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Intermediate 1A - English Center Headway... · New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature...

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  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 1

    Intermediate

    1AThe British Empire

    BackgroundThe text explains just how big the British Empire was, and how it has influenced the character of the countries it included, as well as Britains. Many aspects of the British character can be better understood when remembering the enormous transition Britain experienced in the 20th century. In quite a short space of time, it went from being the leading world power to having to play a much smaller role in world politics.

    PronunciATion

    Cabot /"k&[email protected]/ Falkland /"fO:[email protected]/Gibraltar /dZI"brO:[email protected]/reign /rein/

    Notes on the unit1 Read the rubric explaining the meaning of colonize

    and colonies. Ask students to match the countries and former colonies.

    Answers1e 2d 3c 4a 5f 6b

    2 Ask if anyone can guess what The sun never set means in relation to the British Empire.

    AnswerAs the text explains, it means that the Empire covered so much of the world that it was always daylight somewhere in the British Empire.

    Ask students to match paragraphs 16 with the summaries of the paragraphs af.

    Answers1d 2b 3f 4e 5a 6c

    3 Ask students to answer the questions, alone or in pairs.

    Answers1 a quarter of the worlds population2 the rise of the navy3 the Dutch4 for a time, it had its own army and ruled an entire country5 positives: form of government, legal system, language, sports,

    abolition of slave trade; negatives: slave trade prior to abolition, non-industrialization owing to dependency on Empire trade, atrocities

    6 the American War of Independence7 an association of 53 countries which were once British colonies8 Spain Gibraltar

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with their meanings.

    Answers1h 2j 3b 4f 5k 6c 7i 8l 9a 10e 11d 12g

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.Its worth pointing out that the population of the colonized countries did not always feel resentment and hatred towards the colonizers. A good example was Jamaica, where many people felt great respect and admiration for the mother country, Britain.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 2

    Intermediate

    1BSujata Bhatt Search for My Tongue

    BackgroundMulticulturalism is an increasingly important issue as populations migrate in the global economy, and there are many arguments about whether immigrants should use only the language of the country they settle in. Sujata Bhatts poem gives us an insight into what it is like to feel you are losing your mother tongue, and how this is never true at the deepest level. Search for My Tongue is on the English school syllabus for children aged 14 to 16.

    PronunciATion

    Sujata Bhatt /su:"dZA:[email protected] b&t/Pune /"pu:[email protected]/Bremen /"[email protected]/Cholmondeley /"tSVmlI/ (one of the strangest pronunciations in English!)

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the text and complete the notes.

    Answers1 India 2 USA 3 Canada 4 Germany 5 awards 6 Gujarati 7 English 8 heritage 9 British 10 voice/accent

    3 Ask students to read the poem quickly, not worrying about understanding every word, and match the three sections with the summaries AC.

    AnswersSection one B Section two C Section three A

    4 Ask students to answer the questions by reading the poem more carefully.

    Answers1 lose your tongue to say nothing because you dont know what

    to say mother tongue first language foreign tongue language of another country

    She is using the word tongue literally here, to mean the soft organ in the mouth.

    2 Being able to speak two languages. 3 It could shrivel away and die, because it would be impossible

    to speak both languages well. She would have to lose it forever. rot, rot and die, spit it out. It feels like a painful and terrible loss, like losing part of ones body.

    4 To help the reader better appreciate the huge difference there is between the sound and feel of the two languages.

    5 a plant or flower: grows back recovers stump of a shoot the small remaining part of new growth moist no longer dry veins sap (the blood of plants needed for life) flows through them ties in knots grows around the other tongue like a climbing plant bud small growth on a plant from which a flower develops blossoms produces flowers

    6 Happily, triumphantly, and with surprise despite her fears, her first language is unexpectedly found again at night, and blossoms.

    7 No. Simple, everyday language. To sound as if continuing a conversation, particularly at the beginning: You ask me what I mean by saying. Also, possibly to emphasize that English is still in some ways a foreign language to the speaker.

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 3

    Intermediate

    2AThe Queens Honours List

    BackgroundAs is shown in the quotes given at the end of the unit, opinion in Britain is divided on the issue of the Queens Honours, with some people in favour of maintaining the tradition, but others considering the system old-fashioned and rooted in ideas of class and privilege. In an attempt to modernize the honours system, public nominations were introduced in 2003, allowing ordinary members of the public to nominate individuals they felt deserved an award. The decision as to whether to award an honour rests with the Prime Minister or other senior government ministers. In recent years there have been allegations of cash for honours, suggesting that individuals who make a large donation to a political party often receive an award in return when the party comes to power.

    PronunciATion

    Buckingham Palace /"[email protected] "p&[email protected]/ Maam /mA:m/Ghurka /"g3:[email protected]/

    Notes on the unit1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Discuss the questions as a class, then ask students to

    read the text to check their answers.

    AnswersThose who have made an outstanding contribution in a wide range of fields. Some rock stars have said they did not want or no longer wanted awards.

    3 Ask students to find the words and explanations, and work out the meanings.

    Answersawards: prizes given for special achievements (Oscars, Nobel prizes)investiture: when the people are given their official titles at Buckingham Palace (a special ceremony)bow: to bend your body as a sign of respect (from the head)curtsey: the sign of respect shown by females to the Queen (bending their knees and holding their skirt)decoration: an medal given to someone as an honour (MBE Member of the British Empire, OBE Order of the British Empire)knighthood: the honour which means you can be called Sir or Dame (they can be called Sir or Dame)dubs: gives someone the title of knight (with a swordtapping him or her on the shoulder)

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with their meanings.

    Answers1g 2h 3e 4b 5d 6a 7c 8f

    5 Ask students to read the text and decide if the statements are true or false.

    Answers1F 2F 3F 4T 5F 6T 7F 8F

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class. You could point out that some people have refused honours not because they object to the idea, but because they feel that honours such as the OBE, which contain the word Empire, are old-fashioned and offensive.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 4

    Intermediate

    2BQueen Elizabeth i

    BackgroundAs explained in the text, Elizabeths reign, known as the Elizabethan era, is remembered especially for its military successes, such as the defeat of the Spanish Armada, and for the flourishing of drama and the arts. This period is also a popular setting for historical dramas on TV. The Elizabethan country houses mentioned in the text, Longleat and Hardwick Hall, have both been preserved and restored, and are popular with visitors from Britain and abroad.

    PronunciATion

    Tudor /"tju:[email protected]/Greenwich /"grenItS/Anne Boleyn /"&n [email protected]"lIn/Walter Raleigh /"[email protected] "rA:li/Hardwick Hall /"hA:dwIk "hO:l/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.

    AnswersMost of present-day Benelux was occupied by the Spanish, with continued Protestant resistance in some areas.

    2 Ask students to read the text and complete the family tree.

    Answers1 executed 2 1588 3 1603 4 Edward 5 Spain 6 1587

    3 Ask students to match the sentence beginnings and endings.

    Answers1f 2d 3h 4a 5g 6j 7b 8c 9e 10i

    4 Ask students to find words and phrases in the text to match the meanings.

    Answers1 monarch 2 executed 3 succeeding to the throne 4 rebellion 5 subjects 6 sovereign 7 carriage 8 harsh 9 assassination plots 10 overthrow 11 disputes 12 accession

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

    3AArt in the uK Anthony Gormley

    BackgroundLarge public sculptures often provoke controversy in Britain, with traditionalists claiming that they are not real art. Anthony Gormleys works have been relatively popular with the public. The statue of The Angel of the North was considered ugly by some at first, but is now generally very popular, and accepted as a British landmark.

    PronunciATion

    Anthony Gormley /"&[email protected] "gO:mli/Hampstead /"h&msted / Sri Lanka /sri "l&[email protected] /A1 /eI "wVn /

    Notes on the unit1 Discuss the questions as a class.

    AnswersThe works have been created by a sculptor.

    2 Ask students to read the text quickly and match the paragraphs with the works. Tell students not to worry at this stage if they dont understand everything.

    Answers3D 4E 5B 6A 7C

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions, either individually or in pairs.

    Answers1 Waste Man 2 Another Place 3 Field 4 Event Horizon 5 Angel of the North 6 Event Horizon 7 Waste Man 8 Field 9 Another Place 10 Angel of the North

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text.

    Answers1 creative 2 sculpture 3 contemporary 4 installation 5 galleries 6 piece 7 moulds 8 submerged 9 revealed 10 the equivalent of

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 5

    Intermediate

    3BThe Globe Theatre

    BackgroundMost towns in Britain, even fairly small ones, have their own theatre. Shakespeares plays remain popular and are performed regularly all over the country. In many theatres, productions of the plays are often given a modern interpretation, but at the Globe Theatre they are performed as they would have been performed in Shakespeares day, with props and special effects being recreated to give the genuine Elizabethan feel.A lot of quotations from Shakespeares plays, such as those at the end of the unit, have entered the English language as sayings and are often alluded to in writing. The Puritans were strictly religious members of the Church of England, who saw many forms of enjoyment as sinful.

    PronunciATion

    Shakespeare /"[email protected]/Hercules /"h3:kjUli:z/amphitheatre /"&mfi%[email protected]@/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask if anyone can guess what the title means. Ask

    students to discuss in pairs or small groups which statements they think are true. Ask students to read the text and check their answers.

    AnswersMeaning: life is often a theatrical performance. True: 1, 2, 3, 6, 7

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 his plays were being performed there2 Shakespeares company wanted London to have a more

    impressive theatre3 by flying a flag with a picture on it4 the play was a comedy5 through a trap-door6 people who were going to see a play and those who werent,

    especially young people; people selling things7 so that they would not be recognized8 they were prompted by people that the audience couldnt see9 the script as written down by someone in the audience

    10 the Puritans disapproved of entertainment

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them to the meanings.

    Answers1c 2j 3a 4g 5i 6b 7k 8d 9f 10h 11e

    What do you think? Discuss the questions as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    Suggested answers to the quotesMost of these quotes would be used in an ironic way (and also as a way of showing off that you know your Shakespeare!)1 When someone is talking about their relationship problems2 When planning a talk, or listening to someone giving a long and

    boring talk3 When someone arrives very early for something4 When someone is getting very angry and impatient5 When talking about whether you should behave badly to

    someone who has behaved very badly6 When someone asks you if you want them to play more music,

    and you think it will make the atmosphere better/more romantic

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 6

    Intermediate

    4AEducation in the uK and uS

    BackgroundEngland and Wales share the same education system, but the system in Scotland is slightly different, with students taking different exams (O grade exams at the age of 16 and Highers at 17 or 18). Education is a topic of much political debate in both the UK and the US. Many people feel that standards in the state education system are declining, and schools are not helping some students achieve their full potential. It is recognized that boys in particular often under-achieve in state schools. In Britain much debate centres on the number of tests and exams that students have to sit. With national tests at the ages of 7, 11 and 13, children in Britain are among the most tested in Europe.

    PronunciATion

    Eton /"i:[email protected]/Winchester /"[email protected]/ National Curriculum /"n&Snl [email protected]"[email protected]@m/syllabus /"[email protected]@s/

    Notes on the unit1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the text quickly and answer the

    questions.

    Answerfirst paragraph: b, second paragraph: a

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 US 2 UK 3 BOTH 4 BOTH 5 BOTH 6 BOTH 7 UK 8 BOTH 9 US 10 UK 11 US 12 US

    4 Ask students to find the expressions in the text and write down what the text says about them.

    Answers1 non-selective and provide education for all children in a

    particular area 2 to attend these, children have to pass an entrance exam called

    the 11-plus3 privately educated Eton, Harrow and Winchester. These

    usually require the payment of high fees 4 pupils return home in the evenings5 all schools follow the same syllabus6 Some schools divide pupils into groups according to ability7 General Certificate of Secondary Education8 Advanced Level9 such as Visual Arts, Drama, Technology, Computer Science,

    Ecology, Creative Writing and Foreign Languages 10 they go to the same school but attend different courses and

    level of class 11 Scholastic Aptitude Test a multiple-choice test that takes

    about four hours and consists of verbal and mathematical parts 12 Grade Point Average the average score taken from all the

    grades in their final four years of high school

    5 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with the meanings.

    Answers1c 2k 3a 4h 5d 6f 7l 8b 9g 10j 11e 12i

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 7

    Intermediate

    4BPride and Prejudice

    BackgroundAlthough many couples in Britain live together without being married, many still choose to get married eventually, either in a religious ceremony or a civil ceremony in a register office. The question of money still enters into discussions about marriage, and people who have a large fortune may ask their partner to sign a pre-nuptial agreement before the marriage, setting out what the financial arrangements will be if the marriage ends in divorce.The novels of Jane Austen remain popular in Britain, and are regularly adapted into films or TV dramas. The novels are often studied by students aged 16 to 18 in British schools.

    PronunciATion

    Austen /"QstIn/dowry /"daUri/Hertfordshire /"hA;[email protected]@/Darcy /"dA:si/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the description of the novel and

    complete the notes.

    Answers1 18132 comedy of manners3 class4 marriage5 Hertfordshire6 Bennet7 five8 Lydia9 Bingley

    10 Jane11 Darcy12 Elizabeth

    3 Ask students to find the words and phrases in the text and match them to the meanings.

    Answers1 bachelor2 proposal3 inherit4 social barrier5 aristocratic6 social improvement7 comedy of manners8 dowry9 estate

    10 business transaction

    4 Ask students to read the extract and answer the questions.

    Answers1 Everyone knows that a rich, single man needs to find a wife. That

    marriage was more about money than love.2 at the family home3 this was the extremely formal usage of the time4 occupied/rented5 Mr Bennet avoids saying he does not want to hear about it, but

    is not really interested. As the author points out, this doesnt stop Mrs Bennet telling him anyway.

    6 horse-drawn (it is a carriage pulled by four horses)7 four or five thousand (pounds) a year a lot, in todays values8 because he is single and she wants one of her daughters to find

    a husband9 plan, intention 10 go to see Mr Bingley when he moves in

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 8

    Intermediate

    5Super size America; super size world?

    BackgroundThere was a time when the US was considered to be the land of obesity, but nowadays the number of overweight or obese young people is cause for government concern in both Britain and the US. In Britain, recent government initiatives include the compulsory reinstatement of proper cooked meals in schools, with strict limits on the amount of fat and sugar that can be included in the foods on the menu. The British government has also funded a TV advertising campaign encouraging families to become more active, and warning parents of the dangers to their children of not doing enough exercise.

    PronunciATion

    obesity /@"bi:[email protected]/nutritious /nju:"[email protected]/

    Notes on the unit1 Put students into pairs to match the food items to the

    numbers of calories. NOTE: the calories for pizza are for a whole pizza, not a slice.Answersa (cola) 162 b (burger) 760 c (glass of milk) 108 d (yoghurt) 90 e (apple) 44 f (pizza) 800

    2 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs. Conduct a class discussion when students have finished discussing in pairs.

    3 Ask students to read the text quickly and match the paragraph headings to the paragraphs.

    Answers1D 2F 3B 4A 5E 6C

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with the meanings. Check answers, and model pronunciation of obesity and nutritious.

    Answers1 obesity2 sedentary3 portion4 consumerism5 nutritious6 24/77 fizzy8 vigorous9 trebled

    10 diet11 chef12 vending

    5 Ask students to read the text again and decide if the statements are true or false.

    Answers1T 2F 3F 4T 5F 6T 7T 8F

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, or could keep a diary as homework and then write their email in the next lesson, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 9

    Intermediate

    6Ode on a Grecian Urn

    BackgroundJohn Keats is considered to be one of the greatest of the British Romantic poets, and his works remain popular. Works such as Ode on a Grecian Urn and others such as Ode to a Nightingale and To Autumn are often studied in British schools.

    PronunciATion

    Grecian /"gri:[email protected]/tuberculosis /tju:b3:kju"[email protected]/

    1 Ask students to read the text quickly and complete it with the missing words. Remind students that they shouldnt worry at this stage if they dont understand every word in the text

    Answers1 poetry 2 poet 3 sonnet 4 masterpieces 5 stanzas 6 odes 7 rhyming

    2 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with the definitions.

    Answersa wealthyb melancholyc apprenticed tombstone e lyricf cemeteryg guardianh flamei syllables

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 He often fought with other boys.2 He wrote poems in his notebooks.3 The poet Spenser.4 He was worried they would be too intense and that they would

    burn him up.5 The Greek poet Pindar. To celebrate the winners of the Olympics

    and other games6 To try to get well again.7 In the protestant cemetery in Testaccio, Rome.

    4 Ask students to read the extract from the poem and identify the lines which match each sentence. Students could work in pairs for this. Refer students to the glossary at the bottom of the page to help them.

    Answers1 lines 15/16 2 lines 3/4 3 lines 17/18 4 lines 11/12 5 lines 510 6 lines 1820 7 lines 1/2

    5 Ask students to find examples in the text. Do this as a whole class if you think students will find the task difficult individually.

    Answers1 Assonance

    0 Thou still unravishd bride of quietness, Thou foster-child of silence and slow time

    2 Alliteration Thou foster-child of silence and slow time, Sylvan historian, who canst thus express

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    AnswerKeats loves the idea that the life in this scene will never change, and that it will last forever, which suggests how much he feels that his own life will not last much longer. He died two years after writing the poem.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 10

    Intermediate

    7London West End Theatre

    BackgroundAlthough there are provincial theatres in most of Britains towns and cities, the West End remains the centre for British theatre. Some popular productions do go on tour, performing at theatres around the country, but most remain in the capital. People therefore travel to the capital for a night at the theatre, with the big hit musicals being the main attraction. Laurence Olivier (190789) is regarded as one of the best British actors of all time. He performed in many Shakespeare plays, and was director of the National Theatre for ten years.

    PronunciATion

    Drury Lane /"dru:ri "leIn/Nell Gwyn /nel "gwIn/Shaftesbury Avenue /"SA:ftsbri "&[email protected]:/Equus /"[email protected]/Laurence Olivier /"[email protected] @"lIvIeI/

    1 Ask students to discuss the questions in pairs, then conduct a class discussion.

    2 Ask students to read the text quickly and decide which paragraphs belong with each section.

    AnswersWhat the West End is: paragraph 1The early history of the West End: paragraph 2The history of the West End: paragraphs 35The West End today: paragraphs 67

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 15762 15993 16634 16725 16746 the 19th century7 the 19th century8 the end of the 19th century9 the post-war years

    10 2002

    4 Ask students to find the expressions in the text.

    Answers1 ad hoc 2 venues3 lease4 played host to5 backbone6 extravagant7 thrive8 attendances9 hit

    10 promotion

    5 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 it was in the west of the City of London; the centre of the West

    End theatre district, within four streets 2 in yards or large private houses 3 to build The Globe theatre 4 120 years 5 Shaftesbury Avenue 6 competition from films, high upkeep costs 7 the first new West End theatre since 19318 popular musical productions; famous film stars on stage and

    directing 9 the London Theatre Guide; the SOLT website

    10 it runs Kids Week

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs. You might want to review useful language for report writing (increase, decrease, remain unchanged, a slight / sharp increase / decrease).

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 11

    Intermediate

    8AEnglish-speaking capitals

    BackgroundAs well as the United Kingdom, the US, and Canada, English is an official language in over 50 countries in all parts of the world. These include countries in Africa (South Africa, Kenya, Zimbabwe), the West Indies (Jamaica, Barbados), Asia (India, Pakistan) and Oceania (Australia, New Zealand). Most of these countries are ex British colonies. Canada has two official languages, English and French.

    PronunciATion

    Canberra /"k&[email protected]@/Pretoria /[email protected]"tO:[email protected]/Ottawa /"[email protected]@/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the texts and put the cities in

    order according to size.

    Answers1 London 2 Pretoria 3 Ottawa 4 Kingston 5 Washington 6 Canberra

    3 Ask students to work in pairs to read their texts and tell their partner things they found interesting.

    4 Ask students to read all the texts and complete the table.

    AnswersCanberra: Australia / Lake Burley Griffin & botanic gardensKingston: Jamaica / Marley Museum & University of the West IndiesOttawa: Canada / Rideau Canal & museums/art galleriesPretoria: South Africa / Church Square & Church StreetWashington: United States / Capitol, Jefferson Memorial & White HouseLondon: United Kingdom / the gherkin & One Canada Square

    5 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with the meanings.

    Answers1 skyline2 located3 founded4 dedicated to5 nicknamed6 artificial7 administrative8 descent9 landmark

    10 judicial11 commuters12 legislative

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 12

    Intermediate

    8BAustralia: Going to live Down under

    BackgroundAs is discussed in the text, although modern Australia is a very cosmopolitan country, and is a popular place to emigrate to, white Australia has a history of racism towards both the Aborigines and non-white immigrants to the country. The Australian government has in recent years made an official apology to the Aborigines for the way in which they were treated by the European settlers. Many Aborigines in Australia would like the government to pay compensation, especially to the so-called Stolen Generations the children who were forcibly taken from their parents to be brought up as white children.

    PronunciATion

    marsupial /mA:"su:[email protected]/Ayers Rock /"[email protected] rQk/Aborigines /&[email protected]"[email protected]/Tasmania /t&z"[email protected]/

    1 Ask students what they know about Australia. Ask them to complete the paragraph with the words and numbers.

    Answers1 7.6 2 32 3 19 4 2600 5 coral 6 outback 7 monolith 8 348 9 marsupials 10 harbour

    2 Encourage students to speculate on the possible reasons for emigration. Ask them to read the text quickly, not worrying about understanding every word, to check their answers.

    Answerscorrect reasons: 1, 3, 4, 6

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 Aborigines/Aboriginals, Africa2 it wasnt worth colonizing 3 to send prisoners there; the British jails were full up4 making a new start, sheep farming, gold5 with great cruelty 6 to keep out people they didnt want7 by paying for their tickets and giving them temporary homes8 Asia; the end of the discriminatory White Australia policy

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with their meanings.

    Answers1c 2g 3j 4e 5a 6f 7i 8k 9l 10d 11h 12b

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Put students into groups for this task. When students have given their speeches, you could go on to have a class discussion on questions of immigration in general.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 13

    Intermediate

    9ABritains unruly teenagers

    BackgroundThere is much political debate in Britain about what can be done to tackle the problems described in the text. Some politicians suggest stricter controls on the sale of alcohol and harsher penalties for youngsters who behave in antisocial ways. Others favour improved education in schools, and offering more support services to young people and their families.

    PronunciATion

    dysfunctional /dIs"[email protected]/binge-drinking /"bIndZ "drINkIN/cyberbullying /"[email protected]/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the text quickly, not worrying

    about understanding every word, to identify the writers aim.

    AnswerB

    3 Ask students to read the text again and find words to match the meanings.

    Answers1 well-being2 dysfunctional3 broken homes4 binge-drinking5 step-families6 peers7 barely8 bullying9 marginalized

    10 affluence

    4 Ask students to read the text again and complete the notes.

    Answers1 21st 2 67 3 50 4 16 5 25 6 54 7 60 8 13

    5 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 try harder to keep families together2 those from one-parent and step-families3 they hardly speak to each other4 feeling stressed because of the need to achieve or behave in

    certain ways5 an advice service which helps young people over the phone6 not eating fruit and not having breakfast7 by sending emails, text messages and chatroom messages

    mobile phone/the Internet; join in with the bullying8 They obtain data and then use it elsewhere on the Internet; to

    humiliate their victims9 using violence against people, filming it on their phones and

    then passing it on to others, online or by sending phone video 10 regarded as unimportant, of lesser value than other people 11 why young people are not made happier by all the valuable

    items they own

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 14

    Intermediate

    9Bcarol Ann Duffy We Remember Your Childhood Well

    BackgroundAs discussed in the text, Carol Ann Duffy is a successful modern poet whose poems are studied by schoolchildren in Britain as part of their GCSE and A level exams. In May 2009 she was named as the new Poet Laureate, the traditional role of poet to the Royal Family. This poem, We remember your childhood well, explores the concept of false memory syndrome, i.e. whether the memories of people who feel they suffered terribly as children are really reliable.1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the extract and answer the questions.

    AnswersA child is in a geography lesson, probably at primary school, while the teacher recites the names of places in Africa. It is spoken by the child herself, probably the poet recalling her own childhood memories of sights and sounds at school. The poem is an example of a dramatic monologue.

    3 Ask students to read the text and answer the questions.

    Answers1 Glasgow and Stafford; working class/left-wing2 when she was sixteen3 Philosophy4 Whoever She Was5 six6 rather like a speech from a play: a character speaks, giving clues

    to the sort of person they are, who they are speaking to, and the situation

    7 became required reading in schools throughout the country8 OBE, CBE

    4 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answersscriptwriter (writing scripts for television shows or dramas), freelance writer (self-employed writing), poetry editor (deciding which poetry should be published in the magazine), author of picture books (writing), playwright (writing plays), lecturer (teaching in a university), creative director (deciding what should be taught at the writing school)

    5 Ask students to read the poem quickly and answer the question.

    AnswerA

    6 Ask students to find words and phrases in the poem to match the meanings.

    Answers1 a blur 2 Anyones guess 3 begged 4 called the tune 5 older and wiser 6 firm 7 ended in tears

    7 Ask students to read the poem again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 A grown-up child. He or she is speaking for both parents. The

    parent is saying they have the facts. 2 Convince the son/daughter that he/she had a happy childhood,

    was well looked after. The child has accused them of various things. He/she might be upset/bitter/ angry.

    3 They are all statements denying accusations by the child. There is tension between them the child is not being given the chance to discuss these matters. The impression of a determined and very authoritarian personality is given extra force.

    4 They are imagining things, have false memories. He/she probably feels that life is awful because of this horrible childhood.

    5 turned off the light, the bad man on the moors, locked the door, forced you, the secret police, bigger than you, sent you away, ended in tears, laid you wide open for Hell

    6 Boom. Boom. Boom. 7 The sentences are short or very short. It gives the poem

    a certain rhythm, creating the feeling that the speaker is uncomfortable, and trying to think of answers quickly, but nevertheless doesnt feel the need to explain anything fully.

    8 The rhymes are internal (within lines) and at the ends of some lines: occur/blur, less/guess, tune/boom, fears/tears, Hell/well

    9 To show that parents have the last word we always know better, they seem to be saying.

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    AnswerThe parents reassurance is unconvincing, for various reasons such as the way he or she shifts ground: That didnt occur. You couldnt sing anyway, cared less, or the way the parent claims to know the childs own feelings better than he or she ever did you wanted to go that day. Begged and people/You seemed to like. But the reality of what happened probably lies between the two versions.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

  • 10ATransport in London

    BackgroundPublic transport in London, including the underground, is administered by an agency called Transport for London, overseen by the Mayor of London. The underground network, as stated in the text, is the oldest in the world, and many people feel that it now needs some major investment to bring it up to 21st century standards. In an attempt to encourage more people to use public transport in London, a congestion charge was introduced in 2003, which requires people to pay a charge every time they bring their cars into central London. Top Gear is a popular TV motoring programme which reviews and trials new cars. The presenters are known for their love of fast cars and their scepticism about the need for people to reduce their personal use of cars. 1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to speculate on the meaning of the title.

    Ask them to read the text quickly to check the answer.

    AnswerBe careful getting on or off: there is a space (gap) between the platform and the train.

    3 Ask students to read the text again and decide if the statements are true or false.

    Answers1F 2F 3T 4T 5F 6F 7T 8F (this goes against the usual pattern of keeping left in Britain, e.g. on the roads, but the idea is that most people are right-handed, and would feel more comfortable using their right-hand to steady themselves on the escalator)

    4 Ask students to find words in the text to match the clues, and complete the crossword.

    AnswersAcross: 1 rush hour 4 passengers 7 daily 8 line 10 track 12 zone 13 tunnel Down: 2 station 3 rise 5 network 6 escalator 8 lift 9 Tube 11 run

    5 Ask students to speculate on which form of transport won. Ask them to read the review to check their answer.

    Answerthe bicycle

    6 Ask students to read the review again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 it hardly ever moves2 the posh presenter on the BBC show Top Gear (this is a

    common joke on the programme, because he once trained as a classical pianist); nobody knows

    3 he had recently had a very bad experience in a car4 in motor-racing clothes and helmet5 mad about cars and other powered vehicles; a bicycle beat the

    others6 uses a lot of petrol; his car was wasteful of energy

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

    New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 15

    Intermediate

  • 10BWilfred owen Dulce et Decorum Est

    BackgroundWilfred Owen is one of the best-known First World War poets, and his poems convey the horrific reality of war. The title of the poem is the first part of a Latin sentence, which is repeated at the end of the poem. It means: It is sweet and honourable to die for your country.

    PronunciATion

    Siegfried Sassoon /"si:gfri:d [email protected]"su:n/Craiglockhart /kreIg"[email protected]/Scarborough /"skA:[email protected]/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the text quickly, not worrying

    about understanding every word, and find the answer to the question.

    Answer 25

    3 Ask students to read the text again and decide if the statements are true or false.

    Answers1T 2F 3T 4F 5T 6F 7T 8T 9F 10T

    4 Ask students to find words to match the meanings.

    Answers1 enlist 2 corps (ps silent) 3 commission 4 battalion 5 barbed wire 6 military strategy 7 no-mans land 8 dug-out 9 bombardment 10 shell 11 evacuated 12 armistice

    5 Ask students to read the poem and then complete the summary.

    Answers1 marched 2 boots 3 gas 4 drowning 5 wagon 6 lungs 7 lie 8 glory

    6 Ask students to read the poem again and guess the meaning of the words.

    Answers1 the noise of the shells as they fall to earth (similar to the sound that owls make) 2 not easy to use 3 shouting out 4 walk 5 This is an onomatopaeic word. When you move liquid around the back of your throat, and then spit it out, you make a noise which sounds like the word gargle.

    7 Ask students to find the words in the poem and match them with their approximate meanings.

    Answers1d 2e 3f 4a 5b 6c In poems, words are often chosen for their sounds as much as their meaning, which is why the precise meaning is not so important. If you really want to go into the more precise meaning of some of the difficult words:beggars: people asking you for money in the streethags: very old peopleknock-kneed: with badly shaped legs, so that the knees knock together as they walktrudge: to walk slowly and as if its very hard worklimped: walked as if they were injuredlame: with a permanent injury that makes walking difficultfumbling: searching with your hands, as if you cant seestumbling: walking unsteadily, nearly falling overfloundering: having difficulty holding on, as if drowningguttering: making deep noises from the throatchoking: unable to breathe, as when you have food stuck in your throatsmothering: when something covers your mouth, stopping air getting in

    8 Ask students to read the poem again and answer the questions, either individually or in pairs.

    Answers1 on alternate lines /ABAB/ 2 The s alliteration is like the sound of escaping gas. 3 The glass is green, so he says that he saw the man drowning As

    under a green sea. 4 He still sees the man in his dreams every night, so it is not a past

    event for him. 5 It emphasizes just how shocked he was to see the change in the

    mans face. 6 Possibly parents, politicians, pro-war propagandists including

    other poets of the time. 7 It has been repeated so often that it is taken as an eternal truth. 8 He doesnt compare what he sees to the noble and the glorious,

    but to the ugly, the disgusting and the evil: like old beggars, like hags, like a man in fire or lime, like a devils sick of sin, obscene as cancer, bitter as the cud.

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

    New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 16

    Intermediate

  • 11Sir Arthur conan Doyle Hound of the Baskervilles

    BackgroundThe Sherlock Holmes stories remain popular in Britain, but the character of Sherlock Holmes is perhaps better known through the many films and TV adaptations of the stories. Extracts from works by Conan Doyle are used in English literature classes for ten- to thirteen-year-old pupils in Britain.

    PronunciATion

    Sherlock Holmes /"S3:lQk "[email protected]/Ignatius /Ig"[email protected]/Conan Doyle /"[email protected]@n "dOIl/Plymouth /"[email protected]/Baskervilles /"b&[email protected]/Moriarty /mQri"A:ti/

    1 Ask students to write their lists individually, then compare with a partner.

    2 Ask students to read the text quickly and answer the question.

    Answersmedicine, politics, miscarriages of justice, spiritualism

    3 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them to the definitions.

    Answers1e 2j 3c 4i 5f 6a 7h 8b 9d 10g

    4 Ask students to read the text again and decide if the sentences are true or false. Ask them to correct the false sentences.

    Answers1F (He told amazing stories at school.)2F (A Study in Scarlet was his first detective novel.)3F (He found his greatest success as a writer of detective novels.)4F (He stopped because he wanted to write more serious literature.)5T6F (He proved the men were innocent, and as a result of this the men were released.)7F (The most famous line from the films is Elementary my dear Watson!)

    5 Ask students to read the extract quickly and answer the question.

    AnswerThey have seen an animal that looks like an enormous hound.

    6 Ask students to find words in the extract to match the meanings.

    Answers1 moor 2 hound 3 ghost 4 hall 5 to tear 6 footprints 7 lawyers 8 throat 9 sensible

    7 Ask students to read the extract again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 Because he hadnt been called earlier to come and look at

    where the killing had happened.2 Because many people have seen the enormous animal that they

    think has killed Sir Charles.3 Because it has left footprints on the ground.4 The last living member of the Baskerville family.5 Because he doesnt know what to do with Sir Henry.6 To say nothing to Sir Henry, but bring him to meet him.

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    AnswerThe typical sequence of events in a classic detective story is: (1) the seemingly perfect crime; (2) the wrongly accused suspect, (3) the mistakes of dim-witted police; (4) the greater powers of observation of the detective; and (5) the surprising ending, in which the detective reveals how the identity of the criminal was found.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

    New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 17

    Intermediate

  • 12AThe American revolution

    BackgroundThe war which led to the independence of the United States from Britain is usually referred to in the United States as the American Revolution or American Revolutionary War. In Britain, it is usually called the American War of Independence. The relationship between the UK and the US has remained strong since American independence, and politicians on both sides of the Atlantic are keen to emphasize the special relationship between the two countries.

    PronunciATion

    Thomas Jefferson /"[email protected] "[email protected]@n/Mohawk Indians /"[email protected]:k "[email protected]/

    1 Ask students to read the sentences and choose the correct answers.

    2 Ask students to read the text quickly to check their answers to exercise 1.

    Answers1 17th Century 2 1775 3 thirteen 4 July 4th 5 George Washington

    3 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them to their definitions.

    Answers1h 2i 3g 4e 5f 6d 7a 8c 9j 10b

    4 Ask students to find the words in the text and work out their meanings.

    Answers1 fight2 pay for3 stopping using4 got onto/entered5 a group of non-professional soldiers6 take away from

    5 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 The arguments between Britain and France over colonies in

    North America.2 It was no longer a major power in North America.3 To help pay for cost of defending North America from the

    French.4 Because they did not come with any political representation.5 December 17736 To take the weapons away from the local militias.7 The United Colonies of America8 It asked for a more egalitarian society.9 With money, weapons, ships, and soldiers.

    10 1783

    6 Ask students to read the text about George Washington and complete it with the correct phrases.

    Answers1c 2e 3a 4f 5b 6d

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

    New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 18

    Intermediate

  • 12BSamuel Pepys Diary

    BackgroundAs discussed in the text, the diary of Samuel Pepys is the best surviving record of ordinary life in London in the seventeenth century. It is not widely read as a work of literature, but remains an important reference for historians, especially social historians, interested in this period. Children in primary schools in Britain often learn about the Great Plague and Great Fire of London.

    PronunciATion

    Pepys /pi:ps/plague /pleIg/Magdalene College /"mO:dlIn "kQlIdZ/Quakers /"[email protected]/

    1 Discuss the questions as a class.2 Ask students to read the text quickly, then find the

    words in the text and match them with the definitions.

    Answers1c 2e 3a 4b 5d

    3 Ask students to read the text again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 10, but only 3 survived childhood2 Because he was Pepys fathers cousin3 From 166016694 The period when the monarchy was brought back.5 The Great Plague and the Great Fire of London6 31st May 16697 In the Pepys Library in Magdalene College, Cambridge

    4 Ask students to read the diary entries quickly and do the matching exercise.

    AnswersA2 B1 C1 D3

    5 Ask students to find the words in the diary entries and match them with the definitions.

    Answers1d 2e 3g 4c 5b 6a 7f

    6 Ask students to read the diary entries again and answer the questions.

    Answers1 Just after one oclock in the morning2 A red cross3 6,102 officially, but probably nearly 10,0004 The Tower of London5 In a bakery in Pudding Lane6 They got into boats, or climbed along the stairs at the side of

    the river.

    7 Ask students to read the text about the Great Fire and find out what the numbers refer to.

    Answers1666: the year of the Great Fire9: the number of people that died in the fire87: the number of churches destroyed13,000: the number of houses destroyed100,000: the number of Londoners killed by the Great Plague202: the height in feet of the Monument311: the number of stairs in the Monument

    What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class.

    PROJECT

    Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.

    New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teachers Guide 19

    Intermediate

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New Headway Intermediate Culture and Literature Companion Teacher’s Guide 1 Intermediate 1A The British Empire Background The text explains just how big the British Empire was, and how it has influenced the character of the countries it included, as well as Britain’s. Many aspects of the British character can be better understood when remembering the enormous transition Britain experienced in the 20th century. In quite a short space of time, it went from being the leading world power to having to play a much smaller role in world politics. PronunciATion Cabot /"k&[email protected]/ Falkland /"fO:[email protected]/ Gibraltar /dZI"brO:[email protected]/ reign /rein/ Notes on the unit 1 Read the rubric explaining the meaning of colonize and colonies. Ask students to match the countries and former colonies. Answers 1e 2d 3c 4a 5f 6b 2 Ask if anyone can guess what ‘e sun never set …’ means in relation to the British Empire. Answer As the text explains, it means that the Empire covered so much of the world that it was always daylight somewhere in the British Empire. Ask students to match paragraphs 1–6 with the summaries of the paragraphs a–f. Answers 1d 2b 3f 4e 5a 6c 3 Ask students to answer the questions, alone or in pairs. Answers 1 a quarter of the world’s population 2 the rise of the navy 3 the Dutch 4 for a time, it had its own army and ruled an entire country 5 positives: form of government, legal system, language, sports, abolition of slave trade; negatives: slave trade prior to abolition, non-industrialization owing to dependency on Empire trade, atrocities 6 the American War of Independence 7 an association of 53 countries which were once British colonies 8 Spain – Gibraltar 4 Ask students to find the words in the text and match them with their meanings. Answers 1h 2j 3b 4f 5k 6c 7i 8l 9a 10e 11d 12g What do you think? Discuss as a class, or first in pairs/groups, and then as a class. It’s worth pointing out that the population of the colonized countries did not always feel resentment and hatred towards the colonizers. A good example was Jamaica, where many people felt great respect and admiration for ‘the mother country’, Britain. PROJECT Students can do this as homework, but could also prepare it in class, working in pairs.
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