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Political Political Geography Geography Chapter 8 Chapter 8
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Political Political GeographyGeography

Chapter 8Chapter 8

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United Nations MembersUnited Nations Members

Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 191 in 2003.

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• Political Geography-the study of political activity in a spatial context.

• Over 200 countries and territories in the world

• Great inequality of size, relative location, population, resources and potential

• Some are landlocked or have little coastline

• Some are surrounded by hostile nations

• In the last several decades-the collapse of empires has added to the number of independent states.

• Many newly independent nations have problems

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Political CulturePolitical Culture• Some state systems separate church & state while

others are theocracies-governments led by religious leaders.

• Robert Sach coined the term human territoriality to describe the way political space is organized.

• Robert Ardrey compares human territoriality to the instinct of animals to control & defend territory.

• Land ownership-some societies have communal ownership while others emphasize individual ownership. (Africa-imperialism, Indians of N. America).

• Challenges to political territory provides a strong motivation for warfare.

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Nation-StateNation-State• Earliest rulers “regnum” ruled over a

group of followers-not fixed territories.

• Medieval concept of the Nation-State began with the Roman Catholic Church-that created “dominium” rule over a defined territory.

• Merovingian Kings 5th-8th cent. Called themselves “Kings of the Franks”, later Capetian Dynasty 10th - 14th cent. Called themselves “Kings of France”.

• Rise of the modern nation-state saw the development of distinctive territory.

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Rise of the Modern StateRise of the Modern State• European Model of the

state diffused from Ancient Greece & Rome.

• Middle Ages-fragmentation, on mainland, Dynastic rule & strong leaders led to greater national cohesion, Norman invasion ended the fragmentation of England.

• Muslim invasion repelled. New technology-horseshoe, stirrup, horse collar, wheel barrow & wind mill introduced.

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Rise of the Modern StateRise of the Modern State• Renaissance-political

nationalism & economic nationalism in the form of mercantilism developed-concept of diplomacy developed in Italy.

• Mercantilism-states should acquire wealth through-colonization, plunder, protection of home industries & markets, a favorable balance of trade.

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Rise of the Modern StateRise of the Modern State• Reformation-brought a

religious split Roman Catholic versus Protestant-led to a series of wars. Monarchies benefited from the Church’s loss of political power.

• Age of Absolutism-emerged with Louis XIV of France as a prime example. Monarchies became the focal point of national awareness-ended regionalism and aristocratic local control

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Rise of the Modern StateRise of the Modern State• Powerful dynasties-

Habsburgs, Bourbons, Tudors & Stuarts struggled for power.

• Thirty Years’ War began as a religious struggle-but ended as state & dynastic struggle for control of Europe.

• Peace of Westphalia 1648 ended the war-created defined boundaries & guarantees of security-Modern Europe emerged.

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The nations we perceive as “natural” and “always existing” are relatively recent phenomena.

In 1648, Europe was divided into dozens of small territories.

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Rise of the Modern StateRise of the Modern State• The French Revolution of

1789 was the first major political upheaval in Europe.

• It was followed by the Napoleonic Wars that spread the Enlightenment ideas of equality and the French concept of nationalism.

• 1830 and 1848 another wave of revolutions swept over Europe

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StateStateState – a politically organized territory with a permanent

population, a defined territory, and a government. To be a state, an entity must be recognized by such by other states.

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NationsNations• Nation – a culturally defined group of people with a

shared past and a common future who relate to a territory and have political goals.

• People construct nations to make sense of themselves.

• Nations are “imagined communities” -Benedict Anderson

• imagined = you will never meet all the people in your nation

• community = you see yourself as part of it

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State and NationState and Nation• State from the Latin word

“status” or “standing”-a political entity-used interchangeably with country.

• Nation-an ethnic or cultural group with similar language, religion, customs and territory-historic connection.

• Berlin was a divided city between 2 states-West Germany and East Germany-but it was a nation split by divisions of the Cold War

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Defining the Nation-StateDefining the Nation-State

• A Nation should have– A single language– A common history– A similar ethnic

background– Unity from a common

political system.

• Cultural homogeneity not as important as “national spirit” or emotional commitment to the state.

• A Nation-State has:– Clearly delineated


– Substantial population– Well-organized

government– Shared political and

cultural history– Emotional ties to

institutions or political systems or an ideology.

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European European Boundary Boundary ChangesChanges

Fig. 8-13: Twentieth-century boundary changes in Europe, 1914 to 2003. Germany’s boundaries changed after each world war and the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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The StateThe State• A state provides services for

its citizens.

• It demands taxes• It demands adherence to the

laws.• It demands military service• Periods of adversity can

increase a sense of nationalism-but can backfire

• A state is possible only if a national attitude or emotional attachment to the state develops.

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Defining the Nation-StateDefining the Nation-State

• The Four Pillars of Nationalism;– A population that

considers itself a nation– A substantial and well-

defined territory

– A well-developed organization

– A measure of economic, political and military power.

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European Colonialism & the European Colonialism & the Diffusion of the Nation-State ModelDiffusion of the Nation-State Model

• Colonialism -a physical action in which one state takes over control of another, taking over the government and ruling the territory as its own.

Two Waves of European Colonialism:

1500 - 1825

1825 - 1975

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Dominant Colonial Influences, 1550-1950

This map shows the dominant influence, as some places were colonized by more than one power in this time period.

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Geographic Characteristics of StatesGeographic Characteristics of States• States vary greatly in Size-some huge like Russia 6.6 m.

sq. miles, others large with 3 m. sq. miles like US, China, Brazil, Canada-some are microstates-Vatican, Monaco, Andorra, Grenada.

• Shape-some are compact while other are elongated or fragmented.

• Demography-some have huge populations like China’s 1.3 billion or tiny like Iceland with 250,000.

• Organization-monarchy, democratic, dictatorship, theocratic.

• Resources-natural and skilled population• Development-subsistence to tertiary• Power-both economic and military

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Stateless NationsStateless Nations• Sovereignty-complete control

over a territory’s political & military affairs. Some nations do not have their own state-this can lead to conflict.

• Palestinians are the most well known example-a stateless nation in conflict with Israel over territory.

• Kurds-about 20 million people live in Kurdistan-which covers 6 states-since the 1991 Iraq War-Kurdish Security Zone has been virtually independent.

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• Territoriality –Territoriality –“the attempt by an individual or group to affect, influence, or control people, phenomena, and relationships, by delimiting and asserting control over a geographic area.”

– Robert Sack

• Sovereignty –Sovereignty –having the last say over a territory – legally.

• Territorial Integrity –Territorial Integrity –a government has the right to keep the borders and territory of a state in tact and free from attack.

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• Territorial Morphology-shape, size & relative location of a state.

• Compact-distance from the geographic center does not vary greatly.

• Fragmented-consisting of 2 or more separate pieces divided by water or other territory.

• Elongated-long & thin states.

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TerritoryTerritory• Prorupted-states that are

nearly compact, but have a narrow extension.

• Perforated-having another state lie within ones territory.

• Exclave-an outlier of a state located within another.

• Enclave-the counterpart of exclave-it lies within a country and is independent or ruled by another country.

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India: The Tin Bigha CorridorIndia: The Tin Bigha Corridor

Fig. 8-7: The Tin Bigha corridor fragmented two sections of the country of Bangladesh. When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.

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Landlocked CountriesLandlocked Countries• Landlocked states have a serious disadvantage in trade and

access to resources.• Africa has more landlocked states than any other continent.

Sahel is poorly linked to the coastal ports; Uganda linked by rail; Zimbabwe access via South African and Mozambique ports; Rwanda & Burundi the world’s most isolated states; Zambia & Malawi have poor connections.

• Asia-Mongolia & Nepal are landlocked with rough terrain, great distances and limited communication, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Armenia & Georgia.

• South America-Bolivia and Paraguay-lost coastline in war• Europe-Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Slovakia,

Moldova, Belarus and Bosnia

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Landlocked StatesLandlocked States

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Fig. 8-6: Southern, central, and eastern Africa include states that are compact,

elongated, prorupted, fragmented, and perforated.

African African StatesStates

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How are Boundaries How are Boundaries Established, and Why do Established, and Why do

Boundary Disputes Occur?Boundary Disputes Occur?

Key Question:

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Land BoundariesLand Boundaries• Not just a line, but also a

vertical plane that cuts through subsoil, rocks and the airspace above-coal, gas & oil reserves often cross these lines.

• Belgium, Germany & Netherlands argued over coal seams & natural gas reserves.

• Kuwait Oil drilling prompted the 1991 Gulf War (Rumaylah Reserve)

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Land BoundariesLand Boundaries

• 3 Stage Evolution of Boundaries:

• definition-a document is created that indicates exact landmarks;

• delimitation-cartographers place the boundary on the map;

• demarcation-boundary markers such as steel posts or concrete pillars, fences or wall marks the boundary

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Land BoundariesLand Boundaries• Frontier-a zone of

separation that keeps rivals apart can be natural or manmade-such as Korean DMZ.

• Boundaries keep out adversaries or keep citizens inside-limit smuggling, migration, etc.

• Internal boundaries-provinces or states within a larger state.

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Types of BoundariesTypes of Boundaries• Geometric-straight line

boundary such as US-Canada or many in Africa.

• Physical or Natural-Political Boundary-river, crest of a mountain range or some other physical landmark

• Cultural or Anthro-Geographic Boundary-breaks in the human landscape, such as most of Europe’s boundaries

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Aozou Strip: A Geometric BoundaryAozou Strip: A Geometric Boundary

Fig. 8-9: The straight boundary between Libya and Chad was drawn by European powers, and the strip is the subject of controversy between the two countries.

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Left-the Demilitarized Zone between North Korea & South Korea is heavily defended by both sidesBottom left-the US-Canadian border is the longest undefended border in the world.Bottom right-the Rio Grande forms the border between Mexico and the United States which is porous enough to allow million of illegal immigrants.

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Genetic Boundary ClassificationGenetic Boundary Classification• Richard Hartshorne, a leading political geographer

developed this classification system;• Antecedent Boundary-physical landscape defined the

boundary well before human habitation-Malaysia-Indonesian boundary on Borneo is sparsely settled.

• Subsequent Boundary-Vietnam-China border results from a long period of modification.

• Superimposed-forcibly drawn boundary that cuts across a unified cultural boundary-New Guinea-Indonesia West Irian & Papua New Guinea in the East.

• Relict boundary no longer serves its purpose, but the imprint is still evident in the landscape-Vietnam-North South boundary, West and East Germany boundary, especially in Berlin.

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Ethnic Groups in Southwest AsiaEthnic Groups in Southwest Asia

Fig. 8-14: Ethnic boundaries do not match country boundaries, especially in Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

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Division of CyprusDivision of Cyprus

Fig. 8-10: Cyprus has been divided into Green and Turkish portions since 1974.

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The Fertile CrescentThe Fertile Crescent

Fig. 8-3: The Fertile Crescent was the site of early city-states and a succession of ancient empires.

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Frontiers in the Arabian PeninsulaFrontiers in the Arabian Peninsula

Fig. 8-8: Several states in the Arabian Peninsula are separated by frontiers rather than precise boundaries.

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Centripetal and Centrifugal ForcesCentripetal and Centrifugal Forces

• Richard Hartshorne, a leading political geographer described Centripetal forces as things that bind or hold a nation together & promote national unity:– Strong leadership-charismatic

leader– External threat– Education– Ideology-Fascism,

Communism or Democracy– Movement or circulation

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Centripetal and Centrifugal ForcesCentripetal and Centrifugal Forces

• Centrifugal forces are things that that divide or tear a state apart: (also called Devolutionary forces)– Ethnic or cultural differences– Religious differences– Linguistic diversity– Economic disparity– Movement or circulation

– Physical geographical differences

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Devolution –Devolution –Movement of power from the central government to regional governments within the state.

What causes devolutionary movements?

Ethnocultural forcesEconomic forcesSpatial forces

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The Forces of DevolutionThe Forces of Devolution

• After USSR collapse in 1991, optimism-a New World Order?

• Supranationalism, no more costly arms race & negotiation replacing confrontation??

• Yet despite optimism-powerful self-interests contribute to centrifugal (divisive) forces.

• Geopolitics-the study of political science within a geographic framework

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The Forces of DevolutionThe Forces of Devolution• Since 1990 about 26 new

nations created.• Ironically with EU &

adoption of euro greater centrifugal forces in Europe.

• London’s decision to join EU encouraged Scottish nationalism.

• 1990s Scottish National Party encouraged devolution.

• 1997 Labour Party gave Scots & Welsh chance to vote-both voted to have their own parliaments

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Ethnocultural Devolutionary Ethnocultural Devolutionary MovementsMovements

Scotland rise in independence movement is coupled with:

- European Union

- Scotland’s oil resources

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The Forces of Devolution-Cultural ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Cultural Forces• Most of the world’s 200

nations have multicultural populations.

• Spain-Basque & Catalonia in 1979 signed autonomy agreements– Have their own parliaments– Languages have official status– Control over education– Power of taxation

• But Basque separatist were not satisfied-continued bombing & terror attacks

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The Forces of Devolution-Cultural ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Cultural Forces• Quebec and Parti Quebecois

in Canada• Belgium-Flemish (Dutch) in

north, Walloons (French) in south

• Czechoslovakia split in Jan. 1993 in the “Velvet Divorce”

• Sudan-Muslim north & Christian south

• Sri Lanka-Tamils, a Hindu minority fight for independence from the Sinhalese a Buddhist majority

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The Forces of Devolution-Cultural ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Cultural Forces• Greatest tragedy was Yugoslavia which erupted in Civil

War in the 1990s• Thrown together after WW I with Serbia as the core of

“The Land of the South Slavs”• 7 major, 17 minor ethnic groups, 3 religions & 2 alphabets

• North-Croats & Slovenes-Catholic• South-Serbs are Orthodox, Muslim enclaves• Rule by royal house of Serbia, during WWII German

occupation the Croats supported the Nazis, Serbs fought as anti-Nazi partisans.

• Josip Broz Tito emerged as a communist leader after WWII-nationalism suppressed under his iron fist.

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The Forces of Devolution-Cultural ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Cultural Forces• After the death of Tito & later

the collapse of communism-ethnic conflict of Croat versus Serb and everyone versus Muslims emerged again.

• Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia-Montenegro & Macedonia became independent.

• Bosnia-no clear majority, Dayton Accords partitioned Bosnia & ended the civil war-Muslims 44%, Serbs 32% & Croatians 17%

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Ethnocultural Devolutionary MovementsEthnocultural Devolutionary Movements

Eastern Europedevolutionary forces since the fall of communism

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The Forces of Devolution-Economic ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Economic Forces• Catalonians in Spain site

reasons for economic independence-6% of territory, yet have 25% of exports & 40% of industrial exports.

• Italy-Mezzorgiono (region of the south is poor & agrarian) Sardinia feels neglected and there is a growing disparity between the industrial North & agricultural South

• Italy has moved to a federal system due to pressure by the north.

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Economic Economic Devolutionary Devolutionary


Catalonia, SpainBarcelona is the center of banking and commerce in Spain and the region is much wealthier than the rest of Spain.

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The Forces of Devolution-Economic ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Economic Forces• France-Corsica, a small

minority of the islands 25,000 demand autonomy. It was taken from Genoese, Italy in 1768. Bomb attacks (600) in 1996 caused tourism to drop.

• Brazil-1990s the 3 southern states: Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Parana claimed the govt. misspent money in Amazon-had a leader, created flag, and demanded independence for the Republic of the Pampas.

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The Forces of Devolution-Spatial ForcesThe Forces of Devolution-Spatial Forces• Spatial factors-remote frontiers,

isolated villages, rugged topography or repeated historic invasions contribute to devolution

• Many islands such as Corsica, Sardinia, Taiwan, Singapore, Zanzibar, Jolo (Philippines) and Puerto Rico have demanded independence.

• Hawaii-indigenous population demand autonomy; Puerto Rico small, but vocal independence movement; Cascadia-Washington, Oregon & British Columbia.

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Spatial Devolutionary MovementsSpatial Devolutionary Movements

Honolulu, Hawai’iA history apart from the United States, and a desire to live apart in order to keep traditions alive.

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Devolution of the Soviet UnionDevolution of the Soviet Union• 50 years a Bi-Polar World of Cold

War arms race & danger of nuclear war.

• In 1980s centrifugal forces increased-multiculturalism, multi-nationalism, economic troubles

• Gorbachev loosened the Soviet grip on Eastern Europe & at home introduced perestroika (restructuring) & glasnost (openness)

• Fall of 1989 the Iron Curtain collapsed, the Berlin Wall was opened.

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The Devolution of the Soviet UnionThe Devolution of the Soviet Union• Failed coup attempt in August 1991 led to the collapse of

communism & dissolution of the USSR on Dec. 25, 1991.

• Commonwealth of Independent States created, Baltic States & Georgia stayed out & became completely independent.

• Muslim Azerbaijan & Christian Armenia had armed conflict.

• Georgia had a civil war, Abkhazia in Northwest declared independence

• Near Abroad-what the Russians called the 25 million Russians who live in the former Soviet Republics.

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The Devolution of RussiaThe Devolution of Russia• Within Russia-16 autonomous homelands for some of the

minorities-boundaries were changed to reward or punish certain groups

• Soviets created many geographical problems just like the colonial powers in Asia & Africa

• 1991-95 about 5 additional republics recognized in Russia• Checho-Ingushetia became Chechnya and Ingushetia• Chechnya-Muslim population in the Caucasus demanded

independence-Moscow refused, war & destruction of Grozny resulted-terrorist attacks in Moscow, Beslan, etc.

• Russia had given in on many occasions-created 21 republics & 68 regions in a federal framework.

• Russia is still the largest nation on earth, but only 6th in population

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The State of the New World OrderThe State of the New World Order• With cross border travel &

trade, transnational capital investment & the internet national boundaries are losing importance as are national governments

• Yet states not provinces or regions maintain armed forces and enter into multinational military alliances.

• Perhaps a multi-polar world will emerge with 5-6 clusters of regions with a dominant power.

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GlobalizationGlobalization• Expansion of economic, social

and cultural interactions• Financial & trade links tie people

together (US has never bombed a country with a McDonalds)

• Multinational corporations in transnational legal & political environment have taken major roles– Hollywood films worldwide– Italian fashions in Japan– Mexican soap operas in Russia– Southern Mexican activists used internet to

gain world-wide support– Spice Girls were popular in Africa &


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Notions of DemocracyNotions of Democracy• June, 1989 Democracy

Movement in Tiananmen Square led to a massacre

• 1997 British finally democratized Hong Kong before turning it over to the People’s Republic of China.

• 1994 with the end of apartheid, the first universal elections in South Africa.

• However, some African ruling elites see no contradiction in a one-party democracy

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Growing Influence of ReligionGrowing Influence of Religion• Ironically in an era of science &

secularism-millions of people are turning to religion

• Religious fundamentalism on the rise in areas of oppression & where prospects of democracy are dim.

• Shiite fundamentalists led to the fall of the Shah of Iran in 1979

• Algeria-Islamic fundamentalists ready to gain majority in 1992 so govt. canceled elections-violence erupted.

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Redrawing the MapRedrawing the Map

• Problem-the antiquated state boundary network.

• Supranationalism & devolution are symptoms of this problem.

• Rapid decolonization after World War II and the collapse of Communism in the late 80s & 1990s drastically changed the boundaries.

• A critical issue is the diffusion of nuclear weapons

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The Domino TheoryThe Domino Theory

• The domino theory holds that destabilization from any cause in one country can result in the collapse of order in a neighboring country-a chain of events that can affect a whole region.

• Indochina War (1964-1975) US backed South Vietnam in a struggle against communist North Vietnam-war expanded into Laos & Cambodia-US feared it would lead to communist expansion in Thailand, Malaysia, Burma & so on-didn’t happen.

• Yet domino theory has validity-in 1989 the fall of communism followed the domino effect, instability in Yugoslavia followed the same pattern-other examples religious extremism, economic and environmental causes can cause spreading havoc.

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Multinational State – A state with more than one nation.Slobadan Milosevic, leader of Serbia launched 4 Balkan Wars that killed 250,000 & left 2.5 million homeless

The Former Yugoslavia

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Multistate Nation – Multistate Nation – A nation with more than one state.

Transylvania – homeland for both Romanians and Hungarians.

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Two Waves of DecolonizationTwo Waves of Decolonization

First wave – focused on decolonization of the Americas

Second wave – focused on decolonization of Africa and Asia

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The Capitalist World-EconomyThe Capitalist World-EconomyThe World-Economy is more than the sum of its parts. It is composed of “dots” but we must also understand the “whole.”

Sunday on La Grande Jatte by Georges Pierre Seurat

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Immanuel Wallerstein’s World-Systems Theory:Immanuel Wallerstein’s World-Systems Theory:1. The world economy has one market and a global

division of labor.

2. Although the world has multiple states, almost everything takes place within the context of the world economy.

3. The world economy has a three-tier structure.

European nations and those settled by European migrants established colonies throughout the world to extract wealth.

This period of colonialism established the current imbalance in world economic and political power

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Construction of the World EconomyConstruction of the World Economy

Capitalism – people, corporations, and states produce goods and services and exchange them in the world market, with the goal of achieving profit.

Commodification – the process of placing a price on a good and then buying, selling, and trading the good.

Colonialism – brought the world into the world economy, setting up an interdependent global economy.

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Three Tier StructureThree Tier Structure

Core Core Processes that incorporate higher

levels of education, higher salaries, and more technology

* Generate more wealth in the world economy

Semi-peripherySemi-periphery Places where core and periphery processes are

both occurring. Places that are exploited by the core but then exploit the periphery.

* Serves as a buffer between core and periphery

Periphery Periphery Processes that incorporate lower

levels of education, lower salaries, and less technology

* Generate less wealth in the world economy

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How do States Spatially How do States Spatially Organize their Governments?Organize their Governments?

Key Question:

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Forms of GovernmentForms of Government

• Unitary – highly centralized government where the capital city serves as a focus of power.

• Federal – a government where the state is organized into territories, which have control over government policies and funds.

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Nigeria’s Federal Government – Allows states within the state to determine whether to have Shari’a Laws

Shari’a Laws

Legal systems based on traditional Islamic laws

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Minnesota’s concealed weapons law requires the posting of signs such as this on buildings that do not allow concealed weapons.

The U.S. Federal Government – Allows states within the state to determine “moral” laws such as death penalty, access to alcohol, and concealed weapons.

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Electoral GeographyElectoral Geography

• A state’s electoral system is part of its spatial organization of government.

In the United States:

- territorial representation

- reapportionment

- voting rights for minority populations

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Gerrymandering – drawing voting districts to benefit one group over another.

Majority-Minority-districts drawn so that the majority of the population in the district is from the minority.

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How do Geopolitics and How do Geopolitics and Critical Geopolitics Help us Critical Geopolitics Help us

Understand the World?Understand the World?

Key Question:

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GeopoliticsGeopolitics• Geopolitics – the interplay among geography, power,

politics, and international relations.

• German School-eg. German Geographer Friedrich Ratzel’s (1844-1940) organic state theory

• British / American School- eg. British Geographer - Sir Halford Mackinder’s (1861-1947) Heartland Theory

• Nicholas Spykman, a critic of Mackinder, in a 1944 book coined the term “Rimland” and stated that the rimland of Eurasia, not the heartland held the key to global power.

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Mackinder’s Heartland Theory: “Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland

Who rules the Heartland commands the World Island Who rules the World Island commands the world”

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Geopolitical World Order

Temporary periods of stability in how politics are conducted at the global scale.

• bi-polar-after WW II the U.S. & U.S.S.R.• multi-polar-many major powers• unilateralism-one state (U.S.) acting alone-which

creates resentment and hostility.

Will individual states remain the dominant actors in a future geopolitical world order?

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The War in IraqThe War in Iraq• The 2003 invasion of

Iraq was a unilateral decision by the US

• No weapons of mass destruction were found, Iraq posed no threat to the US or its neighbors-it was being contained by the UN imposed sanctions.

• Current unemployment of 50% contributes to the sectarian violence

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What are Supranational What are Supranational Organizations, and What is Organizations, and What is

the Future of the State?the Future of the State?

Key Question:

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Supranational OrganizationsSupranational OrganizationsA separate entity composed of three or more states

that forge an association and form an administrative structure for mutual benefit in pursuit of shared goals.

Many supranational organizationsexist in the world today:

U.N.N.A.T.O.European UnionS.E.A.T.O.COMECONWarsaw Pact

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Global Scale – The United NationsGlobal Scale – The United Nations

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Regional Regional Scale – Scale –

The The European European


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How does Supranationalism affect the State?How does Supranationalism affect the State?



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In 2004, the European Union welcomed 10 additional states, and in 2007, the European Union plans to welcome 2 more states.

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The EndThe End