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Liquid Liquid Separation Technology

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Liquid-Liquid Separation Technology Sulzer Chemtech
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  • Liquid-Liquid Separation Technology

    Sulzer Chemtech

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 1 20.09.12 09:19

  • Introduction

    2

    Content Page

    Introduction 2

    ProductSummary 4

    Mellaplate 6

    FeedInletsandCalmingBaffles 9

    DCCoalescer 10

    DusecCoalescer 11

    WashTankDistributor 14

    TestingandNewDevelopments 15

    In industrial process equipments liquid-liquidmixturesareproducedbyessentiallytwodifferentmechanisms.

    a) Mixingofthephasesineitherpurpose-built equipment, mechanical mixers,staticmixerswherepressureenergyisappliedtoincreasethesurfacefreeen-ergyof thefluids toproducedroplets,or inshearflowof thefluidmixture inpipes.

    b)Thecoolingofasaturatedliquidbelowthe solution point so that the solutephase condenses out of solution re-sultingintheformationofasecondliq-uidphase.Thistakesplacefrequentlyin storage tanks and in processesdownstreamofcondensersorcoolers

    Whentwophasesareformed,thismixtureismostoften in the formofadispersion(droplets of one phase distributed in thesecondorcontinuousphase).Themixtureis thermodynamically unstable, meaningthatgiventime,thedropletswillseparateout to form twobulk liquid phases. Thistakes place by droplets coalescing bothwith near neighbor droplets (drop-drop

    The Brownian force additionally acts onsmallerdropletsinafluid.Aneverydayex-ampleisseeninabeamofsunlightwheredustparticlesintheairareseentoshim-mer,therandommotionbeingduetothebombardmentof thesmalldustparticlesby air molecules. The dust particles af-fectedinthiswayareinthesizerangeof0.1~2mm.Largerparticlesarenotaffect-edinthisway.Inasimilarmannersmallerliquid droplets in a liquid continuum areso affected and since the settling veloc-ityduetogravityofsuchdroplets isverylow, therandommotion impartedonthedropletsbyBrownianmotionturnsouttobeoftheorderofthesettlingvelocity.Thenetresult is thatdroplets in thisrangeofsizeswillnotsettleoutandthereforearenotamenabletogravitysettlingmethods.Such dispersions are called secondarydispersions.Technically theyarestill ther-modynamicallyunstablebutthekineticsofseparation by gravity only is so low thatformostpurposestheyappearstable.Se-condarydispersionscannotbeseparatedeffectively in gravity or primary separati-on equipment and require different tech-niquesforseparation.

    coalescence)andwiththebulkphaseasthis forms and settles from the mixture(drop-interface coalescence). The kinet-ics,orrateatwhichtheseprocessestakeplace,determinetheselectionanddesignof equipment. The driving force promot-ingcoalescence isgravityand inagivensystemisproportionaltor g,rbeingthedensitydifferencebetweenthetwoliq-uidphases.Thediameterofthedropletsisacriticalparameter. Indeterminingthesettling velocity in a liquid-liquid disper-sionthedropletsizecombinedwithr gwilldefinethesettlingforceonadroplet.This separation principle is governed bytheStokesLawwhichisdefinedas:

    Where:

    vd Settlingvelocityofadispersed droplet

    Dr Densitydifferencebetweenthe twoliquidphases

    d Dropsizediameter

    mc Dynamicviscosityofcontinuous phase

    g Gravitationalacceleration

    g |Dr| d2

    18 mcvd =

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 2 20.09.12 09:19

  • Introduction

    3

    The simplest forms of equipment usedto separate dispersions are horizontal orvertical gravity settling tanks. The capac-ityofsuchvesselsdecreasesastherateofcoalescenceandseparationdecreases.Therefore, there will be circumstanceswhere the dimensions of such vesselsare uneconomical for some applicationsand methods to improve the separationkineticsneed tobeapplied.Thiscanbeachievedbyincreasingthedrivingforcetoacceleratethestepsinthemechanismofcoalescence.

    Sulzer offers a range of equipment de-signed to accelerate the separation ofeither primary or secondary immiscibleliquiddispersions.Coalescers -and theirinherent benefits - are today often con-sidered preferable to conventional grav-ity separators. Figure 1 gives a simpleoverview of how primary and secondarydispersionsareusuallyformedandwhichSulzercoalescersaresuitabletoseparatethesedispersions.

    Immiscible Dispersions

    Typically Formed

    Deliberately By:

    LowShearProcessessuchas:

    SolventExtractionMixerSettlersSteamStrippingWashingProcessesCounter-currentTowers

    Creating Primary Dispersions:

    CoarsedropletdistributionPredominantly>30mSeparatereadilyundergravity

    Waxyfeeds?SolidsContent?LowPressureDrop?

    Accidentally By:

    HighShear&ThermalProcess-essuchas:

    CentrifugalPumpsChokeValvesCondensationofImmiscibleLiquidsEntrainedDispersionfromPrimarySeparationsSub-coolingofLiquidsinStorage

    Creating Secondary Dispersions:

    FinelydisperseddropletsTypically1-30mSlowtoseparateundergravityAppearanceoftenhazy

    SeparatedUsing

    MellaplateCoalescers

    SeparatedUsing

    DCCoalescers

    DusecCoalescers

    Dusec PlusCoalescers

    Separated Using

    Fig. 1: Overview about Formation of Dispersion and suitable Sulzer Coalescer Types

    Yes No

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 3 20.09.12 09:19

  • 4Type of Separator

    MellaplateTM

    DCCoalescerTM

    DusecTM

    DusecPlusTM

    ShellSchoepentoeterTMandSchoepentoeterPlusTMInletDevice

    GIRZCycloneInletDevice

    Materials

    StainlesssteelsAlloy625,825

    Theseareproducedbytwodissimilarfilamentsknittedtogethertoformthemesh.OnefilamentisametallicwiremadeofstainlesssteeloralloyC22,C276,400,625or800andtheotherismadeofPP,FEP,ETFE,PTFE,orglassfibers

    Incartridgeformwiththeliquidflowingfromthecenterradiallyoutwards,theDusecandDusecPlusCoalescerconsistofase-lectionoffibermaterials.

    Stainlesssteels,Alloy625,825

    Stainlesssteels,Alloy625,825

    Applications

    Improvedseparationefficiency.Twophasesdisengagecontinuouslyalongtheplateorsheets.Improvedflowstability.Reducedriskofdropletre-entrainment.Verysuitableinsystemssusceptibletofoulingwithincreasedplateangleandplatespacing.Efficiencymaintainedevenwithphaseinversionofdispersedliquid.Suitableforoperationwithagasphase.

    Improvedseparationefficiency.Highercapacitiesallowde-bottleneckingofconventionalseparators.Largecostsavingsinpressurevessels.Efficiencymaintainedevenwithphaseinversionofdispersedliquid.Highfreevolumemeanssmallerpressuredrop.

    Fibertopologyandsurfacepropertiescombinedwithoptimizedlayercompositionsmeanhigherefficiency.Separationefficiencydownto10ppmentrainmentoffreedroplets.Higherloadingsandabsenceofjettingfromouterlayersmeanhigherpackingdensities.Smallervesselsizemeanscapitalcostreduction.Pressuredropminimized.Quickperformancerecoveryfollowingfeedconditionchanges.

    TheSchoepentoeteristhemostcommon-lyusedvaneinletdeviceforintroducinggas/liquidmixturesintocolumns.TheSchoepentoeterPlusisanadvancedfeedinletvanedevicewithconsiderablyincreasedde-entrainmentefficiency.Bothdevicessuppressandminimizetheturbulenceintheinletcompartmentoftheseparator.Entryofgasintotheliquidphaseislow.

    TheGIRZisusedasadefoamingcyclonicinletdevicetosuppressandbreakmanytypesofprocessfoams.Sometypicalapplicationsincludefreewaterknockoutdrums,flashdrums,testseparators,2and3-phaseproductionseparators.

    Product Summary

    0604 2507-4

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 4 20.09.12 09:19

  • 5Typical Operational Range

    Applicableforprimarydispersions.Dependingonthetypeused,Mellaplatecoalescerscanoperateatseparationfluxesofupto100m3/m2h.Comparedtoemptysettlersimprovedcut-offdiam-etersareachievedduetoshortersettlingdistancebetweenplates.

    Applicableforprimarydispersions.Lowcut-offdiameters,thereforeextendedrangeofoperation.Thelowerlimitisatornearthetransitionregionfromprimarytosecondarydispersioni.e.,cut-offdropletsize~30-40m.DependingontheDCCoalescertypeandapplication,highseparationfluxesofupto120m3/m2hcanbeachieved.

    Applicableforsecondarydispersionswherethedropletsaresosmalltheydonotreadilywetasurfaceorsettleundergravitytypicaldropsizesareintherangeof1to30microns.Designedtoachievehighperformancewithminimumpressuredrop,theDusecPlusmodelprovidesahighcapacityalter-nativetoconventionalDuseccartridges.Thesmallerdiameterandincreasedpack-ingdensitymakeitsuitableformaximizingtheeffectiveareaofthecoalescermediainagivensizeofvessel.

    Generallydesignedatdynamicpressures70vol%.Suitableforinstallationinhorizontalorverticalseparators.Suitableforliquidslugs.

    TheGIRZcyclonicinletdeviceutilizesthemomentumofthefeedstreaminletinor-dertogeneratehighg-forces.Defoamingisachievedasgasbubblesareseparatedfromtheliquidphasebythecentripetalforcesinthecyclonetubes.Gasisre-leasedfromthetopofthedeviceandthebottomopeningofthecyclonesissub-mergedbelowtheliquidintheseparatorinordertoavoidagasblowout.

    Characteristics

    MellaplateWismadeupofasetofparallelplatesthatisfittedintoavesselintheseparationsectionsuchthattheplaneoftheplatesisarrangedintheaxialdirectionofthevessel.Theplatesarenormallyinclinedtotheaxisatanangleof45or60.Theplatespacingisoftheorderof15to100mm.MellaplateM,MGandNaremadeupofstructuredcor-rugatedmetalorplasticsheets.Highpackingdensitymeansmoresheetsinagivenvesselvolume.

    Manufacturedasaknittedwiremeshpacking.Canbeeasilycustomizedtosuitmostvesselshapesandsizes.DCCoalescersaresensitivetothepresenceofsolidsinthefeed.Typically,particlesizesbelow~50mdonotcauseexcessiveblockage.

    DusecandDusecPluscoalescersaresuppliedascar-tridges.Scopeofsupplyusuallyincludessupportsandmountingplatesuitablefordirectinstallationinavesselofeitherhorizontalorverticalorientation.Cartridgesareavailableforhighlyaggressivechemicalenvironmentsandhightemperatureapplications.

    Constructedfrombanksofsweptvanes.Designsavail-ableforoperationinmostgas/liquidflowregimes.TheSchoepentoeterPlusisequippedwithsophisticatedcatchingrimstominimizeentrainment.

    TheGIRZconsistsofanarrangementoftwoormorecyclonessymmetricallyarrangedoffacommon,central-lylocatedheader.Thedevicecanbeinstalledinverticalorhorizontalvessels.Ifrequired,mixingelementsatthecyclonegasoutletwillimprovethedistributiontothedownstreamdevice.

    Product Summary

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 5 20.09.12 09:19

  • Mellaplate

    6

    Sulzer MellaplateTM Type W

    Thistypeofcoalescerconsistsofacombi-nationofinclinedparallelplates,withfixedspacing,so thatdropletsettlingdistanceisreducedsignificantlyandthisenhancesthe coalescence process. The inclinedarrangement of plates allows the liquidphases to disengage diagonally towardsthe liquid interface. The flow is normallykeptinthelaminarregionforbettersepa-ration performance. The inclination andthe spacing between the plates is deter-

    SulzeroffersMellaplateTMcoalescers,whichenhancetheseparationprocessbyallowingthereducingthedropletsettlingdistance,thusaidingthecoalescenceofthedroplets.

    SulzerMellaplatecoalescersareavail-ableinfourdifferenttypes:

    Construction Form

    Relative Capacity 1)

    Typical droplet cut-off size

    Pressure drop

    Solids Handling

    Remarks

    Mellaplate W

    Flatparallelplates

    1

    50m

    Negligible

    Highfoulingresistance

    Mellaplate MG

    Structuredcorrugatedflatplates

    1.5

    100m

    0.54mbar

    Goodtohighfoulingresistance

    Mellaplate M

    Structuredcorrugatedmetalsheets

    1.5

    50m

    110mbar

    Moderatetogoodfoulingresistance

    Alsousedaswaveandfoambreakerelements

    Mellaplate N

    Structuredcorrugatedplasticsheets

    1.5

    50m

    1.515mbar

    Moderatetogoodfoulingresistance

    Moresuitedforde-oilingduetotheplasticsurface

    Table A 1)ValuesarerelativetoMellaplateWtype

    mined by the application, the nature ofcontaminantspresent in themixtureandthedegreeofseparationneeded.Typically,the angle is either 45 or 60 with platespacing from15 to100mm.Due to thehigh fouling resistance, theMellaplateW(Fig.2) is, forexample,used incrudeoilproduction separators. It is also ideal forretrofittinganexistinggravitysettlertoop-erateatahigherthroughputandimprovetheseparationperformance.

    From the construction aspect, the Mel-laplateWcanbemadeinmodularframearrangementorboxes(Fig.3).Alternative-ly,itcanalsobeconstructedinonepiece(Fig. 4) for vessels with access throughthe body flange. Experienced engineersatSulzercanassistyouindesigningthisseparator to ensure trouble-free installa-tionandoperation.

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 6 20.09.12 09:19

  • 7Mellaplate

    Fig. 2a: Sulzer Mellaplate W

    Fig. 2b: Sulzer Mellaplate W

    Fig. 3: Frame and Box Arrangement

    Fig. 4: One Piece Sulzer Mellaplate W

    Framearrangement Boxarrangement

    0611 2505-4

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 7 20.09.12 09:20

  • 8Mellaplate

    TheSulzerMellaplateCoalescer typesW,M,MGandN canbe used flexibly in ei-therhorizontalorverticalvessels.Atypicalsketch of a 3-phase separator is shown

    SulzerMellachevronmisteliminator

    SulzerMellaplateMwaveandfoambreaker

    ShellSchoepentoeterinletdevice

    Calmingbaffleplate

    SulzerMellaplateWcoalescer

    Weir

    Sulzer MellaplateTM Type M, MG and N

    This type of coalescer is made of struc-tured corrugatedmetal or plastic sheets(Fig. 5). Various universities and oil com-panieshavetestedMellaplateM,MGandNtypesinoil/waterseparatorsalsoundermoving conditions. Sulzer supplied thefirstMellaplatein1988fortheHuttonTen-sionLegPlatform(TLP)inUK.Sincethenhundreds of oil/water separators havebeenequippedwithvariousMellaplateM,MGandNstyles.Somehavebeenusedaswavebreakersordampersinoil/waterseparatorsonTLPsandFPSOs(FloatingProductionStorageandOffloading).

    Fig. 5: Sulzer Mellaplate - M

    Vessel Arrangement with Sulzer MellaplateTM Coalescer

    Fig. 6: Horizontal 3-phase separator

    below(Fig.6)whichshowstheSulzerMel-laplateWascoalescerandtheMellaplateMaswavebreakingdevice.

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 8 20.09.12 09:20

  • 9Inlet Devices

    Feed Inlets

    For two phase liquid/liquid separators orthreephaseseparators,itisimportantthattheflowinthevesselisequalized.

    Any turbulence or disturbances such asflowvariations,surgesorexternalmotionmaysignificantlycompromisethesepara-tionefficiency.Separatorsinanupstreamoil and gas environment are particularlyexposed to such problems. Sulzer inletdevices help to significantly improve theflowdistributionacrossthevesselwithoutcausingdropletstoshatter.

    Fig. 8b: Calming baffle boxes in front of a Mellaplate W

    Fig. 8a: Calming baffle plate

    Fig. 7: CFD prediction of axial velocity distribu-tion after the second baffle of a two calming baffle arrangement

    Calming Baffles

    Sulzer recommends using the calmingbaffle in all liquid/liquid andgas/liquid/liq-uidseparators,eitheroperatedassimplegravity settler or equipped with SulzerMellaplateorDCCoalescer.Thesebafflesareprovidedwithuniformholeswhichareoptimized to achieve good flow distribu-tion and minimize any turbulence in theliquid phases towards the coalescer in-ternals. Depending on the type of appli-cations,twocalmingbafflesmaybeused.

    Fora3-phaseseparator,dependingon thecharacteristicand inletmomentumof thefeedmixture,differenttypesofinletsaresuitable:

    Elbowpipe

    Halfopenpipe

    ShellSchoe-pentoeterTM

    vanetypeinlet

    SulzerGIRZcyclonicinlet

    Suitabilityforlargegasvol.

    fraction

    +

    +++

    +++

    InletMomentum

    +

    ++

    +++

    Defoaming

    +

    +++

    Degassing

    ++

    +++

    RelativeCostofDevice

    $

    $$

    $$$

    $$$$

    Table B

    0.115 m/s

    0.102

    0.090

    0.077

    0.064

    0.051

    0.038

    0.026

    0.013

    0-000

    CDE = 15

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 9 20.09.12 09:20

  • 10

    DC Coalescer

    Sulzer DC CoalescerTM

    TheSulzerDCCoalescerTechnologyprovidessignificantlylowersettling times forprimarydispersionswithdroplets as small as30microns.

    Whilethedropletspassthroughthecoalescer,theygrowinsizethrough a continuous process of coalescing and draining. Thefastersettlingvelocityofcoalesceddroplets leadstominimizedvesseldimensionsasopposedtogravityseparationalone.

    Thecoalescerusesacombinationoftwomaterialswithdifferentsurfacefreeenergytypicallymetalandplastictoenhancethedropletcoalescenceofbothphases(Figure9).

    Theco-knittedSulzerDCCoalesceroutperformssinglemediumalternativesprovidinganimproveddrainingatthejunctionpointsof the twodissimilarmaterials. (TableC).Theseparationperfor-manceismaintainedregardlessofwhichphaseisdispersed.

    TheSulzerDCCoalescercanbeinstalledbothverticallyandho-rizontally. Shape and fixingmethod can be customized for thevesselorhousingintowhichitwillbeinstalled.Abroadvarietyofmaterialsandknittingtypesofferatailor-madesolutionwhereverefficientliquid-liquidseparationisrequired.

    Key Benefits

    Debottleneckingofexistingsettlers

    Reducedsizeof2-and3-phaseseparators

    Improvedphaseseparationefficiency

    Lowcut-offdiametersprovideextended rangeofoperation.Thelowerlimitisatornearthetransitionregionfromprimarytosecondarydispersionsi.e.,cut-offdropletdiameter~30-40m.

    Depending on the DC Coalescer type and application, highseparationfluxesofupto120m3/m2harepossible(Figure10)

    Applicableforprimarydispersions

    Equalperformanceregardlessofwhichphaseisdispersed

    Typical applications of Sulzer DC Coalescer

    Separationofdispersionfollowingwaterwashingstages

    Entrainmentreductionofeitherphaseforliquid-liquidextractioncolumnsasLPGAmineTreaters,HydrogenPeroxideExtractionColumnsandCausticWashers

    Separation of dispersions formed by condensation followingazeotropicdistillationasinButanol/WaterDistillation

    Separationofliquidsfollowingsteamstripping

    Metalfilamenthighsurfacefreeenergy

    Coalesceddropletsatjunctionoftwodissimilarmaterials

    Plasticfilamentlowsurfacefreeenergy

    Fig. 9: Preferential Wetting & Junction Effect

    Fig. 10: Performance chart of Sulzer DC Coalescers

    Packing

    StainlessSteel

    Polypropylene

    SulzerDCCoalescerStainlessSteel/Polypropylene

    Dispersedphase

    Kerosene

    Water

    Kerosene

    Water

    Kerosene

    Water

    RelativeFlux1)

    0.10

    1.00

    1.10

    0.05

    1.45

    1.45

    Table C: Comparison of conventional and Sulzer DC Coalescer

    DC 9201 SS/PTFE(M) DC 9201 SS/PP DC 9233 SS/PTFE(M) DC 9233 SS/PP DC 9230 SS/PTFE(M) DC 9230 SS/PP DC 9236 SS/PTFE(M) DC 9236 SS/PP

    0 Flux [m3/m2h] 120

    Sep

    aration Efficien

    cy

    Fig. 11: Sulzer DC Coalescer

    1)whereentrainmentexceedslimit

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 10 20.09.12 09:20

  • 11

    Dusec Coalescer

    DusecTM and Dusec PlusTM Cartridge Coalescer

    Insecondarydispersions,thedropletsaresosmallthattheydonotreadilywetasurfaceorsettleundergravity.Typicaldropsizesareintherangeof1to30microns.Incartridgeformwiththeliquidflowingfromthecentreradiallyoutwards,thecoalescingprocessisimprovedasthe liquidencountersaflowresistance.Duetoadhesiveforces,the inter-cepteddropletsclingontothefibersurfaceatselectivepointswhereclustersformuntilcoalescencetakesplaceandthedropletgrows.Viscousdragforcesincreaseuntiltheyexceedtheadhesionforces,causingthedropletstoseparatefromthefiberandmovefurtherintothecoalescerfiberbed,wheretheprocessisrepeated.Finallythedropletsreachprimarydispersionsize>60microns.This is theworkingprincipleofSulzerDu-seccartridgecoalescers(Fig.12).AnimportantadvantageisthattheouterlayerofthecartridgeisofthesamecompositeconstructionastheSulzerDCCoalescer,whichac-celeratesseparationandavoids jetting&entrainment.Normallynodroplets leave theoutersurfaceanddrainagetakesplacewithintheDCCoalescerslayer.Inprincipalthedistancebetweenthecartridgescantheoreticallybezero.Inpractice,however,amini-mumpracticalspaceisnecessarytoallowthecartridgestobeeasilyinstalledontotheplatewithinthevessel.

    Another big advantage these coalescersoffer is that they perform equally well in-dependent which phase is dispersed.Dusec cartridge coalescers can be ins-talled in both horizontal and vertical ves-sels(Fig.13).

    A selection of high specific surface areafibermaterials,arrangedinaspecificpat-tern in the cartridge, ensure high effici-encycoalescenceofdroplets inabroadspectrum of applications. Depending onthearrangement&constructionof layersin the cartridge, the Sulzer Dusec coale-scers have been classified into differenttypes (Table D). Qualified engineers atSulzer can provide advice on coalescerdesign including specification of vesseldimensions, main process and interfacecontrolconnections,andthenumberandtypeofDuseccartridges. The cartridgesareavailableindifferentlengthof500mm,1000mmand1500mm.

    Cartridge designs are available formanyapplications including aggressive chemi-calenvironments,asforhydrogenperoxi-deandforhightemperatureduties.

    Fig. 12: Schematic representation of droplet coalescence in a Sulzer Dusec Coalescer

    Acceleratedsepara-tionwithoutdropletbreak-upattheoutletoftheSulzerDusecandDusecPluscartridges

    Jetting&entrainmentattheoutletofcon-ventionalcartridges

    1.Dropletscapturedonfilaments

    2.Dropletscoalescencebegins

    3.Largerdropletscapturedformedbycoalescence

    4.Ultimately,dragforceofliquidstreampullsdropletsfromfilaments

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 11 20.09.12 09:20

  • 12

    Dusec Coalescer

    Fig. 13a: Heavy phase dispersed Fig. 13b: Light phase dispersed

    Fig 13c: Heavy phase dispersed (horizontal layout). A dome is used if the light phase is dispersed.

    Key Benefits

    Fiber topology and surface propertiescombinedwith optimized layer compo-sitionsmeanhigherefficiency

    Higher loadings and absence of jettingfromouter layersmean higher packingdensities.

    Works equally well independent whichphaseisdispersed

    Pressuredropminimized

    Separationdownto10ppmfreeentrain-mentpossible

    Suitableforinterfacialtensions >2dyne/cm

    Quick performance recovery followingfeedconditionchanges

    N2

    N3

    N2

    N1

    N1

    N3

    N2

    N3

    N1

    Legend:

    N1:Feed

    N2:Lightphaseoutlet

    N3:Heavyphaseoutlet

    Fig. 14: Sulzer Dusec with mounting plate Fig. 15: Sulzer Dusec

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 12 20.09.12 09:20

  • 13

    Dusec Coalescer

    Table D: Dusec and Dusec Plus Type Selection Table

    Dusec PlusTM Coalescers

    Designed to achieve high performancewith minimum pressure drop, the SulzerDusec Plus model provides a high ca-pacity alternative to conventional Duseccartridges. The smaller diameter and in-creasedpackingdensitymake itsuitablefor applications where it is necessary tomaximizetheeffectiveareaofthecoalesc-ermediainagivensizeofvessel.

    Resin bonded Mechanically sealedType 1/RB 2/RB 3/RB 4/RB 5/RB 1/MS 2/MS 3/MS 4/MS 5/MSMax.DesignTemperature 80 80 90 80 80 80 80 150 80 80pH

  • Research co-operation between Sulzer and Total has led to anewphase inversion technologywherewater-in-oil dispersionsare converted to oil-in-water. Double emulsions can be creat-edwhereverysmalldropletsofwaterarecarriedinoildropletswhicharethemselvesdispersedwithinacontinuouswaterphase-knownasawaterleg.Waterdroplets,alongwithsaltsandothercontaminants,canberemovedfromtheoilbycontactingtheoildropletswiththecontinuouswaterphase.TheSulzerWashTankDistributorVROL(Fig.16)isusedatthebottomofthewaterlegand has been developed to create optimal droplets of oil andremovessolids,evenwhensubjectedtomotion.

    InconjunctionwithTotal,thetechnologyisbeingappliedinwashanddesaltingtanksinthehullsofFPSOvesselsforremovingen-trainedwater,saltsandcontaminantsfromcrudeoil.Thedistribu-tor system substantially improves the separation performanceandconcentrationsof

  • 15

    Our liquid phase separation testing faci-lities (Fig. 18) are available for the deve-lopmentof innovativeequipment,andforinvestigatingspecificcustomerproblems.In-house development of an automaticdroplet sizeanalysis systemallowsstateoftheartmeasurementofdropsizedistri-bution(Fig.19),eveninveryhighconcen-trationdispersions.

    Mobile test rigsareavailable for thecus-tomertotestintheactualprocess.

    Testing and New Developments

    Oil

    Water Bypass Wateraddition

    Sulzer INVERTOMIXTM

    Sulzer Static Mixer

    Fig. 18a: Test rig for Sulzer Mellaplate and DC Coalescer

    Fig. 18b: Sulzer Dusec test rig for customer tests on site

    Fig. 19: Drop size analysis

    Static mixers from Sulzer (Fig. 20) areused for efficientmixing of one ormorephases.Whenthemixerisusedtocreatedispersions, Sulzer staticmixers achievewell-defined droplet size distributionscompared to other equipment such aschokevalves.

    ThespecialSulzerINVERTOMIX(patentpending)canbeusedtoobtainphasein-versionfromoil-in-watertowater-in-oilorviceversa.Thisprovidesgoodcontrolofphasecontinuityand isofparticular inter-est for phase separation in heavy crude-oil-water systems as well as flow assur-anceinpipelines.

    0697 2720

    Fig. 20: Sulzer static mixer

    Recent Sulzer Product Developments on the subject Flow Assurance and Phase Inversion

    Sulzer_Brosch_Liquid_Liquid.indd 15 20.09.12 09:20

  • www.sulzer.comPlease check for your local contact

    Sulzer Chemtech Ltd, a member of the Sulzer Corporation, with headquarters in Winterthur, Switzerland, is active in the field of process engineering and employs some 4000 persons worldwide.

    Sulzer Chemtech is represented in all important industrial countries andsets standards in the field of mass transfer and static mixing with its advanced and economical solutions.

    The activity program comprises:

    Process components such as fractionation trays, structured and random packings, liquid and gas distributors, gas-liquid separators, and internals for separation columns

    Engineering services for separation and reaction technology such as conceptual process design, feasibilities studies, plant optimizations including process validation in the test center

    Recovery of virtually any solvents used by the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, or difficult separations requiring the combination of special technologies, such as thin film/short-path evaporation, distillation under high vacuum, liquid-liquid extraction, membrane technology or crystallization.

    Complete separation process plants, in particular modular plants (skids)

    Advanced polymerization technology for the production of PLA and EPS

    Tower field services performing tray and packing installation, tower maintenance, welding, and plant turnaround projects

    Mixing and reaction technology with static mixers

    Cartridge-based metering, mixing and dispensing systems, and disposable mixers for reactive multi-component material

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    Legal Notice: The information contained in this publication is believed to be accurate and reliable, but is not to be construed as implying any warranty or guarantee of performance. Sulzer Chemtech waives any liability and indemnity for effects resulting from its application. 22.16.06.40 - X.13 - 10

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