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Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819

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  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Gas/Liquid Separation Technology

    Sulzer Chemtech

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819




    Content Page

    Introduction 2

    Product Summary 4

    Mist Elimination 8

    KnitMesh Mist Eliminators 11

    Mellachevron 14

    Axial Cyclonic Devices 17

    Combined Systems 18

    Applications 20

    Although perhaps best known in the

    elds o mass transer, mixing and reac-

    tion technologies, Sulzer Chemtech are

    now established as a major player in the

    eld o gas/liquid and liquid/liquid sepa-

    ration technology, oering a ull range o

    innovative products and related services.

    Our commitment to development o tech-

    nology, combined with application know-

    how and exacting abrication standards,

    ensures that a well-engineered solution is

    available or most separation problems.

    A specialist technical team uses the expe-

    rience gained rom hundreds o successul

    installations in a broad spectrum o appli-

    cations to ensure that the best possible

    product is recommended or each indi-

    vidual duty.

    Our strategic alliance agreement with ShellGlobal Solutions International B.V. pro-

    vides access to state o the art separation

    technology, including the Shell SwirltubeTM

    and SchoepentoeterTM, and acquisition o

    the KnitMesh Separation Business has

    added KnitMesh Mist Eliminators and

    Coalescers as a natural extension to our

    existing product range.

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Specialists in Retro-Fit andPerormance Enhancement

    Our engineering team relishes the chal-

    lenges associated with existing installa-

    tions. Proessional advice and tailor-made

    equipment designs, ounded on decades

    o experience, can overcome a host o

    separation problems related to:

    changes in process conditions


    aging plant

    sub-optimal equipment layout



    Service and Supply

    Sulzer Chemtech oers a fexible and

    comprehensive service which can be tai-

    lored to suit your project requirements,


    process design

    feasibility studies

    detailed engineering

    equipment manufacture and supply


    0604 2500-11

    Emergency Delivery

    Sulzer Chemtech can react to the most

    challenging deadlines and can assist with

    urgent replacement or repair o separator

    internals. For emergencies, contact your

    nearest Sulzer Chemtech oce - details o

    which can be ound at www.sulzerchem-


    I installation services are required, our

    technicians are available on your worksite

    to make sure your equipment meets spec-

    ications and your project goes smoothly

    rom start to nish. A Sulzer Chemtechtechnician inspects your equipment be-

    ore it leaves our plant. At your worksite,

    you can count on our technicians, who

    are specialists in separation and mass

    transer systems, to monitor each phase

    o your installation to ensure you are up

    and running on time.

    Research and Development

    We recognize that investment in research

    and development is an essential com-

    ponent or long term success. We have

    laboratories where separation internalsand design techniques can be tested and

    developed in ully instrumented pilot scale


    Increasingly, computer models are being

    used to aid the design o new products.

    Sulzer uses computational fuid dynamics

    (CFD) models to simulate product per-

    ormance. This work not only eliminates

    the requirement or expensive prototypes

    to be constructed, but provides a much

    greater understanding o the productsoperation in advance o any laboratory or

    operational trials. CFD simulations have

    also been used to great eect in solving

    fow distribution problems in a variety o


    0607 2503-15

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Type o Separator


    Mist Eliminator

    KnitMesh VKR

    Mist EliminatorTM


    Mist Eliminator

    Shell SwirltubeTM

    Shell Swirltube LightTM


    Stainless steels

    Alloy C22, C276, 400, 625,

    825 and 20,



    Glass bers

    Stainless steels

    Alloy C22, C276, 400, 625,

    825 and 20,



    Glass bers

    Stainless steels

    Alloy C22, C276, 400, 625,

    825 and 20,


    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825

    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825


    Broad range o gas/ liquid separation


    Scrubbing systems and absorbers


    Steam drums

    Knock-out pots

    Glycol dehydration

    Inert gas scrubbers

    MSF/MED desalination

    Suluric acid absorbers and dryers.

    Broad range o gas/ liquid separation


    Scrubbing systems and absorbers


    Steam drums

    Knock-out pots

    Glycol dehydrationInert gas scrubbers

    MSF/MED desalination

    Suluric acid absorbers and dryers.

    Broad range o gas/ liquid separation


    Scrubbing systems and absorbers


    Steam drums

    Knock-out pots

    Glycol dehydration

    Inert gas scrubbers

    MSF/MED desalination

    Sulur condenser

    Gas processing applications; inlet sepa-

    rators, turbo-expander suction drums,

    dew-point separators, compressor

    suction drums, glycol dehydration.

    Gas processing applications; inlet sepa-

    rators, turbo-expander suction drums,

    compressor suction drums. Scrubbing

    systems and Absorbers, Glycol dehydra-

    tion, PEB neutralization column.

    Product Summary


    0607 2507-12

    0607 2512-1

    0607 2504-10

    0607 2505-12

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Typical operational Range

    Relatively low capacity with K-values

    typically up to 0.107 m/s (0.35 t/s).

    High eciency separation down to droplet

    sizes o 2 to 3 m.

    Pressure drop typically less than 2.5mbar.

    Designs available or installation in either

    horizontal or vertical gas fow.

    Enhanced capacity with K-values typically

    up to 0.15 m/s (0.49 t/s).

    Limited to horizontal installation with verti-

    cal gas fow.

    High eciency separation down to droplet

    sizes o 2 to 3 m.

    Pressure drop typically less than 2.5 mbarVery eective or heavy liquid loadings/

    irrigated systems.

    High capacity systems available with

    K-values up to 0.45 m/s (1.47 t/s) at the

    vane ace inlet.

    Eective droplet separation down to ~20 m.

    Eciency can be enhanced by combina-

    tion with wire mesh pre-conditioners.

    Generally or use at:

    - surace tension > 10 dynes/cm.

    - operating pressure < 60 bar in hydrocar-

    bon systems.

    Pressure drop is typically in the range 1 to

    10 mbar.

    Designs available or installation in either

    horizontal or vertical gas fow.

    High capacity systems with K-values up to

    typically 0.25 m/s (0.82 t/s) in the vessel.

    Eective droplet separation down to

    ~10 m.

    Eciency can be enhanced by combina-

    tion with wire mesh pre-conditioners.

    Pressure drop is typically in region o

    30 mbar.

    High capacity systems with K-values up to

    typically 0.25 m/s (0.82 t/s) in the vessel.

    The Shell Swirltube Light is suitable or

    higher operating pressures,

    oers higher capacities than vane packs

    installed or vertical gas fow and is there-

    ore a useul complement to our Mel-

    lachevron mist eliminators.


    Manuactured as a knitted wire mesh packing.

    Can be easily tailor-made to suit most vessel shapes

    and sizes.

    Cost eective and versatile solution or most mist elimi-

    nation applications.

    Manuactured as a knitted wire mesh packing. Support

    grids tted with special VKR drainage channels to en-

    hance drainage characteristics.

    Can be easily tailor-made to suit most vessel shapes

    and sizes.

    Cost eective and versatile solution or most mist elimi-

    nation applications.

    Constructed rom banks o parallel corrugated, chevron


    High capacity designs provide compact separators

    - ideal or gas processing applications.

    Lower capacity designs available or ouling

    service and heavy liquid loadings.

    High perormance Swirltubes (HPST) arrayed in boxes

    or banks provide compact separators designed as Shell

    SMS, SVS, SMSM and SMMSM units, and are ideal or

    gas processing at all pressures.

    Suitable or use in ouling or waxy services.

    Array o axial cyclones originated rom the

    Shell ConSepTM Swirltube design. The device can be

    combined with a Sulzer Mellachevron or KnitMesh pre-

    conditioner. The separation eciency o the Shell Swirl-

    tube Light is lower than the Shell Swirltube and is in the

    range o vane packs.


    Product Summary

    0608 2502-6

    0604 2512

    0607 2504-18

    0607 2512-3

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Type o Separator

    MKS Multi CassetteTM

    Mist Eliminator



    Inlet Device



    GIRZ Cyclone

    Gas Inlet Device


    Vapor Horn


    Inlet Device



    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825

    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825

    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825

    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825

    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825

    Stainless steels,

    Alloy 625, 825


    Gas processing applications; inlet separa-

    tors, turbo-expander suction drums, com-

    pressor suction drums, glycol dehydration.

    Most commonly used vane type inlet de-

    vice or introducing gas/liquid mixtures into

    a vessel or column. The spectrum o appli-

    cations cover many o services and


    The Sulzer Treelnlet is an axial fow vane

    gas inlet device or vertical eed nozzles.

    Ideal or bulk liquid disengagement in a

    wide range o services and applications.

    The cyclone gas inlet device GIRZ is used

    or systems with very high vapor velocity in

    the eed pipe o up to F-Factor 240 Pa

    The Sulzer Vapor Horn GITV as well as the

    new Sulzer VantaTM inlet device GITD are

    primarily used in ractionators where fash-

    ing eeds require high pre-separation oany ree liquids.


    Product Summary

    0604 2507-4

    0600 2505-3

    0607 2505-13

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Typical operational Range

    Ideal or use in glycol contactors operated

    with high capacity structured packing

    MellapakPlus. Meets the glycol loss re-

    quirement o 0.1 USgal/MMSCF

    (~ 14 lt./MMNm3) or less.

    Generally designed at dynamic pressure

    o < 8000 Pa, but can perorm well at

    higher values.

    Suitable or installation in horizontal inlets

    on vertical separators.

    Can be tted to horizontal three phase


    The Treelnlet provides a superior liquid

    pre-separation and gas distribution and

    is normally eective up to dynamic pres-

    sures o about 10000 Pa.

    In the cyclone the gas/liquid mixture is

    orced to rotate and the liquid droplets

    are separated centriugally and collected

    on the inner wall o the cyclone. Mixing

    elements on top o the cyclone outlet

    section provide a proper distribution o

    the cleaned gas to downstream devices.

    The device has a high pressure drop as-

    sociated with it.

    The tangential vane gas inlet device GITV

    and GITD can be used or very high vapor

    velocities in the eed pipe o F-Factors

    up to 120 Pa. The eed fows radiallyaround the vessel projecting and collect-

    ing the liquid droplets on the inner wall o

    the vessel.


    The patented MKS Multi Cassette device combines axial

    cyclonic and cross fow separation technology to create

    an ecient and attractive mist eliminator. One or more

    MKS Multi Cassette candles are assembled on a supportplate acting as liquid collector with draining device.

    Constructed rom banks o swept vanes. Designs avail-

    able or operation in most gas/liquid fow regimes.

    Suitable or liquid slugs.

    By installing a Treelnlet and a high eciency KnitMesh mist

    eliminator, liquid carryover losses are reduced to virtually


    The GIRZ cyclone inlet device was successully installed in

    the scrubbing section o several glycol contactors.

    The gas distribution is perormed by bafes according to

    a vane gas inlet device. The device is suitable or vessel

    inner diameters larger than 4 m.

    The new Sulzer VantaTM inlet device combines high liquid

    separation eciency with high gas distribution quality.


    Product Summary

    Flash zone

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Liquid entrainment in a process gas stream

    can be ormed by either dynamic process-

    es, such as contact between gas and liq-

    uid phases in a mass transer operation,

    or thermal processes such as condensa-

    tion. For example, droplets can result rom

    bubbles bursting or jetting at a gas/liquid

    interace - typically in distillation columns,

    evaporators, bubble columns and fooded

    packed bed scrubbers. Where there is

    a high relative velocity between gas and

    liquid, droplets can be sheared rom the

    wet suraces. This type o problem is likely

    to occur in venturi scrubbers, two-phase

    fow in pipes and packings.

    Droplets can also be ormed by thermody-

    namic changes in a system. For example,

    vapor condenses when saturated gases

    are cooled in condensers and heat ex-

    changers and, although most o the liquid

    will remain on the heat transer suraces,

    the gas can become supersaturated in

    places causing droplet ormation. This

    type o condensation mist can occur dur-

    ing heat exchange processes, the sudden

    release o pressure or by mixing hot and

    cold gas streams. Similar mists can result

    rom gas phase reactions which yield a liq-

    uid product. Typical applications suering

    rom mist contamination include suluric,

    phosphoric and nitric acid plants.

    I the gas is travelling too ast to allow the

    liquid droplets to settle out under gravity,

    they become suspended (or entrained) in

    the gas or vapor. In most cases, the en-

    trainment must be removed to puriy the

    gas and prevent potential process or envi-

    ronmental contamination.

    Mist Elimination

    RainDrop Drizzle Mist Fog

    Entrainmentrom water

    cooling & spraycooling towers

    Spray produced by bubblebursting at a liquid vapor interace

    Entrainment rom evaporators,distillation & absorption

    Condensate Condensate romrom intercoolers on

    gas coolers compression plant

    Condensate rom highpressure compression plant

    Knock out drums & collectors tted mesh mist eliminators

    Knitted mesh mist eliminators

    Vane mist eliminators

    Cyclonic devices

    Bafes, Fiber bedlouver separators mist eliminators

    500 200 100 50 20 10 5 2 1 0.5Droplet diameter (microns)


    Types andoperatingrange oequipment

    Sulzer mist eliminators provide an eective

    solution to liquid entrainment problems in

    many types o equipment including:

    scrubbing, absorption, stripping or distil-

    lation columns


    falling lm condensers

    knock-out vessels

    3 phase separators

    desalination plants

    refrigeration plants

    gas dehydration plants

    compression systems

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Assuming that gravity separation can be disregarded as an eective option, the remain-

    ing mechanisms provide the design basis or Sulzer mist elimination equipment:

    Sulzer MellachevronTM inertial interception

    Shell SwirltubeTM inertial interception

    Sulzer KnitMeshTM inertial/direct interception

    Sulzer MKS Multi CassetteTM inertial/direct interception

    Mist Elimination

    Each mechanism is critically dependent

    on the droplet size distribution or a given

    application. For example, in gas drying ap-

    plications using glycol contactors, droplet

    size distributions are oten in the range o

    5-25 m and high separation eciency is

    critical. In these circumstances, direct and

    inertial interception are the most appropri-

    ate mechanisms and separation is best

    achieved by impingement o droplets on

    the wires and bers o high perormance

    mesh mist eliminators.

    Diusional deposition is an important

    mechanism in the design o ber bed mist

    eliminators (candle lters) used or removal

    o sub-micron droplet dispersions ound in

    applications such as acid mists.

    Droplets Inertial interception


    Direct interceptionFlow streamlines


    0607 2510 11

    Several types o mist eliminators are avail-

    able or the separation o entrained liquid.

    To choose the appropriate equipment, the

    our basic mechanisms o droplet capture

    should be considered.

    Diffusional Deposition is only effective inthe separation o very nely dispersed

    aerosols with droplets typically smaller

    than 1m - that are small enough to be

    aected by Brownian Motion.

    Direct Interception assumes that a drop-

    let o a given diameter and negligible

    mass ollows the stream line around the

    target wire or ber and is separated as it

    touches the target or collection ber.

    Inertial Interception considers the droplet

    mass and predicts how momentum will

    make it deviate rom the gas stream.

    Gravitational Deposition works on the

    principle that large, slow moving droplets

    may separate rom a gas stream under

    gravity. This is restricted to large droplet

    sizes and low supercial gas velocities

    making separator dimensions both pro-

    hibitively large and uneconomical.

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Table A: Summary o relative perormance characteristics or mist elimination

    Design Advice

    Comprehensive perormance inormation

    is available on a wide range o standard

    designs, enabling Sulzer engineering sta

    to tailor the mist eliminator design to suit

    most applications.

    For best perormance, it is important to

    achieve uniorm gas fow distribution andmaximum eective area, and recommen-

    dation can be given on the most appropri-

    ate positioning, in terms o disengagement

    distances rom vessel inlet, outlet and oth-

    er vessel internals.


    For equipment based on direct and/or

    inertial interception, gas stream veloc-

    ity aects all three principles involved in

    separation (impingement, coalescence

    and drainage). Flooding, or re-entrainment

    o liquid, can occur i the fow o gas pre-vents drainage, and the eective area o

    the mist eliminator is thereore established

    by determining an appropriate supercial

    velocity or the equipment. The overall

    perormance o the mist eliminator is then

    a balance between eciency and pres-

    sure drop.

    v = maximum supercial gas



    = liquid density


    = gas density

    K = a constant which is specic to

    the separation equipment and

    is a unction o process

    parameters such as:

    Liquid loading

    Gas and liquid viscosity

    Gas pressure

    Surface tension

    rl- r



    Equipment Type K-Value

    m/s t/s

    Gravity 0.07 0.23

    Sulzer Mellachevron

    simple proles 0.13 0.17 0.42 0.56

    Sulzer Mellachevron

    high capacity proles with drainage channels 0.15 0.45 0.49 1.46

    Sulzer KnitMesh

    Mist Eliminator 0.08 0.107 0.26 0.35

    Sulzer KnitMesh VKR

    Mist Eliminator 0.08 0.15 0.26 0.49

    Shell SMS, SMSM 0.25 0.82

    Derating actors are oten applied to allow

    a saety margin or exceptional conditions

    such as liquid slugs and gas surges, and

    the K-value can be optimized to suit spe-

    cic process conditions, and challenging

    physical properties such as low surace

    tension systems. The selection o K-value

    is thereore critical and we recommend

    that designs should be checked by ourengineering team.

    Gravity Bafes/louvers Vane packs Vane packs Axial Knitted Candles/separators/ simple vanes with drainage Cyclone mesh mist ber bedsknockout drums channels separators eliminators

    Separation Gravitational Inertial Inertial Inertial Inertial Inertial/direct Direct interception/mechanism deposition interception interception interception interception interception diusional deposition

    Gas handling Low High High High Very high Moderate Lowcapacity

    Turndown Very high 30 % 30 %-50 % 30 %-50 % 30 % 25 % Very highcapacity Higher with


    Eciency Low except Low except High down to High down to High down to Very high Very high ator large or large approx. 25 m approx. 25 m approx. 10 m down to 3-5 m sub-microndroplet sizes droplet sizes droplet sizes

    Liquid load Very high Very high Moderate High High Moderate Lowcapacity

    Solids handling Very high Very high Moderate Low Moderate-high Low Very lowcapability

    Liquid viscosity Suitable or Suitable or Suitable or high Prone to ouling Suitable or high Prone to ouling Unsuitable or high

    high viscosity high viscosity viscosities/waxes with high liquid viscosities/waxes with high liquid liquid viscositiesviscosities/waxes viscosities/waxes

    Pressure drop Very low Very low Low Low Moderate Low High

    Mist Elimination

    v = K

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Sulzer KnitMeshTM

    Wire Mesh Mist Eliminators

    Sulzer KnitMesh mist eliminators have an

    excellent track record as a low cost, highly

    versatile and ecient method o removing

    liquid entrainment rom gas streams. They

    are produced as a bed o knitted mesh

    which presents a tortuous path and large

    surace area to the droplets entrained in

    the gas stream. Separation is achieved

    by impingement on, and capture by, the

    laments o the mesh where the droplets

    coalesce and drain.

    Installation can be made in a variety o

    ways but gas fow is usually either vertically

    upwards, with the liquid draining counter-

    current to gas fow, or horizontal, with the

    liquid draining in a direction perpendicular

    to the gas fow. Each mist eliminator is tailor-made to suitthe dimensions o the vessel or housing

    into which it will be installed. Most Knit-

    Mesh wire mesh mist eliminators are sup-

    plied complete with rigid support grids,

    which allow direct installation onto appro-

    priate supports such as beams and rings

    within the vessel. Sectional installation al-

    lows ease o handling and access through

    vessel manways.

    Accessories such as tie wire, bolting,

    clamps and support beams can be sup-

    plied where necessary.

    KnitMesh Mist Eliminators

    Metal Designs

    Material Type Free Density Specic Surace Area Application

    number volume (lb/t3) (kg/m3) (t2/t3) (m2/m3)

    Metal 9001 97.5% 12 192 196 643 Very high eciency, very clean service

    9033 97.5% 12 192 110 350 Heavy duty

    9032 97.75% 10.5 170 93 305 For general use

    9030 98% 9 144 79 258 Standard general purpose media

    9030-L2 98% 9 144 147 482 High eciency or ne entrainment

    9059 98.5% 7 107 109 358 Fine entrainment

    9036 98.75% 6 96 52 172 High velocity, dirty service

    4530 98.75% 6 96 52 172 High velocity, clean service

    4540 99% 5 80 44 145 Minimum pressure drop, dirty service

    Plastic and Other Materials

    Glass Wool 9036 93% 12 195 450 1500 Coalescer-very ne mists

    9048 95% 8.25 135 300 1000 Coalescer ne mists

    Polypropylene 9008 95% 2.75 45.5 320 1050 High perormance-acid mists

    9030 93% 4.5 74 250 820 Acid mists and marine engine intakes with

    9036 95% 2.75 44.5 150 495 minimum pressure drop

    9048 97% 2 41 110 360

    Multilament 9033 94% 19 305 340 1115 Fine mist conditions where stainless steel

    (glass wool/ 9030 95% 13.5 215 250 820 can be allowed and minimum pressure drop

    stainless steel) 9036 96% 9 145 160 525 is important

    FEP 9048 94% 8 128 250 820 Highly corrosive conditions

    ETFE 9048 95% 5.25 85 220 725 Highly corrosive conditions

    Table B: Standard Sulzer KnitMesh Mist Eliminator Types

    Standard designs are available or routine

    applications, providing excellent separa-

    tion eciency down to droplet sizes as

    small as 2 m, and with a pressure drop

    typically less than 2.5mbar. A selection o

    standard styles is described in Table B. Al-

    ternatively, we can provide optimized de-

    signs to suit specic duties using sophisti-

    cated design tools.

    Gas outlet

    Gas inlet

    Liquid outlet

    Sulzer KnitMeshmist eliminator


    Gas inlet

    Liquid outlet

    Sulzer KnitMeshmist eliminator

    Gas outlet

    Liquid drains perpendicularto direction o gas fow

    Liquid drains counter-current to gas fow

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Sulzer KnitMesh

    VKR Mist EliminatorTM

    The patented Sulzer KnitMesh VKR Mist

    Eliminators provide high perormancewherever liquid entrainment must be

    removed rom a vertically fowing gas

    stream. Mist eliminators with Sulzer Knit-

    Mesh VKR technology employ the mecha-

    nism o a Von Karman Roll (VKR) around

    a blu body (See Figure 1a) to obtain

    high vapor and liquid handling capacity.

    A vortex develops in a low pressure zone

    downstream o the channel that has been

    attached to the bottom o the mesh pad.

    Collected droplets deposit in the trough

    and orm a fowing liquid stream there.

    Contrast this with the standard mesh pad

    (See Figure 1b) where a two phase fuid-ized zone o gas and liquid develops in

    the bottom third to hal o the pad and

    rom which large coalesced droplets must

    ultimately drain counter-current to the as-

    cending stream. The high capacity chan-

    nels o the VKR Mist Eliminators shield the

    collected liquid and then drain it in steady

    streams rom two sides o the mist elimi-

    nator at the column wall, where gas veloc-

    ity is so low that re-entrainment is limited

    (See Figure 2).

    This simple enhancement to a standard

    mesh pad improves mist elimination be-

    cause the higher velocities increase the

    droplets inertial impaction with the wires

    or laments. Meanwhile, the strategically

    placed collecting channels provide higher

    operational gas and liquid fow capacity.

    0607 2512 -2

    KnitMesh Mist Eliminators

    0607 2512-9 0607 2512-10

    Fig. 1a Fig. 1b

    Fig. 2



    Conventional Pad VKR Enhanced Pad

    Liquid load: 1.1 m3/m2 hr








    2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

    Velocity (m/s)


    8.2 10 12 14 16.4

    Velocity (t/s)

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    High Perormance

    Sulzer KnitMeshTM

    9797 Mist Eliminators

    The Sulzer KnitMesh 9797 Mist Eliminator

    technology provides a means o optimiz-

    ing designs to meet the challenges o spe-

    cic applications.

    Unlike industry standard mist eliminator

    design methods, which predict peror-

    mance using bulk density and lament

    diameter o the separation media, the

    9797 modeling techniques consider the

    characteristics o individual mesh layers

    as a mathematical model so that the entire

    process within the separator (capture, co-

    alescence and drainage) can be predicted

    on a layer by layer basis. This enables Sul-

    zer to produce unique structures where

    the ree volume and mesh ree area can

    be varied through the depth o the pad,

    giving the best balance o mist eliminator

    KnitMesh Mist Eliminators

    Liquid drains


    adjacent pore






    Fig. 3: The stages o droplet separation on a

    wire mesh.

    An extensive range o mesh styles have

    been analyzed or a variety o process

    systems ranging rom air/water to more

    challenging hydrocarbon conditions. The

    perormance o the mist eliminator is es-

    tablished by calculating the cumulative

    eect o combined mesh layers and theircharacteristics. The model allows a high

    degree o optimization so that layer speci-

    cations can be varied to meet specic

    process challenges. For example, high

    ree volume/low liquid hold-up may be an

    important eature o the inlet region o the

    mist eliminator with a gradual increase in

    separation eciency towards the outlet.

    Existing applications or Sulzer KnitMesh

    9797 Mist Eliminators include:

    glycol contactors minimization of

    TEG entrainment rom natural gas dehy-

    dration columns (see p 20).

    gas sweetening installation in amineabsorbers.

    dew-point separators 9797 designs

    have helped reduce water and hydro-

    carbon dew-points in natural gas pro-

    cessing (see p 22).

    rotary screw compressors reduc-

    tion o entrainment o synthetic oil rom

    compressor system knock-out drums.

    steam drums guaranteed steam dry-

    ness can be achieved using Sulzer Knit-

    Mesh 9797 mist eliminators.

    Fig. 4 represents a bed with N layers o


    By assuming that:


    is the volume o droplets entering

    Layer 1


    is the volume o droplets leaving

    layer N


    is the individual layer eciency,

    then the overall eciency o the mist elimi-

    nator can be expressed as:

    i = N


    = V0

    (1 Ei)

    i = 1



    i = N

    i = n+1

    i = n

    i = n-1

    i = 2

    i = 1

    Fig. 4

    characteristics, such as liquid hold-up and

    eciency, rom inlet to outlet. Additionally,

    separation eciency can be predicted in

    terms o liquid entrainment concentra-

    tion providing meaningul, measurable

    inormation on separator perormance; a

    considerable improvement on droplet size

    eciency predictions which are extremely

    dicult to veriy in practice.

    Fig. 3 illustrates one layer o mesh within

    the mist eliminator and stages o sepa-

    ration considered by the perormance


    D1 avoids capture and moves in to the

    next layer o mesh.

    D2 is captured by the mesh.

    D3 and D4 coalesce to form a bigger

    droplet or lm. D5 drains from the mesh surface.

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Sulzer MellachevronTM

    Mist Eliminators

    Sulzer Mellachevron vane mist eliminators

    are high capacity inertial separators con-

    structed as banks o parallel, chevron pro-

    les which cause the gas to change direc-

    tion several times rom inlet to outlet. Mo-

    mentum orces entrained liquid droplets to

    impinge on the vane suraces where they

    orm a liquid lm and drain.

    The Sulzer Mellachevron range is divided

    into a number o categories depending on

    direction o gas fow and the complexity o

    the vane prole.

    Simple Sulzer Mellachevron proles sepa-

    rate liquid by impingement, coalescence

    and drainage on the vane surace with no

    disengagement o the liquid rom the gasstream. They are particularly suitable or

    applications with a signicant risk o oul-

    ing due to solid particles or high viscosity

    liquids in the eed but have relatively low

    gas handling capacity.


    Simple Mellachevron proles are ideal or installation in vacuum distillation columns where low pres-

    sure drop is o advantage.

    Simple Mellachevron prole with countercurrent

    drainage o liquid rom vane surace.

    More sophisticated designs provide spe-cial separation channels to allow disen-

    gagement o liquid and drainage rom the

    vane surace. This increases the capacity

    o the separator and gas load actors o

    up to 0.45 m/s are possible. This makes

    them an excellent choice when equipment

    size is critical, or example, in oshore ap-

    plications or or de-bottlenecking existing


    Complex Mellachevron proles requirehousings which ensure that the vanes are

    assembled accurately and provide a liquid

    sump or drainage o liquid into the vessel

    or column.

    Drainage slots on vane

    surace allow liquid to

    disengage rom gas stream

    Liquid drains in special

    channels separated rom

    the gas fow

    Liquid collects at bottom o

    drainage channels and moves

    laterally to Mellachevron hous-

    ing where it is collected in a

    sump and drained through

    downcomer pipes

    Liquid drain channelintegrated in beam

    Liquid drainchannelintegrated invane housing

    Removable spacer channel toallow installation o the vanes

    Jacking bolts


  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Mellachevron designs are available or in-

    stallation in either vertical or horizontal gas

    fow. When gas fow is horizontal, the liq-

    uid lm on the surace o the vane drains

    vertically downwards into a liquid sump.

    Complex Mellachevron proles are used

    with hooks or drainage channels which

    help to disengage the liquid rom the gas

    stream and prevent re-entrainment rom

    the downstream ace.


    Typical housing arrangement or cross-fow

    Mellachevron. Sectional installation allows

    installation and removal through manway

    and vane proles can be dismantled indi-

    vidually or cleaning i necessary.

    Liquid is collected in the sump and drainedthrough the downcomer pipe connection.

    Horizontal gas fow arrangement.

    0608 2502-6

    Table C: Sulzer Mellachevron Mist Eliminator Styles

    Mellachevron Mellachevron

    simple vanes Complex profles with drainage channels

    Type C prole Z - prole C or Z - prole with Complex prole - inte- Z-prole with Z-prole with

    large vane spacing gral drainage channel drainage hooks large vane spacing


    Flow Direction Vertical Vertical Vertical Vertical or horizontal Horizontal Horizontal

    Installation No housing No housing No housing Housing and drainage Housing and drainage Housing and drainage

    system required. system required. system required.

    Gas handling 0.17 m/s 0.14 m/s 0.14 0.17 m/s 0.17 0.45 m/s 0.30 m/s 0.30 m/s



    Turndown 30 - 50 % 30 - 50 % 30 - 50 % 30 - 50 % 30 - 50 % 30 - 50 %


    Eciency Medium Medium High Low Medium High Medium Low Medium

    down to down to down to down to down to down to

    30 40 25 30 50 10 15 25 30 35 40

    Liquid load Moderate Moderate High Moderate to High High Very High


    Solids handling Moderate to High Moderate High Low Low Low to Moderate


    Liquid viscosity Suitable or high Suitable or high Very suitable or high Prone to ouling with Prone to ouling with Suitable or high

    viscosities/waxes viscosities/waxes viscosities/waxes high viscosities/waxes viscosities/waxes viscosities/waxes

    Typical Vacuum, general Desalination, general As or C and Z Debottlenecking, o- Horizontal scrubbers As or C and Z proles

    applications use, ouling service use, ouling service proles but high shore, clean services, but high ouling / low

    ouling / low gas & steam processing pressure drop services

    pressure drop


    Pressure drop Very low Low Very low Moderate Low Low

    Liquid drains down vane surace to a sump.


  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Sulzer Mellachevrons can be installed

    in a variety o vessel congurations and

    as arrangement o multiple vane boxes

    to provide optimum fow and drainage

    characteristics within the space available.

    Typical box and vessel arrangements are

    illustrated below in Fig. 5a and 5b.


    Sulzer Mellachevron cross fow high ca-

    pacity vane pack or installation in a dis-

    charge drum o an ethylene plant.

    The customer choose Sulzer Chemtech or

    a solution which will increase the capacity

    o the installed vane pack in the separator.

    Fig. 5b

    1. Vertical Flow

    2. Cross fow Horizontal vessel

    3. Cross fow Two-stage separator

    4. V-bank

    5. Cross fow In-line separator

    Fig. 5a

    Double Box

    with KnitMesh Pre-conditioner

    Four Box V-bank

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Shell SwirltubeTM

    The Shell Swirltube is, in essence, a stain-

    less steel tube with a swirler at the inlet

    and longitudinal slits in the tube wall. Liq-

    uid is separated by impaction o droplets

    and on the tube wall by the centriugalorces induced by the swirling gas fow.

    Re-entrainment o this liquid is prevented

    by draining the lm via the slits to the liquid

    collection chamber outside the tube. To

    ensure the proper unctioning o the Swirl-

    tube it is essential that some gas is also

    bled through these slits. This gas leaves

    the liquid collection chamber via the sec-

    ondary outlets at the top o the Swirldeck

    assembly. Perormance can be improved

    by using a secondary KnitMesh mist elimi-

    nator to separate entrainment rom the

    gas leaving the secondary outlets. Themain raction o the gas leaves the Swirl-

    tube via the primary gas outlet at the top.

    Drain pipes guide the liquid, collected in

    the space between the tubes and on the

    upper cover o the Swirldeck, to below the

    liquid level.

    Scaling-up o a separator equipped with a

    Swirldeck is done simply by increasing the

    number o Swirltubes proportional to the

    gas fow in the separator.

    Axial Cyclonic Devices

    Shell Swirltube LightTM

    The Shell Swirltube Light is available as

    an attractive alternative to vane packs or

    high capacity bulk separation. The Swirl-

    tube Light is based on the sophisticated

    de-entrainment device used in the Shell

    ConSepTM Tray.

    Recommended use:

    comparable efciency but higher capac-

    ity compared to vane packs.

    operation possible at higher pressures/

    lower surace tensions than vane packs.

    compact design makes it suitable for

    oshore industry or in general or high

    pressure conditions.

    for debottlenecking of existing separa-


    for high turndowns with pre-conditioner.

    (up to actor 10).

    application for slightly fouling service

    and may be used where complex vanes

    or wire mesh mist eliminators may be-

    come plugged.

    Swirldeck Swirldeck with secondary KnitMesh

    Sec. gas



  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Combined Systems

    Increasing gas capacities and higher per-

    ormance requirements in mass transer

    equipment are challenging the capabilities

    o conventional mist eliminator equipment.

    To solve this, Sulzer Chemtech oers com-

    bined systems which optimize the benets

    o individual types o equipment and im-

    prove overall perormance.

    For example, KnitMesh mist eliminators

    can be used in combination with Sul-

    zer Mellachevron vane packs or Shell

    High Capacity Separators with Sulzer Mellachevrons

    Combined Systems

    Swirltubes to produce very high separa-

    tion eciencies at high gas loadings. By

    using the KnitMesh mist eliminator as a

    pre-conditioner or the Mellachevron, it is

    operated above its normal re-entrainment

    or fooding point and consequently liquid

    is stripped away rom the downstream


    The liquid dispersion re-entrained rom the

    mesh mist eliminator has a larger mean

    diameter (See Figure 6) and is suitable

    or subsequent separation by secondary,

    high capacity equipment.

    By analysis o the inlet fuid conditions,

    Sulzer Chemtech can design optimized

    mesh structures to provide the best pos-

    sible outlet conditions or the downstream


    Additional benets o combined systemsinclude:

    The ability to design the equipment to

    provide very high turndown capabilities

    At low gas velocities, where high capac-

    ity separators tend to be ineective, the

    mesh pre-conditioners behave as con-

    ventional mist eliminators

    Gas with fne mist

    KnitMesh as primary

    preconditioner oper-

    ates beyond fooding


    Coalesced large

    droplets ed to sec-

    ondary Mellachevron

    mist eliminator

    Mist ree gas

    Coalesced large

    droplets e-

    ciently removed

    by Mellachevron

    Separated liquid


    Provisional gap,

    i required

    0 10 20 30 40 50

    Drop size (m)


    Vertical flow Separator In-line Separator Two-stage Separator




    High capacitypackingMellapakPlus

    Gas outlet


    mist eliminator

    Liquid sump

    Gas inlet



    Liquid outlet

    Gas outlet


    mist eliminator


    Liquid sump

    Liquid outlet



    Fig. 6

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    0604 2508-8

    Combined Systems

    Shell High Capacity Separators

    Shell proprietary high-capacity gas/liquid

    separators, such as Shell SMS, SVS,

    SMSM and SMMSM separators,

    combine the best eatures o the sepa-

    ration products rom Sulzer Chemtechsportolio. Shell gas/liquid separators com-

    bine Swirldeck, KnitMesh, and Schoepen-

    toeter separation technologies in a single

    vertical vessel drum. Selection o separa-

    tion technologies is unction o the dis-

    persed liquid phase concentration, droplet

    size and the required separation eciency.

    Their typical application window is or sep-

    aration o liquid/gas or three-phase liquid/

    liquid/gas mixtures, when a high capacity

    and high separation eciency is required,

    SMS(M) Technology is the lowest weight

    and volume solution or phase separationoshore and onshore. It gives up to 2.5

    times more capacity compared to a con-

    ventional KnitMesh mist eliminator without

    vessel replacement.


    Shell SMS, SMSM and SMMSM gas/liquid separators are named ater the conguration

    o the dierent internals used or each type o separator:

    Schoepentoeter (S) - used as feed inlet device for vapor distribution with bulk liquidremoval

    KnitMesh (M) - which acts as coalescer and separator, depending on the gas ow


    Double Primary KnitMesh (MM) - specially developed for applications with two immisci-

    ble liquid phases in the eed to the separators (such as glycol/condensate in Dew-Point


    Swirldeck (S) - comprising multiple Swirltubes

    A second KnitMesh (M) is used downstream o the Swirldeck in SMSM gas/liquid separa-

    tors or demisting secondary gas.

    In ouling or waxy service the KnitMesh can be replaced by a Sulzer Mellachevron vane

    pack (SVS systems).




    850 0.1 0.2 0.3

    Gas load actor, m/s




    Gas load actor, t/s

    0 0.33 0.66 0.99



    Vane pack








    2nd Primary KnitMesh

    1st Primary KnitMesh



  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819




    Using Sulzers sophisticated KnitMesh 9797 Tech-

    nology in Glycol Contactors

    The rst application or Sulzer KnitMesh 9797 mist eliminators

    was or installation on an oshore platorm in the North Sea. The

    requirement was to control and reduce the glycol entrainment

    (as liquid drops) in the gas prior to compression and export. In

    o-shore acilities the implications o entrainment rom the dehy-

    dration columns are not only on the value o the glycol lost (and

    re-supply rom shore), but also the consequences o admitting the

    excess glycol into the gas export pipeline. Not withstanding possi-ble operational problems or the pipeline, the increased separation

    load at the shore terminal to separate gas condensate and glycol,

    and disposal o the glycol phase, are signicant costs. The indus-

    try standard gure dening the maximum entrainment o 0.1US

    gallons per MMSCF gas was thereore challenged and had to be

    improved upon. The mist eliminator supplied with this application

    was shown to signicantly reduce the ree glycol loss in the exit to

    < 0.05 US gallons per MMSCF gas, a gure veried ater measure-

    ment o total glycol loss rom the dehydration unit.

    Old FashionedBubble Cap trays

    and KnitMesh

    mist eliminators

    State o the ArtMellapak and KnitMesh

    mist eliminators

    incl. the sophisticated

    KnitMesh 9797 type

    High CapacityMellapakPlus and our high

    capacity mist eliminators such

    as MKS Multi Cassette,

    Mellachevron, Shell SMS

    or Swirltube Light

    The UltimateShell Swirl Tube Trays

    and Shell SMS

    (see also the Brochure Trays or

    any Applications)

    Natural Gas Dehydration with TEG


    100 % capacity

    ~ 1.5 F-Factor (Pa)


    190 % capacity

    > 20 % more eciency

    ~ 2.9 F-Factor


    300 % capacity

    > 20 % more eciency

    ~ 4.5 F-Factor


    400 % capacity

    20 % more eciency

    ~ 6.0 F-Factor




    Dry gas outlet

    Sulzer KnitMesh9797 Glycol contactor

    mist eliminator

    Lean TEG

    Chimney tray

    Wet gas inlet


    Liquid outlet


    Sulzer KnitMesh9798 Scrubber section

    mist eliminator

    Rich TEG

    Sulzer Mellapak/MellapakPlus

    Liquid distributor




  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819




    Using Sulzers MKS Multi

    CassetteTM Technology in Glycol


    The rst application or Sulzer MKS Multi

    Cassette mist eliminators was or instal-

    lation in Glycol Contactors in Russia. The

    contactors were revamped rom trays to

    Sulzer MellapakPlus and were operated at

    very high gas loading actors. In order to

    keep the glycol loss low at this high col-

    umn gas throughput the MKS Multi Cas-

    Glycol Dehydration Process using Shell SMSM internals in the

    Feed Inlet Scrubber and Glycol Contactor

    Highly ecient liquid scrubbing rom the gas eed to glycol contactors is needed in or-

    der to avoid bottlenecks in the dehydration system caused by hydrocarbon carry over

    wich can lead to oaming and excessive overall glycol losses. Sulzers mist elimination

    products such as Sulzer KnitMesh and Shell Separators meet or these high process


    Condensate Treatment Unit

    Application or Sulzer Chemtechs liquid/

    liquid separator products such as:

    Sulzer Mellaplate plate pack

    Sulzer DC Coalescer

    Sulzer Dusec and Dusec Plus

    Sulzer Static Mixers

    4 Cassettes

    equipped with


    wire demisting


    Collector Tray

    Swirl Tube


    ElementsDrain Pipe

    Vapor is ree o mistsette mist eliminators were installed in the

    contactor top section. The application was

    shown to meet measured glycol losses o

    < 0.1US gallons per MMSCF gas.

    The patented Sulzer MKS Multi Cassette

    mist eliminator combines the useul cen-triugal orces in cyclones with the high

    separation eciency o wire mesh pack-

    ings to give a new superior demisting de-


    Vapor carries mist







    Flash Drum

    Application or Sulzer Chemtechs mass

    transer products in the glycol regenera-

    tion acility.

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819




    Inlet Separator


    Exp. Suction Drum


    Dew Point Control Separator

    From Slug


    Glycol Injection



    JT Valve

    To Compression



    Suction Drum


    Low Temperature Separation (LTS) Process

    The perormance o the gas separators in LTS Processes is crucial in order to meet the

    hydrocarbon and water dew point specications. The dew point separator is especially

    essential or the overall perormance o the plant. Even small amounts o entrained

    liquids will rapidly appear as increased dew point in the sales gas. To obtain the bestrom the LTS Process, our high perormance Shell SMMSM separator internals are

    implemented in the Expander Suction Drum and in the Dew Point Control Separator,

    and Shell SMS separator internals in the Inlet Separator and in the Export Compressor

    Suction Drum.

    Molecular Sieve Dehydration Process

    The eect o a high perorming Feed Inlet Separator on the deactivation rate o the mo-

    lecular sieves is substantial. The water absorption capacity deteriorates badly over timeas the co-adsorbed hydrocarbons accumulate in the molecular sieve. Sulzer Chemtech

    recommends the use o a drum with Schoepentoeter and a high eciency KnitMesh

    mist eliminator or the Shell SMSM separator internals when high capacity and eciency

    are required.


    Mol Sieve Driers

    Feed Inlet Separator

    SMSM Separator


    Suction Drum



    Flash Gas to

    Fuel Gas System


    Dried Gas

    to LNG Unit

  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819



    Mist Eliminators in Desalination


    Desalination by multi-stage fash evapora-

    tion or multiple eect distillation units is by

    ar the most widely used method o gener-

    ating resh water rom brine or sea water in

    the world. It is extremely reliable and can

    produce high purity water rom almost all

    orms o eed. The process involves evap-

    orating water rom a brine solution and

    condensing the vapor as resh water.

    However, the perormance o any fash

    evaporator can deteriorate i liquid entrain-

    ment is carried over rom the fash cham-

    bers into the condenser tube bundles. This

    is a very likely occurrence in view o the

    high velocities and volumetric fowrates

    experienced in these plants, and can lead

    to problems such as:

    Reduced water purity

    Scaling of condenser tube bundle and

    downstream equipment such as boilers

    Corrosion of downstream equipment

    Sulzer Mist Eliminators are designed to re-

    duce these problems and are installed in

    most desalination systems.

    Our experience in desalination has helped

    us develop a range o equipment to meet

    the specic process needs o our custom-

    ers, and great care is taken to ensure that

    the optimum design is oered or any par-

    ticular duty. The main actors to consider

    in desalination applications are:


    Pressure drop

    Fouling characteristics and the tendency

    to scale

    Materials of construction


    Sulzer KnitMesh Mist Eliminators

    Sulzer KnitMesh mist eliminators are ideal-

    ly suited to most desalination applications.

    In multi-stage fash evaporators the mist

    eliminators are installed directly above the

    fash chambers. Water vapor rises vertical-

    ly upwards through the mist eliminator and

    passes into the condenser tube bundle.

    Any entrained liquid droplets are captured

    on the wires where they coalesce and

    drain, counter-current to the vapor fow,

    back into the fash chambers. The separa-

    tion mechanism is similar to this in multiple

    eect distillation systems.

    The combination o high ree volume and

    specic surace area mean that excellent

    eciencies can be achieved or droplets

    as small as 5 m while presenting mini-

    mum pressure drop.


    High capacity designs

    To achieve the required capacity, the evap-

    orators are oten very large and the mist

    eliminators usually cover a large eective

    ree area above the fash chambers. The

    total area required is determined by calcu-

    lation o the mist eliminator capacity and is

    a very important part o the plant design.

    Clearly, any opportunity to reduce the

    capital cost o the evaporators is very at-

    tractive and the capacity o the mist elimi-

    nation equipment is o vital importance in

    this calculation.

    Most installations are designed using a

    conventional K-value o 0.107 m/s but

    Sulzer Chemtech has developed the high

    capacity type 4540NS KnitMesh mist

    eliminator which can operate at up to 20%

    higher K-values, providing the opportunity

    or either reduced equipment size or an

    increase in capacity. Major projects have

    been successully commissioned using

    the Sulzer KnitMesh 4540NS mist elimina-

    tors in Oman, Algeria and the UAE.

    Sulzer Mellachevron

    Mist Eliminators

    Precipitation o salts and scale on the

    wires o KnitMesh mist eliminators can be

    a problem in some plants, particularly in

    the rst two or three eects o the evapo-

    ration. In these circumstances, the Mel-

    lachevron Type V20Z has been used to

    overcome the problem. This simple vane

    prole provides high separation ecien-

    cy perormance or droplets larger than

    30 m, and its ability to withstand heavy

    scaling applications makes it an ideal al-

    ternative to the KnitMesh mist eliminators

    when ouling is o concern. Its robust con-struction makes it easy to clean, and the

    Mellachevron V20Z also has a relatively

    low pressure drop compared to the more

    complex Mellachevron designs with drain-

    age hooks and channels an important

    actor when designing or large volumetric

    fowrates at low pressure.








    Vent ejector

    KnitMesh or Mellachevron

    Mist Eliminator



  • 7/30/2019 Gas Liquid Separation Technology 20090819


    Asia, Pacifc

    Sulzer Chemtech Pte. Ltd.

    10 Benoi Sector

    Singapore 629845

    Phone +65 6515 5500

    Fax +65 6862 7563

    Distributed by:

    The activity program comprises:

    Process components such as fractionation trays, structured and ran-

    dom packings, liquid and gas distributors, gas-liquid separators, and

    internals or separation columns

    Engineering services for separation and reaction technology such as

    conceptual process design, easibilities studies, plant optimizations in-

    cluding process validation in the test center

    Recovery of virtually any solvents used by the pharmaceutical and

    chemical industry, or dicult separations requiring the combination o

    special techniques, such as thin lm/short-path evaporation, distillation

    under high vacuum, liquid-liquid extraction, membrane technology or


    Complete separation process plants, in particular modular plants


    Tower eld services performing tray and packing installation, tower and

    column maintenance, vessel welding, and plant turnaround projects

    Mixing and reaction technology with static mixers Cartridge-based metering, mixing and dispensing systems, and dis-

    posable mixers or reactive multi-component material


    Sulzer Chemtech Ltd

    P.O. Box 65

    8404 Winterthur, Switzerland

    Phone +41 52 262 50 28

    Fax +41 52 262 01 82

    [email protected]


    North and South America

    Sulzer Chemtech USA, Inc.

    8505 E. North Belt Drive

    Humble, TX 77396, USA

    Phone +1 281 441 5800

    Fax +1 281 291 0207

    Sulzer Chemtech Ltd, a member o the Sulzer Corporation, with headquar-

    ters in Winterthur, Switzerland, is active in the eld o process engineering

    and employs some 2500 persons worldwide.

    Sulzer Chemtech is represented in all important industrial countries and

    sets standards in the eld o mass transer and static mixing with its ad-

    vanced and economical solutions.