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Im Miss Zinhle Mkwanazi 201208819, im going to teach the seniorphase classes which are grade 7 to 9.im a teacher of life orientation.i like to engage learners from different knowledge that is based on life,society,community,carrer and everything that is due to social life that we need when we grow up in different stages.

INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS LIFE ORIENTATIONLife Orientation is central to the holistic development of learners. It addresses skills, knowledge and values for the personal, social, intellectual, emotional and physical growth of learners, and is concerned with the way in which these facets are interrelated. Life Orientation guides and prepares learners for life and its possibilities and equips them for meaningful and successful living in a rapidly changing and transforming society.

IM GOING TO TAKE 5WEEKS IN GRADE 9,TEACHING THEM THIS 5TOPICSThe subject contains the following five topics in Grades 7 to 9:

How can you effectively maintain a positive self-image in the face of lifes problems?Managing StressRECENT UNDERSTANDING ABOUT STRESSStress, Health, and CopingStress and Depression1.How can you effectively maintain a positive self-image in the face of lifes problems?Prevent and reduce distressKeeping a moderate amount of stress keeps you alert and ready to respondToo little stress causes boredom; too much and youre overwhelmedCreate eustressWhen responses to stressors lead to productive outcomes and constructive coping, this is eustressCoping skills are neededStrive to live within your comfort zoneYou need to keep a certain level of arousal from stressors to stay within your comfort zone

Coping with StressBuffer and protect yourself from negative consequencesCoping helps to cushion the effects of stressors and provides a certain amount of protection from themConserve, replenish, and build an inventory of resources needed to manage stressThe coping process is where you spend a variety of resources to deal with a situationThe more resources you have to spend, the better you copeMaterial resources, personal qualities, and social support are resources

Achieving the Goals for Coping with Stress;Thinking constructivelyRestructure how events are perceivedIrrational beliefs fuel emotional firesWords like all, every, always, never, totally, essential, must, should, have to, need to, ought to, must, awful, terrible, horrible lead to personal problems leading to depression, irritability, loneliness, excessive worrying, etc.Three categories of irrational beliefs:Drivers: perfectionism, do it yesterday, macho, self-sacrifice, push to the limitStoppers: catastrophizing, negative thinking, arbitrary inference, rigidity, living in the past, waiting around, quitting, procrastinationDistorters: overgeneralizing, blaming others, narrow-minded, denial, stereotyping, either/or thinking, overestimating, illogical thinking, personalization

The Role of Your Self-ImageThree important definitionsSelf the I, me. or myselfSelf-image how you see yourselfSelf-concept how you define yourselfSelf-esteem the positive or negative feelings about yourself overallThe self-image as a guide and regulator of your actionsThe self is tied to the roles you play and these roles are scripts that guide your actionsThe self-concept includes a variety of roles, so conflict can develop between rolesThe self-image in developing and maintaining relationshipsIf you have insight into your positive and negative characteristics, you can see others more accurately

Relaxation TechniquesRelaxation helps to relieve stress, decrease tension, and slow down the physiological arousal associated with stressSlow, rhythmic breathingMany different techniques you can useYou may use a mantra or key word that can help you to relaxGuided ImagerySeeing yourself in a nature scene where you are relaxed and comfortableTake your time to enjoy each scenario within your nature sceneDisengage yourselfWhenever you feel tense and stressed, stop what youre doing and thinkingTake a deep breath, and tell yourself to relax and clear your mind of all thoughtsConcentrate on only one thing apart from where you are

Organize and manage your time more effectivelyEstablish prioritiesOrganize your activities allocating them into specific periods of timeFilter your activities to determine what you really need to doThe challenge is setting and acting upon your priorities within the time availablePersonal priorities need to focus on:Preventing problemsBuilding relationshipsActing on new opportunities for yourselfFinding time for recreation and leisureBecome a little selfishA selfish approach to life means you take time out of your daily schedule to devote to yourselfRelaxing, taking walks, hobbies, reading, enhancing various skills, and other growth-producing activities

2.Managing StressResolving Stress;Adaptive Stress Response

cccccccccccccchronic stress response response

Effects of StressStress and immunityChronic stress may cause the immune system to be under- or overactiveStress and cardiovascular diseaseType A personality: Competitive, ambitious impatientAssociated with heart attacksType B personality: Relaxed, patient

How Americans Cope with Stress

Social Aspects of Stress ManagementMake time to have fun and playLaughter is effectiveHuman contact through social connectionsPets can reduce stress

Environmental Aspects of Stress ManagementReduce noise levelsAmount/type of lightMeaningful and challenging experiencesAesthetic quality of inhabited spaceColorPlantsPhotosSmell

Psychological Aspects of Stress ManagementRelaxation and deep breathingProgressive muscle relaxation (PMR)Guided imagery and visualizationMeditation HypnosisBiofeedback

3.Stress, Health, and CopingA negative emotional state in response to events that we perceive as taxing our resources or our ability to copeStressorsevents that are perceived as harmful, threatening, or challenging

Social and Cultural Sources of StressSocial conditions that promote stresspoverty, racism, crimelow SES tend to have highest levels of stressCulture clashes lead to stresscompany owned by different culturerefugees, immigrants sufferacculturative stress

Health Effects of StressIndirect effectspromote behaviors that jeopardize physical well being. Use of drugs, lack of sleep, poor concentrationDirect effectspromote changes in body functions, leading to illness such as headaches and other physical symptoms

Social Factors Promoting HealthSocial supportresources provided by others in times of needEmotionalexpressions of concern, empathy, positive regardTangibledirect assistance such as lending money, providing mealsInformationalsuch as making good suggestions, advice, good referrals

Social SupportImproves ability to cope with stress & benefits healthperson modifies appraisal of stressors significance to be less threateninghelps to decrease intensity of physical reactions to stressmake person less likely to experience negative emotionsPets as social supportespecially for elderly and people who live aloneGender and social support


INTRODUCTION;Stress is a common problem that affects almost all of us at some point in our lives. Learning to identify when we are under stress, what is stressing us and different ways of coping with stress can greatly improve both our mental and physical well being.Stress is one of the central concepts in Psychiatry.Stress has been invoked as a cause of major psychopathology, a precipitator or trigger of psychiatric illness and a contributor to considerable mental anguish.

DIFFERENT MODELS OF STRESSAlarmis the first stage. When the stressor is identified the body's stress response is a state of alarm. Adrenaline will be produced in order to bring about thefight-or-flight response. There is also some activation of theHPA axis, producingcortisol.Resistanceis the second stage. If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to attempt some means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted.Exhaustionis the third. At this point all of the body's resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. The initialautonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear. If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the body, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting indecompensation.


Side Effects of StressDEPRESSION : one of the side effects of stress, caused actually by the excess of stress WEIGHT GAIN :The calories intake increases significantly during stressful moments. When we are stressed, we try to compensate the problems we are facing by eating more than we need.WEAK IMMUNE SYSTEM: Stress has a big role in weakening our immune System.INSOMNIA PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES TO STRESS

A)NEUROTRANSMITTER RESPONSE TO STRESS STRESS activatesNoradrenergic systemSerotonergic systemDopaminergic systemAmino acid and peptinergic neurotransmitter system(B)ENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO STRESS STRESS activates HPA AXISCRH acts at the anterior pituitary to trigger release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)which acts at the adrenal cortex to stimulate the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoids themselves have myriad effects within the body, but their actions can be summarized in the very short term as promoting energy use, increasing cardiovascular activity (in the service of the flight-or-fight response), and inhibiting functions such as growth, reproduction, and immunity.

5.Stress and DepressionWhat Are Some Common Sources of Stress?Situations in the home Parents separation or divorce,A new stepparent,A ne

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