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Making the case for vegetarian diets - Oldways | A ... “The adoption of vegetarian diets at...

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  • Making the case for vegetarian diets!

    Joan Sabaté, MD, DrPH !

  • Vegetarian diets are ffffffffffffffff of eating.

  • The roots of vegetarian diets can be traced back to the

    beginnings of recorded history.

  • The book of Genesis! Pronounces that the seeds of plants and the fruits of trees are the nourishment of human kind.

  • “The eating of meat extinguishes the seed of great compassion.”

    Gautama Buddha!

  • Plato! The Republic asserted that the ideal city was a vegetarian city because it was more rational to choose a diet less harmful to the environment and to the spirit.

  • Vegetarian diets are not a

    modern invention or fad from a

    recent book.

  • A vegetarian diet is defined by the exclusion of flesh foods.

  • How are the dietary patterns defined?!

    Non-vegetarian!

    Pesco!

    Lacto-ovo!

    Vegan!

    Meat! Poultry/Fish! Dairy/Eggs!

  • Most studies of vegetarians " come from either the: "

    " North-American Seventh-day

    Adventists Cohorts (AHS-1 & 2)! or"

    the EPIC-Oxford study in the UK. !

  • Health effects of vegetarian diets!

  • CVD risk factors!

  • Vegetarians weigh less!

    100

    120

    140

    160

    180

    200

    Vegan Lacto-ovo

    W ei

    gh t (

    lb s) !

    0!

    Female 5’ 6” tall! Male 5’ 10” tall!

    Adventist Health Study

  • Vegetarians have lower BMI!

    Vegans!

    Meat-eaters!

    Fish eaters!

    Vegetarians!

    EPIC-Oxford Study

  • Vegetarians have lower risk of diabetes!

    0%  

    2%  

    4%  

    6%  

    8%  

    2.1%!

    3.2%!

    4.7%!

    7.5%!

    Vegan   Lacto-­‐ovo   Pesco-­‐veg   Non-­‐veg  

    % R

    ep or

    tin g

    Ty pe

    2 D

    ia be

    te s!

    Adventist Health Study

  • • 2–5 points lower BMI

    • 25% - 50% lower risk of hypertension

    • 25% to 50% lower risk of diabetes

    • 50% lower risk of metabolic syndrome

    Vegetarians compared to ! non-vegetarians have:!

  • IHD mortality of vegetarians!

    1!

    0.81!

    0.88!

    0.71!

    0.5  

    0.6  

    0.7  

    0.8  

    0.9  

    1  

    Meat  eater   Vegetarian  

    Veg  Women   Veg  Men  

    Ad ju

    st ed

    H az

    ar d

    Ra tio

    (H R) !

    Adventist Health Study

  • Vegetarians have a slightly lower risk of overall-cancers!

    1!

    0.92! 0.98!

    0.88!

    0.93!

    0.5  

    0.6  

    0.7  

    0.8  

    0.9  

    1  

    Non-­‐vegetarian   Vegetarian  

    Pesco-­‐V   Lacto-­‐V  

    Vegan  

    Ad ju

    st ed

    H az

    ar d

    Ra tio

    (H R) !

    A Vegetarian diet seems to reduce the risk of some cancer sites (colorectal, prostate, GI tract) while it has no

    effect on other cancers.

  • All-Cause mortality for vegetarians!

    1!

    0.88! 0.93!

    0.82!

    0.5  

    0.6  

    0.7  

    0.8  

    0.9  

    1  

    Meat  eater   Vegetarian  

    Veg  Women   Veg  Men  

    Ad ju

    st ed

    H az

    ar d

    Ra tio

    (H R) !

    Adventist Health Study

  • Longevity" In general, vegetarians live 2 – 3

    years longer than non-vegetarians.

  • What do vegetarians eat?!

  • Relative food intake of vegetarians compared to non-vegetarians!

    0.00   0.50   1.00   1.50   2.00   2.50   3.00  

    drinking  water   beverages  

    snack  foods   sweets  

    added  fats   eggs  

    dairy  products   meat  

    nuts  &  seeds   soy  foods  &  meat  analogues  

    legumes   grains  

    potatoes   avocados  

    vegetables   fruit  

    * Means, adjusted for age, sex & race and standardized to 2000kcal)!

    Vegan  vs.  Nonveg  

    Lacto  vs.  Nonveg  

    Pesco  vs.  Nonveg  

    Adventist Health Study

  • Animal protein foods!

    0.00   0.20   0.40   0.60   0.80   1.00   1.20   1.40  

    unprocessed  red  meat  

    processed  red  meat  

    unprocessed  poultry  

    processed  poultry  

    pork  

    faHy  fish  

    other  fish  

    regular  milk  products  

    reduced  milk  products  

    cheese  

    eggs  

    Rela1ve  mean  quan1ty  eaten  compared  to  non  vegetarians   (adjusted  for  age,  sex  &  race  and  standardized  to  2000kcal)  

    Vegan  vs.  Nonveg  

    Lacto  vs.  Nonveg  

    Pesco  vs.  Nonveg  

    Adventist Health Study

  • Plant protein foods!

    0.00   1.00   2.00   3.00   4.00   5.00   6.00  

    legumes  

    meat  analogues  

    soybeans  &  tofu  

    soymilks  

    peanuts  

    peanut  buHer  

    tree  nuts  

    mixed  nuts  

    seeds  

    Rela1ve  mean  quan1ty  eaten  compared  to  non  vegetarians   (adjusted  for  age,  sex  &  race  and  standardized  to  2000kcal)  

    Vegan  vs.  Nonveg  

    Lacto  vs.  Nonveg  

    Pesco  vs.  Nonveg  

    Adventist Health Study

  • Fruits and vegetables!

    0.00   0.50   1.00   1.50   2.00   2.50   3.00  

    avocados  

    tomatoes  

    leafy  greens  

    cruciferous  vegetables  

    onions  

    other  vegetables  

    citrus  

    berries  

    other  fruits  

    dried  fruits  

    Rela1ve  mean  quan1ty  eaten  compared  to  non  vegetarians   (adjusted  for  age,  sex  &  race  and  standardized  to  2000kcal)  

    Vegan  vs.  Nonveg  

    Lacto  vs.  Nonveg  

    Pesco  vs.  Nonveg  

    Adventist Health Study

  • 0.00   0.20   0.40   0.60   0.80   1.00   1.20   1.40   1.60   1.80   2.00  

    whole  grains  

    refined  grains  

    mixed  grains  

    sweet  potatoes  

    white  potatoes  

    fried  potatoes  

    Rela1ve  mean  quan1ty  eaten  compared  to  non  vegetarians   (adjusted  for  age,  sex  &  race  and  standardized  to  2000kcal)  

    Vegan  vs.  Nonveg  

    Lacto  vs.  Nonveg  

    Pesco  vs.  Nonveg  

    Starchy foods!

    Adventist Health Study

  • Fats, Sweets & Snacks!

    0.00   0.20   0.40   0.60   0.80   1.00   1.20   1.40  

    solid  fat  

    liquid  fat  

    salad  dressing  

    buHer  

    dairy  dessert  

    other  dessert  

    Rela1ve  mean  quan1ty  eaten  compared  to  non  vegetarians   (adjusted  for  age,  sex  &  race  and  standardized  to  2000kcal)  

    Vegan  vs.  Nonveg  

    Lacto  vs.  Nonveg  

    Pesco  vs.  Nonveg  

    Adventist Health Study

  • •  More plant foods •  Less dairy and eggs •  Less refined foods •  Less beverages •  And more water

    A healthy vegetarian diet includes:!

  • Sustainability of Vegetarian diets!

  • " "

    The production of Plant foods " is more sustainable because:"

    " "

    they require fewer natural resources " "

    are less taxing on the environment " compared to production of animal foods.

    Not all foods are produced equally!

  • Green house Gas emissions in the production of different foods!

    Post-­‐producMon  emissions  

    ProducMon  emissions  

  • 0  

    2  

    4  

    6  

    8  

    10  

    12  

    14  

    16  

    18  

    20  

    Land   Water   Fuel   FerMlizer   PesMcide   Animal  waste  

    Re la

    tiv e

    En vi

    ro nm

    en ta

    l I m

    pa ct ! Beans   Almonds   Eggs   Chicken   Beef  

    *Beans as the reference value =1! !

    Sabate et al., 2014

    Relative environmental impacts of protein production from plants vs. animal sources!

  • 0   1

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