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9/16/2008 1 Human-Computer Interaction Human Computer Interaction CSG 170 Prof. Timothy Bickmore Please make a name tag… Overview for Today Introductions Introductions Overview of HCI Overview of the Course Some basic concepts Model Paper Presentations Paper assignments for next week Project Overview Brainstorming exercise
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  • 9/16/2008

    1

    Human-Computer InteractionHuman Computer InteractionCSG 170

    Prof. Timothy Bickmore

    Please make a name tag

    Overview for Today

    Introductions Introductions Overview of HCI Overview of the Course Some basic concepts Model Paper Presentations

    Paper assignments for next week

    Project Overview Brainstorming exercise

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    Introductions

    Name Name Your background Worst user interface you have ever

    used & why

    My BackgroundCareer 1 Rocket Scientist

    86-90

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    My BackgroundCareer 2 HCI

    95-98

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    Affective Computing

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    Introductions

    Name Name Your background Worst user interface you have ever

    used & why

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    Overview of HCI

    What is HCI? What is HCI? Motivation for HCI Some basic concepts

    What is HCI?ACM SIGCHI Curricula for HCI

    Human computer interaction is a Human-computer interaction is a discipline concerned with the design, evaluation and implementation of interactive computing systems for human use and with the study of major phenomena surrounding them.

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    What is HCI?

    Communications

    What is HCI?extensional definition

    Human factors Human factors GUIs & toolkits Mobile computing Speech interfaces

    S i l i t f Social interfaces Multimodal interfaces

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    Why Study HCI?

    HCI is Importantfrom Nielsen Usability Engineering

    Redesign of rotary dial telephone speeded up Redesign of rotary dial telephone speeded up users dialing behavior by 0.15 sec/digit, saving $1M in reduced demand on central switches.

    Redesign insurance forms to reduce customer errors: cost Aus$100 000; savingserrors: cost Aus$100,000; savings Aus$500,000/year.

    Redesign of Boeing 757 flight deck interface to reduce flight crew from 3 to 2

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    HCI is Importantfrom Nielsen Usability Engineering

    Study of software engineering costs Study of software engineering costs 63% significantly overran budgets 4 reasons rated with highest responsibility:

    Frequent change requests by users Overlooked tasks Users lack of understanding of their own reqts Insufficient user-analyst communication &

    understanding

    Lederer & Prasad, CACM 92115 surveys of projects >=$50K

    HCI is Important

    UI strongly affects UI strongly affects perception of software Usable software sells

    better Ease of use ratingsg

    For many shrink-wrapped products a single call to customer support can wipe out profits

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    HCI is ImportantFDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health report

    Many deaths and injuries attributable to poor Many deaths and injuries attributable to poor human interface (hardware & software) design. oxygen flow control knob, smooth rotation but

    with discrete settings and no flow at intermediates

    http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/humfac/doit.html

    HCI is ImportantJAMA. 2005;293:1197-1203

    Study of a hospital computerized physician order entry system (CPOE) Identified 22 ways in which the system caused

    patients to get the wrong medicine, e.g. fragmented displays that prevent a coherent view of

    patients medications pharmacy inventory displays mistaken for dosage

    guidelines separation of functions that facilitate double dosing and sepa at o o u ct o s t at ac tate doub e dos g a d

    incompatible orders

    Three quarters of the house staff reported observing each of these error risks, indicating that they occur weekly or more often

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    HCI is ImportantTherac-25 Accidents

    Therac-25 performed both radiation treatment and X-rays

    HCI is ImportantTherac-25 Accidents

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    HCI is ImportantTherac-25 Accidents

    Six accidents involving massive overdoses to patients Six accidents involving massive overdoses to patients occurred between 1985 and 1987

    Occasional machine malfunctions with little feedback, resulting in repeated dosages (6 in one case)

    Poor feedback about which mode the machine was in caused treatments with 125x the expected doseM hi i ll d t d d Machine occasionally underreported dosage

    Why do work in HCI?

    Interdisciplinary work Interdisciplinary work Interact with people, learn about them

    and their work Help people Its cool It s cool

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    HCI is Cool

    HCI is Cool

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    HCI is Cool

    HCI is Cool

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    HCI is Cool

    Sit upright Lean Forward Slump Back Side Lean

    HCI is Cool

    Pinwheels Example Ambient Interface

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    HCI is Cool

    HCI is Cool

    Gandalf Video

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    Some basic issues & concepts

    Building good UIs is hard Building good UIs is hard Many iterations Much user interaction Many kinds of expertise 50% of the total lifecycle effort in modern y

    software Survey of 74 projects, Myers & Rosson, CHI92

    Some basic issues & concepts

    Whether the functionality of

    How well users can use

    Usability

    Whether the functionality ofthe system in principle can do what is needed.

    Utility

    From Nielsen, Usability Engineering

    How well users can usethe systems functionality.

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    Some basic issues & concepts Ethnography

    Design Task analysis Design guidelines Scenarios

    Expert evaluation Usability testing

    ImplementEvaluate

    The HCI development process

    Prototyping GUI tools

    y g

    Overview of Course

    http://www.ccs.neu.edu/course/csg170/

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    Overview of Course

    Topics covered HCI Theory & Practice HCI Research HCI Programming

    Prerequisites Java basics

    Overview of Course

    Texts Reqd: Dix, et al, Human-Computer

    Interaction Opt: Nielsen, Usability Engineering

    O t R & C ll U bilit Opt: Rosson & Carroll, Usability Engineering: Scenario-Based Development of Human-Computer Interaction

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    Overview of Course

    Weekly Requirements Weekly Requirements Read 50-150 pages Individual homework assignment Team project assignment In-class Quiz

    D ib d di i t i l Describe and discuss assignments in class Periodic Requirements

    Present a research paper in class

    Typical Class1 Quiz1. Quiz2. Review assignments. Presentation and

    discussion by randomly selected students.3. Lecture on HCI practice topic.4. Discussion of next weeks assignments.5. Break

    I t t h t i b i t t6. Intro to research topic by instructor.7. Research paper presentations by students.

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    Overview of Course Quizzes Quizzes

    Open book & notes Check understanding and ramifications of

    readings. Usually 1-2 analytic questions

    How might you extend the Squishy Interface? What was the most significant problem in the evaluation What was the most significant problem in the evaluation

    of the Tangible Mud system? How might you apply the Wearable Robot to airport

    security? Compare the learnability of systems X and Y.

    Administrivia

    Tim WVH448 [email protected] neu edu Tim WVH448, [email protected] Office hours Mon 3:30-5:30 or by appt In class prior to start

    Laura WVH466, [email protected] Office hours Th 4:00-6:00 or by appt Office hours Th 4:00 6:00 or by appt

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    Course Website

    ScheduleDate Topics & Readings

    Practice Research

    9/16 Overview of HCI and course. Model presentationpresentation

    9/23 Humans (Dix Ch 1). Computers (skim Dix Ch 2). HCI development process (Dix Ch 6). Guest lecture: Dr. Auerbach, BMC Geriatrics

    Older Adults

    9/30 Interaction paradigms (Dix Ch 3). Doing observational studies (Fetterman). HCI for older adults.

    Ethnography

    10/7 Requirements analysis (Dix Ch 13 & 15, Rosson part of Ch 2). Intro to Java Swing

    Health interfaces

    10/14 Design I (Dix Ch 5, Rosson Ch 3). GUI architectures and tools (Dix Ch 8). Swing events.

    GUI tools

    10/21 Design II (Rosson Ch 4 & 5). Swing layout managers. Tangible interfaces

    10/28 Universal design (Dix Ch 10). Paper prototyping (Rettig). Social interfaces

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    Schedule

    11/4 Models (Dix Ch 12). Ubicomp (Dix Ch 20). Mobile interfaces11/11 NO CLASS VETERANS DAY11/11 NO CLASS: VETERANS DAY

    11/18 Heuristic evaluation (Dix Ch 9, Nielsen Ch 5) Affective interfaces

    11/25 Dialog-based UIs (Dix Ch 14 & 16). Speech interfaces12/2 CSCW (Dix Ch 19). CSCW12/9 Usability testing (Nielsen Ch 6). Other assessment methods

    (Nielsen Ch 7). Motivation for Usability (Nielsen Ch 1). OlympicMisc interfaces

    (Nielsen Ch 7). Motivation for Usability (Nielsen Ch 1). Olympic Message System (Gould).

    TBD Final project presentations. (12/19???)

    To Do for Next Week1 Read1. Read

    1. Dix Chapters 1, 2 (skim) & 62. 3 research papers on HCI for older adults

    2. Set up individual course web page1. Note: All assignments must be posted 1 hour before class on due

    date.3. Do Homework I1 (UI Critique)4 Look over research papers select a few youd like to4. Look over research papers select a few you d like to

    present 5. Read through T1 and bibliography of HCI for older adults

    start thinking about what youd like to do for a project.6. Check your calendar for week of 12/15

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    Individual Homework #1 UI Critique Find 2 good & 2 bad examples of UI design Find 2 good & 2 bad examples of UI design Some criteria

    Consistency (inter & intra application) Prevent errors Permit error correction Obviousness (affordances) Feedback

    Include visuals if possible Some examples

    Example 1

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    Example 1 - redesign

    Example 2

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    Example 3

    Example 4

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    Paper Presentations

    Paper Presentations 10-15 minutes total10 15 minutes total

    Brief description (least important - everyone has read it) Beyond the paper (demo, video, mock up) Your evaluation How you would extend it (most important part)

    Link your ppt to your course web page Or bring a flash drive to class

    Do not cut and paste text from paper! read your slides!

    Talk to us if you want help Grading: quality of visuals; quality of oral

    presentation; timeliness; 3 items above

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    Example Paper Presentation

    Schwesig, et al, Gummi: a b d bl t CHI04bendable computer, CHI04

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    Gummi: a bendable computer

    Interaction based onphysical deformationof a handheld.

    2D indication is providedvia a standard touchpadpon bottom of device.

    Motivation

    Handhelds are hard to interact with Handhelds are hard to interact with Important to consider non-WIMP UIs Display can cover entire surface of

    device

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    Interaction model Bend in 1D (up or down) Bend in 1D (up or down) Bend state continuously measured (transition). Discrete maximum bend states correspond to single & double

    mouse clicks Sample mapping (up/down always mapped to semantically

    opposite operations):

    Di t D Discrete UpDiscrete Down Discrete Up

    Transition Down Transition Up

    SelectStart playback

    DeselectStop playback

    Zoom inIncrease play speed

    Zoom outDecrease play speed

    Prototype

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    Evaluation

    Informal usability studies Informal usability studies N=30, colleagues 2-3 minutes training Ss had no difficulty using discrete

    functions; continuous functions tookfunctions; continuous functions took longer to understand and master

    Text input was difficult

    Beyond the paper:previews

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    Beyond the paper:text entry

    Beyond the paper:transparency blending

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    My Evaluation

    Very innovative both in input method Very innovative, both in input method and GUI interaction

    Weak evaluation could have easily provided some quantitative data Even a survey would have been goody g

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    How I would extend Gummi Why stop at bending? Why stop at bending?

    Stretchable Twistable Foldable

    Might be better if top surface were also the touchpad

    How to combine with more traditional input devices? Keyboard (top surface?) Speech input?

    Laura Chang, et alLaura Chang, et alPlayful toothbrush

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    PresentationVolunteers for Next Week The message center: enhancing elder The message center: enhancing elder

    communication - CHI'06

    Acceptance and Usability of a Relational Agent Interface by Urban Older Adults -CHI'05

    DanceAlong: Supporting Positive Social Exchange and Exercise for the Elderly Through Dance, CHI05

    Team Project

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    Team Project Guidelines

    Must have a substantial UI Must have a substantial UI UI must be interactive Creative, original, non-obvious is better Ideas: research papers & past CHI,

    UIST IUI and bibliographyUIST, IUI, and bibliography\csg170\oabiblio.htm(linked to Bibliography page)

    Team Project Constraints

    Each team should have 3 4 members Each team should have 3-4 members Ideally multi-disciplinary Focus: Health Education Application for

    Older Adult users Context: Touch screen kiosk in BMC Context: Touch screen kiosk in BMC

    Geriatrics clinic waiting room

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    Team Project GuidelinesWhy Older Adults?

    Pedagogical reasons Pedagogical reasons High variability in sensory, cognitive, and motor abilities High variability in computer literacy For our population of users high variability in reading and health

    literacy Forces you to think thoroughly about usability & accessibility

    issues Drives home I am not my user Drives home I am not my user Makes an otherwise abstract exercise very real

    And We will be helping an underserved population Demographic shift in US Older adults in more need of health interventions

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    Team ProjectTeam Project Brainstorming Exercise

    Project Brainstorming

    Think about a graphical user interface Think about a graphical user interface youd like to build Should be representative of your interests No commitment

    Sketch out the idea on a slide i l d i Put a title and your name on it

    Be ready to talk about it 15 minutes

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    To Do for Next Week Read Read

    Dix Chapters 1, 2 (skim) & 6 3 research papers on HCI for older adults

    Set up individual course web page Do Homework I1 (UI Critique) Look over research papers select a fewLook over research papers select a few

    youd like to present Read through T1 and bibliography of HCI for

    older adults start thinking about what youd like to do for a project.

    Check your calendar for week of 12/15


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