Stage IIIA / Tier 3 or Stage IIIB / Tier 4 Interim equivalent in 2011. However local

    environmental regulations can demand a Stage IIIB / Tier 4 Interim engine.

    7. Can I export Stage IIIB / Tier 4 Interim trucks between the EU and US/Canada?No, although the emissions requirements are the same, its not permitted to import an

    EU Stage IIIB-compliant engine to the US and vice versa. EU and EPA engines have a

    different certification.

    8. Which technologies are available to achieve Tier 4 Interim / Stage IIIB emission standards?

    There are two approaches for meeting the Tier 4 Interim emissions standard.

    A) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) introduces a urea solution known as diesel

    exhaust fluid (DEF) to neutralize nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the exhaust stream. DEF

    and the exhaust gasses are mixed in a catalytic converter which reduces the NOx to

    Nitrogen and Oxygen elements. DEF is commercially known as AdBlue in Europe and is a

    solution of 32.5% urea and purified water. The engine is optimized on low PM emission.

    B) Advanced Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) combines todays approach with

    high-pressure common

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