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Industrialization of America “Rags to Riches” “Rags to Riches” L A B O R.

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  • Industrialization of America Rags to Riches Rags to Riches L A B O R
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  • Transformation of America INDUSTRIALIZATION AND LABOR Workers and the Rise of Unions
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  • POWERHOUSE The Working Man Men, Women & Children
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  • I N D U S T R I A L I Z A T I O N Immigration provided industry with an abundant supply of labor. Over 14 million immigrants came to the United States between 1860 & 1900. Contract Labor Act of 1864.
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  • U R B A N I Z A T I O N Growth of big cities. Immigrants settling in cities People moving from rural areas to cities for jobs in factories.
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  • Shifts in Population and Employment, 1860-1900
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  • F A C T O R Y W O R K
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  • Piecework & Sweatshops PIECEWORK - Workers paid a fixed amount for each item that they produced. Garment workers Cigar workers SWEATSHOP- shop where employees worked for long hours and under poor working conditions.
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  • SCIENTIFIC MANAGEMENT Frederick Winslow Taylor The Principles of Scientific Management How to improve worker efficiency. Break down different tasks and proper amount of time to complete Productivity Increases PROFIT$ PROFIT$ increase
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  • Division of Labor Separation of the tasks of production. Workers completed one task to produce an item. Concept of the assembly line. The end of the artisan.
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  • Working Conditions
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  • GUN FOUNDRY GUN FOUNDRY by John Ferguson Wier
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  • The Working Man burning On the stake of Monopoly
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  • LABORERS Ruled by the CLOCK Start, breaks, stop. Long working hours No minimum work day. Six-day work week Only day off Sunday. Dangerous and Unsafe. No workers compensation for injuries. Low wages. No minimum wage Competition for jobs
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  • Child Labor Jacob Riis, Children of the Poor (1892)
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  • Child Labor Jacob Riis and Lewis Hine used photography to document the exploitation of child labor.
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  • Child Labor No laws prohibited use of child labor 1880s approximately 5% of workforce was made up of children. Families relied on income for children to survive.
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  • W O R K E R S O R G A N I Z E
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  • The Gilded Age Uneven distribution of Income The Gilded Age Wide gap between the wealthiest Americans and the working class and poor
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  • S O C I A L I S M Philosophy that promotes government/public control of business and the economy. Government run industries Government set production goals Government set wages Society, not individuals, control the wealth. Advocate equal distribution of wealth to all. Karl Marx, Communist Manifesto
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  • Knights of Labor Formed Philadelphia, 1869 Admitted men and women Skilled and unskilled workers. Farmers and factory workers. Recruited African Americans
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  • Knights of Labor Lead by Terrence Powderly Promoted social reforms Equal pay for equal work Eight-hour work day End child labor
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  • AF of L Formed under leadership of Samuel Gompers in 1886 Skilled workers only African Americans allowed but discouraged Women not allowed Lower wages.
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  • American Federation of Labor Bread & Butter unionism. Focus on wages, work hours, and working conditions Political activity, education, strikes, boycotts and collective bargaining
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  • I NDUSTRIAL W ORKERS of THE W ORLD WOBBLIES Formed in Chicago in 1905. Lead by socialists and radicals Focused on unskilled workers
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  • GREAT RAILROAD STRIKE OF 1877 Began over wage cuts and increased work. Railroad workers went on strike and rioted. President Rutherford B. Hayes sent in troops to protect railroad property. Eugene V. Debs established American Railway Union. Lesson Federal government would act on the behalf of business over labor and use the military against labor.
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  • HAYMARKET MASSACRE 1886 Eight hours for work, eight hours for rest, eight hours for what we will. Labor demonstration at Haymarket Square in Chicago. Anarchists involved Bomb thrown into crowd killing a police officer and igniting a riot. Gunfire. Dozen killed.
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  • HAYMARKET MASSACRE 1886 Knights of Labor blamed. Effectively ends that union. Lesson- Public believes unions are dangerous and violent.
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  • HOMESTEAD STRIKE 1892 Steel workers went on strike when Henry Frick decided to cut workers wages at Carnegie Steel. Called in Pinkerton detectives against strikers. Battle of Homestead fought between Pinkertons and the strikers. Attempted murder of Frick by an anarchist was blamed on the strikers. Public opinion turned against union Lessons public belief that unions were dangerous, violent and unAmerican.
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  • PULLMAN STRIKE 1894 George Pullman Pullman Company Railroad cars Pullman, Illinois Pullman workers paid in company money Cut wages to his workers Raised rent
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  • PULLMAN STRIKE Workers protested, Pullman refused to negotiate. Debs and A.R.U. supported. Refused to work on trains that had Pullman cars More than 260,000 railroad workers joined strike Railroad owners asked for federal court to intervene. Court ordered strike illegal because it interfered with free trade President Grover Cleveland sent in federal troops to enforce court order Lesson Federal government side with business over labor.
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  • Labor Hopelessly Bound To The Stake
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