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  4. 4. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 LOCATION & CLIMATE From Central Asia to the western end of the Mediterranean Sea. The Greek Culture followed the Minoan Civilization of Crete and the Mycenaean Civilization of Athens, eventually developing into the Classical Greek culture. Civilization that thrived around the Mediterranean Sea from the 3000BC to the 146 BC . Known for advances in philosophy, architecture, drama, government, and science. The climate of Greece is maritime, with sea breeze tempering down the coldness of winter and the heat of summer.
  5. 5. SOCIETY AND CULTURE Ancient Greece consisted of several hundred more or less independent city-states called Polis. Society was mainly broken up between Free people and Slaves, who were owned by the free people. The social classes applied to men only, as women all took their social and legal status from their husband or their male partner. Majority of Greek states were governed by groups of rich landowners, called Aristocrats. The civilization of ancient Greece has been immensely influential on language, politics, educational systems, philosophy, science, and the arts till date. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012
  6. 6. SOCIETY AND CULTURE Ancient Greek philosophy focused on the role of reason and inquiry. Some well known philosophers of Ancient Greece were Plato and Socrates. Ancient Greek society placed considerable emphasis upon literature and theatre, including tragedies and comedies. Greek mythology consists of stories belonging to the ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their religious practices. The main Greek gods were the twelve Olympians, Zeus, his wife Hera, Poseidon, Athena, Apollo, etc. It was predictably in Greece that sports were first instituted formally, with the first Olympic Games recorded in 776 BC in Olympia. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012
  7. 7. ARCHITECTURE - MATERIAL The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky, with deeply indented coastline, and rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests. The most freely available building material is stone. Limestone was readily available and can be easily worked. Abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands. This finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail, both architectural and sculptural, that adorned Ancient Greek architecture. Moreover, Deposits of high quality clay were found throughout Greece which could be used not only for pottery vessels, but also roof tiles and architectural decoration. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012
  8. 8. The temperate climate led to a lifestyle where many activities could take place outdoors. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration, particularly in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 Ancient Greeks had very strong foundations of architecture, following the Minoans, known for their elaborate and richly decorated palaces. The Mycenaean had built citadels, fortifications and tombs rather than palaces. ARCHITECTURE - CHARACTERISTICS
  9. 9. Hence important buildings were placed on hilltops, with their exteriors designed as a visual focus for gatherings, while the naturally occurring sloping site could be used as seating areas. Need for protection from the sun and sudden winter storms led to the development of Colonnades encircling the buildings or surrounding courtyards. Ancient Greek architecture responded very sharply to the availability of clear light, constructing buildings that were marked by precision of detail. Beauty = Proportion and Measure. Building conceived as a Sculpture. Dominant lines are horizontal and vertical. ARCHITECTURE - CHARACTERISTICS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012
  10. 10. The marble surfaces were smooth, curved, fluted, or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun, and cast shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day. The architecture of Ancient Greece is of a trabeated or "post and lintel" form, composed of upright columns (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintels). There were three schools of Grecian architecture based on the column details. 1. Doric 2. Ionic 3. Corinthian The Golden Section (the ratio of 1 to 1.618) : basis for the proportions of the human figure. Every part of their major buildings, down to the smallest detail of decoration, was constructed upon this proportion. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 ARCHITECTURE - CHARACTERISTICS
  11. 11. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT Archaic Age, 800-480 B.C. Means primitive. Defined as the "structural revolution", meaning a sudden upsurge of population and material goods with the "intellectual revolution" of classical Greece. There were no more kings, so no more palaces or fancy tombs. Instead, people began to build big temples for the Gods. The first Greek temples, built around 800 BC, were made of wood, which was easier to build in than stone. They were long rectangular buildings with a porch supported by columns and thatched or tiled roofs.
  12. 12. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT Hellenic Age, 480-325 B.C. The Hellenic Period is the "classic" period of Greek culture. In this period of the conquests of Alexander the Great, Greece enjoyed a cultural flowering and economic prosperity. Drama, philosophy and sculpture all began or underwent significant refinement in this period. Cities now dominated politics, society and economy. More refined and elegant buildings emphasizing grandeur and luxury. A notable achievement is the rise in architecture of the Doric, Ionic and Corinthian columns. Eg. Citadel of Alexandria.
  13. 13. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 PHASES OF DEVELOPMENT Hellenistic Age, 323-146 B.C. The Greeks continued to build temples, but they also began to build vast urban plans and large complexes. They built many more theaters, and also gymnasia and, because this was a time with a lot of fighting, also a lot of forts were built. Ornate buildings. Rather than manipulating space, building plans conformed to the natural setting. Pergamon is a characteristic example of Hellenistic architecture, starting from a simple fortress located on the Acropolis, as a colossal architectural complex.
  14. 14. TYPOLOGY GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 Palaces Most known to us are the palaces of Minoan Crete, the Mycenaean palaces of Peloponnese, and the Macedonian Palaces of northern Greece. As Greek society developed to be democratic during Classical times, there was no need to build palaces for the leaders. Greek Temple The Acropolis of Athens Greek Theater Central place of formal gatherings in ancient Greece. Not only did the structure serve as the stage for Tragedies and Comedies, but it also provided a forum for poetry and musical events. Greek Stadiums Athletic events provided the opportunity for all the city-states of Greece to gather and to strengthen their common bonds through competition.
  15. 15. PLAN FORMS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 Temples Celebrated life on earth rather than afterlife Shrines for gods Depositories of civic and religious treasure.
  16. 16. ELEMENTS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 1. Tympanum : semi-circular or triangular decorative wall surface over an entrance. It often contains sculpture or other imagery or ornaments. 2. Acroterium : architectural ornament placed on a flat base called the acroter, and mounted at the apex of the pediment of a building in the Classical style. 3. Sima : upturned edge of a roof which acts as a gutter and runs around all four sides of a building. 4. Cornice : horizontal decorative moulding that crowns any building. The function of the projecting cornice is to throw rainwater free of the buildings walls. 7. Frieze : is the wide central section part of an entablature and may be decorated with bas-reliefs. 8. Triglyph : is an architectural term for the vertically channelled tablets of the Doric frieze. 9. Metopes : The rectangular recessed spaces between the triglyphs on a Doric frieze.
  17. 17. ELEMENTS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 11. Gutta : is a small water-repelling, cone-shaped projection used in the architrave of the Doric order. 12. Taenia : "band" or "ribbon", is the Latin word for a small "fillet" molding near the top of the architrave in a Doric column. 13. Architrave : also called an epistyle; is the lintel or beam that rests on the capitals of the columns. 14. Capital : forms the topmost member of a column (or pilaster). It mediates between the column and the load thrusting down upon it, broadening the area of the column's supporting surface. 15. Abacus : is a flat slab forming the uppermost member of the capital of a column. Its chief function is to provide a large supporting surface to receive the weight of the arch or the architrave above.
  18. 18. ELEMENTS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 17. Column or pillar : is an structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below in, other word column is a compression member. 18. Fluting : refers to the shallow grooves running vertically along a surface. 19. Stylobate : a continuous base supporting a row of columns in classical Greek architecture. Entablature : refers to the superstructure of mouldings and bands which lie horizontally above columns, resting on their capitals. Entablatures are commonly divided into the architrave , the frieze and the cornice.
  19. 19. ORDERS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 Ionic feminine, light, delicate and elegant. Corinthian grandiose Doric masculine, serious, and dignified In classical architecture, the parts of a building that stand in fixed and constant relation to each other; distinguishable by the capital. The top of the columns are a square block. Under the block is a rounded piece. The columns are thick. The base is a square block. The Ionic capital looks like a scroll. The Ionic column is skinnier. The base has a rounded and a square section. Corinthian columns were the most decorative. The capitals were carved to look like leaves. The columns were the thinnest.
  20. 20. ORDERS GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012 a. Doric Order b. Ionic Order c. Corinthian Order
  22. 22. EXAMPLES Acropolis & the Temple of Parthenon. Epidaurus Theatre. Stoa. GREEK ARCHITECTURE HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE I 24-09-2012
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