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  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 1

    Integrasi Strategi Bisnis Dan

    Strategi Sistem Informasi

    Dosen:

    Ir. Mas Wigrantoro Roes Setiyadi, SE, MSi, MPP

    Program Pasca Sarjana - Magister Ilmu Komputer - Universitas Budi Luhur

    Kuliah Sessi 4:

    Internal Assessment, Menentukan

    Objective Sistem Informasi dan Applikasi

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 2

    Outline:

    Analisis Internal

    Strategic Assessment Tools

    Arsitektur SI/TI

    Aplikasi Portofolio

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 3

    Analisis Internal

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 4

    Analysis of Existing IS/IT

    In most modern situations organizations generally has existing systems

    Analysis must be done towards existing operational systems to determine integration of new systems with existing systems

    Besides that analysis must also be done on systems under development

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 5

    Analysis of Existing IS/IT (cont.)

    Analysis of current IS/IT systems must include: An evaluation of existing application portfolio and ones which are in

    development process

    An evaluation of existing database and ones which are being developed

    An evaluation of value of the existing IS/IT portfolio

    An evaluation of existing infrastructure

    An evaluation of technology usage policies

    An evaluation on IS/IT organization

    Having an understanding of the current IS/IT situation, Opportunities, Threats and other needs can analyzed as an integral part of current organization business strategy

    Having an understanding of the current IS/IT will allow an analysis of Strengths and Weaknesses

    The current existing IS/IT is GROUND 0 to all the proposed changes

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 6

    Data Collection Activities

    Evaluate Existing Application Portfolio Objective: have a full count of existing IS being used and

    currently under development and to understand their contribution to the business

    Evaluate Policies, Organization, Process, Services and current IS/IT capabilities: Objective: to understand current IS/IT situation and to able

    to map requirements to bridge new needs.

    Compile a catalog of all Hardware and Software used in Organization: Objective: As a base for migration to new system(s)

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 7

    System Audit Grid System Audit Grid is a model to understand how to

    handle current systems

    Analysis can be done through end-user interviews to obtain their perception of the utilization and usefulness of the system

    Analysis can also be done through a technical analysis of existing systems to understand the sophistication of each system

    By analyzing the current system decision can be made to: Decommission

    Improvement

    Redefine

    Upgrade

    For system which DO NOT fall under the category of decommission, further in depth analysis is required.

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 8

    System Audit Grid (cont.)

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 9

    Analyzing Current Existing

    System

    When discussing current IS/IT conditions, at the same time, end-user demands must be obtained.

    To complement the end-user input, existing documentation must be analyzed. From those documentation, policies and current practice can be obtained. This will help in determining the future requirements.

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 10

    Analyzing Current System

    (cont.)

    Some of the questions which needs to be

    asked: What are the business processes covered by IS/IT?

    What information is stored in the IS/IT systems?

    Do our IS/IT systems cover mission critical systems?

    Are there other ways to optimize existing systems?

    Can there be reengineering based on implementation of

    IS/IT?

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 11

    Analyzing IS/IT Management

    Part of the evaluation of IS/IT is the analysis of the following:

    IS/IT organization

    Size of organization

    Structure of IS/IT organization

    Management style of IS/IT

    Existence of Steering Committees or other ad hoc committees

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 12

    Sensitive Points

    It is generally difficult to unearth what is already in-place and differentiate that with what is planned for the future.

    All or if not most department will have some form of IT spending that is not centralized and they will think that this is their area of responsibility.

    Some software available may be pirated. Need to have guidelines to handle this.

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 13

    Strategic Assessment Tools

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 14

    Strategy Development

    SWOT-TOWS method

    Competitive strategies & Cooperative

    strategies example

    Balanced Scorecard CSF example

    Functional Strategies example

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 15

    SWOT method

    Internal strategic factors:

    Strength

    Weaknesses

    External strategic factors:

    Opportunities

    Threats

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 16

    TOWS Matrix

    WT StrategiesGenerate strategies that

    minimize weaknesses

    and avoid threats

    ST StrategiesUse strengths to avoid

    threats

    Threats (T)

    List of threats

    WO StrategiesTake advantage of

    opportunities by

    overcoming

    weaknesses

    SO StrategiesUse strengths to take

    advantage of

    opportunities

    Opportunities (O)

    List of opportunities

    Weaknesses (W)

    List of weaknesses

    Strengths (S)

    List of strengths

    Internal Factors

    External Factors

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 17

    Maytag Hoover Example

    WT Strategies Sell Dixie-Narco to reduce debt

    Emphasize cost reduction to reduce break-even point

    ST Strategies Acquire Raytheons appliance

    in US to increase market share

    Merge with a major Japanese home appliance

    Sell off all non Maytag brands and strongly defend Maytags US niche

    Threats (T)

    Increasing gov. regulations

    Strong US competition

    Whirlpool and Electrolux positioned for global economy

    Japanese appliance company

    New product advances

    WO Strategies Further improve quality

    Reduce manufacturing cost and distribution cost

    Emphasis superstore channel

    SO Strategies Use worldwide Hoover

    distribution channel to sell Hoover & Maytag appliance

    Find joint venture partners in Eastern Europe and Asia

    Opportunities (O)

    Integration of EU

    Demographics favor quality

    Economic dev. in Asia

    Opening of Eastern Europe

    Trend toward superstores

    Weaknesses (W)

    Process oriented R&D

    Distribution channels

    Financial position

    Global positioning

    Manufacturing facilities

    Strengths (S)

    Maytags quality culture

    Experienced top management

    Vertical integration

    Employee relations

    Hoovers international orientation

    Internal Factors

    External Factors

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 18

    Balanced Scorecard

    MeasuresObjective

    Financial

    Perspective

    MeasuresObjective

    Innovation &

    learning Perspective

    MeasuresObjective

    Customer

    Perspective

    MeasuresObjective

    Internal Business

    Perspective

    How do we look to shareholders?

    What must we excel at?

    How can we continue to improve?

    How do customers se

    us?

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 19

    Notes on BSC

    Was developed to balance the common but

    might be misleading indicator: financial

    reports

    The important thing is the measurement!

    Less focused on external factors

    Suggested to be used after business strategy

    defined

    BSC can be used to define

    activities/programs (not explained today)

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 20

    Rockmart's Critical Success

    Factors (CSF)

    Small number of easily identifiable

    operational goals

    Shape by industry, manager &

    environment

    Believed to assure firms success

    Used to determine organizations

    information requirements

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 21

    Some Tools to Understand

    Business Direction

    Critical Success Factor (CSF)

    Value Chain Analysis

    Porters Five Forces

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 22

    Critical Success Factor (CSF)

    Analysis

    The CSF approach originated from Rockarts work

    CSF is defined : A feature of an organization or its environment which, by its nature, has such an impact on such an impact on success that its tracking, measurement, achievement, or avoidance, becomes critical to success

    CSFs are not to be confused with KPIs. CSFs are things which might might stop you achieving your objective. KPIs are things which you may choose to measure to tell how you are doing, either in achieving the goal, or in managing the CSFs

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 23

    Critical Success Factor (CSF)

    Analysis (cont.)

    Categories valuable in helping to generate candidate CSFs: Political or environmental

    Customer or supply chain

    People related factor

    Industry/competitive

    Cost drivers

    Product differentiation/development

    Methods of Identification of CSFs Interviews/analysis

    Group consensus/prioritization

    Sieving out top 6-8 CSFs

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 24

    Five Competitive Forces

    Porters Five Competitive Forces breaks down the

    industry to components, and then analyzing the

    forces and the interactions involved

    It shows a typical mature industry:

    In which there is an established market structure and a set of

    existing participants, who engage in competitive strategy

    There may be a number of potential entrants

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 25

    Porters Five Forces Model

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 26

    Porters Value Chain

    Porters Value Chain is based on the notion of breaking down business or business area into natural functions and processes, and the investigating the means by which the process interact

    The customer/supplier chain concept is extended for this purpose to embrace internal inter-process interfaces

    The art of effective use of value chain analysis lies in picking a fairly small but useful set of business functions, and concentrating on those customer/supplier links in accessible ways

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 27

    Porters Value Chain

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 28

    Sensitive Points

    Business strategy and plan are not always open for general

    discussion. Must be able to extract the components relevant to

    the IT Plan

    Directors are not always comfortable to discuss IT matters.

    They often see IT merely as a technical component and need to

    be addressed technically.

    Business strategy and plans are not always fixed, yet it is not

    the aim of the IT Planning process to determine the business

    strategy and business plan.

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 29

    Critical Success Factors & GoalsCritical Success Factors & Goals

    11.14

    EXAMPLEEXAMPLE GOALSGOALS CSFCSF

    PROFIT EARNINGS/SHARE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY:

    CONCERNS RETURN ON INVESTMENT STYLING

    MARKET SHARE QUALITY DEALER SYSTEM

    NEW PRODUCT COST CONTROL

    ENERGY STANDARDS

    NONPROFIT EXCELLENT HEALTH CARE REGIONAL INTEGRATION WITH

    OTHER HOSPITALS

    MEETING GOVERNMENT REGULATIONS EFFICIENT USE OF RESOURCES

    FUTURE HEALTH NEEDS IMPROVED MONITORING OF

    REGULATIONS

    CSF should also include quantifiable objectives!

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 30

    CSF Methodology

    Manager ACSF

    Manager ACSF

    Manager BCSF

    Manager BCSF

    Manager ACSF

    Manager ACSF

    Manager BCSF

    Manager BCSF

    Develop agreement on companys CSF

    Develop agreement on companys CSF

    Define companys

    prioritized CSF

    Define companys

    prioritized CSF

    Develop IS Application Priorities

    Develop IS Application Priorities

    Define Decision Support Systems

    Define Decision Support Systems

    What is important for your

    organization?

    What is important for your

    organization?

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 31

    CSF Levels

    Organizational

    CSF

    Organizational

    CSFOrganizational

    Objectives

    Organizational

    Objectives

    Business Unit /

    Functional CSF

    Business Unit /

    Functional CSFBusiness Unit /

    Functional Obj.

    Business Unit /

    Functional Obj.

    Managers

    CSF

    Managers

    CSFManagers

    Objectives

    Managers

    Objectives

    Industry CSFIndustry CSF

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 32

    BSC-CSF Example:Manufacturing Company of Electrical

    Product

    Imported components

    Orders tend to be unique for specific

    customer, now using stock strategy

    Problems:

    Cost for components acquisition

    Cost of finished goods

    Long delivery time

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 33

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 34

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 35

    Required IS

    Applications

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 36

    Fill the Application Portfolio

    Matrix For BI!

    STRATEGIC HIGH POTENTIAL

    KEY OPERATIONAL SUPPORT

    16. Supervision

    17. Examination

    18. Rural Banking

    7. RiskManagement

    8. PerformanceManagement

    24. Real TimeGross

    Settlement

    25. Clearing

    20. MonetaryManagement

    21. Fiscal Indicators

    22.External Indicators

    23.Real SectorIndicators

    9. EconomyAnalysis

    1. Collaborative

    Portal

    2.Staff Portal

    3. Public Portal

    14. Finance

    15. HumanResources

    19. Financial System

    26. Security Settlement (SSSS)

    4. Research Portal

    5. Helpdesk13. Logistics

    27. Money Circulation (SIPU)

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 37

    Understanding the

    Boston Consulting Group (BCG) Matrix

    STAR WILDCAT

    CASH COW DOG

    Funds $$

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 38

    Arsitektur SI/TI

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 39

    Laudons Organization Level &

    Functions

    DATA WORKERSDATA WORKERS

    KIND OF SYSTEM GROUPS SERVEDKIND OF SYSTEM GROUPS SERVED

    STRATEGIC LEVEL STRATEGIC LEVEL SENIOR SENIOR

    MANAGERSMANAGERS

    MANAGEMENT / TACTICAL MANAGEMENT / TACTICAL MIDDLE MIDDLE

    LEVELLEVEL MANAGERSMANAGERS

    OPERATIONAL OPERATIONAL OPERATIONAL OPERATIONAL

    LEVEL LEVEL MANAGERS MANAGERS

    KNOWLEDGE LEVEL KNOWLEDGE LEVEL KNOWLEDGE & KNOWLEDGE &

    SALES & MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING SALES & MANUFACTURING FINANCE ACCOUNTING HUMANHUMAN

    RESOURCESRESOURCESMARKETINGMARKETING

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 40

    Types of Information Systems

    Strategic Level Systems

    Management / Tactical Level Systems

    Knowledge Level Systems

    Operational Level Systems

    5 yr budget forecast

    Profit planning

    5 yr sales forecast

    Sales analysis

    Production scheduling

    Cost analysis

    Annual budgeting

    Pricing analysis

    Word processing

    Documents imaging

    Workflow app

    Spread-sheets

    Analyst workstations

    Order tracking

    Machine control Payroll AR/AP

    Employee records

    SecuritiesTrading

    Executive

    Information

    Systems

    MIS / DSS

    Knowledge

    Work System &

    Office Systems

    Transaction

    Processing

    Systems

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 41

    Alters Work System Principles

    Customers

    Products

    Business Process

    Participants Information Technology

    Context Infrastructure

    Please the customers

    Perform work efficiently

    Serve the participants

    Minimize effort consumed by technology

    Create value from information

    Deploy infrastructure as genuine resource

    Minimize unintended

    conflicts and risk

    Our next discussion!

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 42

    Model Arsitektur

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 43

    IS/IT Architecture of A Central Bank

    Business Application and Supporting Technology

    IT Blueprint - Modular Architecture

    Applications

    Technology

    Note: * As this is a high-level architecture, not all Directorates are represented (eg. Legal, Internal Audit, Archiving, Planning etc.)

    Information Center

    Executive Dashboard Core Systems

    Internal Services

    6. Common

    Delivery

    Services

    16. Supervision

    17. Examination

    18. Rural Banking

    7. Risk

    Management

    8. Performance

    Management

    24. Real Time

    Gross Settlement

    25. Clearing

    20. Monetary

    Management

    21. Fiscal

    Indicators

    22.External

    Indicators

    23.Real Sector

    Indicators

    10. Information Analysis

    11. Data Catalogue &

    Repository

    12. Staging Databases

    9. Economy

    Analysis1. Collaborative

    Portal

    2.Staff Portal

    3. Public

    Portal

    14. Finance15. Human

    Resources

    19. Financial System

    26. Security

    Settlement

    4. Research

    Portal

    5. Helpdesk13. Logistics

    Supporting Technology

    Access Channels

    *

    Information Flow

    Information Flow

    Information Flow

    Information Flow

    27. Money

    Circulation

    F. Workflow,

    Document

    Management

    and Imaging

    A. Hardware &

    Operating

    System

    C. Network &

    System ManagementD. Security

    E. Middleware

    (EAI) Tools

    B.

    Telecommunications

    Monetary Sector

    Payment Sector

    Banking/FSS

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 44

    IS Strategies of Maytag-Hoover

    Common financial reporting systemAcquire Raytheons appliance in US to increase market share

    Merge with a major Japanese home appliance

    SCM with on-line EDI links to

    superstores inventory system

    Emphasis superstore channel

    Accurate cost accounting information

    system

    Efficient & effective SCM

    Reduce manufacturing cost and distribution cost

    Emphasize cost reduction to reduce break-even point

    Quality monitoring system, decision

    support system

    Further improve quality

    An efficient global supply chain

    management (SCM) system may

    cooperate with global carriers.

    Use worldwide Hoover distribution channel to sell Hoover & Maytag appliance

    IS ApplicationStrategy

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 45

    Aplikasi portofolio

  • 11/19/2008 Integrasi Bisnis & SI/TI - Maswig 46

    The IS Application Portfolio

    STRATEGIC

    Applications that

    critical to sus-

    taining future

    business strategy

    HIGH POTENTIAL

    Applications that

    may be important

    in achieving

    future success

    KEY OPERATIONAL

    Applications on

    which the orga-

    nization currently

    depends for success

    SUPPORT

    Applications that

    are valuable but

    not critical to

    success

    Closely

    related and

    derived from

    McFarlan

    Matrix

    Future

    Present

    Important Less critical

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