Home > Documents > Properties of Matter matter – ___________________________________...

# Properties of Matter matter – ___________________________________...

Date post: 28-Dec-2015
Category:
View: 225 times
Embed Size (px)
Popular Tags:

#### main states of matter

of 33 /33
Properties of Matter matter – ___________________________________ ___________________________________________ everything all around us is matter matter with a uniform & unchanging composition is called a ___________________ 1
Transcript

Properties of Matter

• matter – ___________________________________

___________________________________________

– everything all around us is matter

– matter with a uniform & unchanging composition is

called a ___________________

1

Properties of Matter• _______________________________________ – the

physical forms of matter that occur naturally on Earth

• three main states of matter

• ________________

• ________________

• ________________

2

States of Matter

• solid – _____________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________– particles are tightly packed

– expand slightly when heated

– incompressible (can not be pressed into a smaller volume)

Figure 3.2 – Pg. 71 3

States of Matter

• liquid – ____________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________– particles are not rigidly held in place, are less closely

packed together, and are able to move past each other

– volume is constant

– expand when heated

– virtually incompressible

Figure 3.3 – Pg. 71 4

States of Matter

• gas – ______________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________– particles are far apart

– easily compressed

• ______________________ – the gaseous state of a substance that is a solid or a liquid at room temperature

Figure 3.4 – Pg. 72 5

States of Matter

6

Properties of Matter• think of how you would describe another person to

someone who has never met them before

• you are describing physical properties

• ___________________________________________

– a characteristic that can be observed or measured

without changing the sample’s composition

• examples: odor, color, volume, hardness, state of matter, density, melting point, boiling point

7

Properties of Matter

Table 3.1 – Pg. 73

8

Properties of Matter• two types of physical properties

• ___________________________________________ –

are dependent on the amount of substance present

(mass, length, volume)

• ___________________________________________ –

are independent of the amount of substance present

(density is always the same)

• substances can be identified by their intensive properties

9

Properties of Matter

• the ability of a substance to combine with or change

into one or more other substances is called a

___________________________________________

• examples: iron’s ability to form rust, copper’s ability to turn green in the air

Properties of Matter• Examples: physical or chemical property

• water has a boiling point of 100 ˚C

• diamonds are very hard

• sugar ferments to form alcohol

• metal wires can conduct electricity

11

Properties of Matter• substances can change form – important in chemistry

• chemical properties can change with specific environmental conditions (temperature & pressure)

Table 3.2 – Pg. 74 12

Changes in Matter• think of the melting of ice, then the boiling of water– Does the substance ever change?

• ______________________– a change that alters a

substance without changing its composition

• ______________________– a transition of matter

from one state to another– boiling, freezing, melting, condensing, vaporizing

13

Changes in Matter• ___________________________________________

– a change that involves one or more substances turning into new substances– the new substances have different composition &

properties

– decomposing, rusting, exploding, cooking, burning, oxidizing, corroding, tarnishing, fermenting, rotting

• think of scrambled eggs (can’t have the eggs go back to what they were like before)

15

Mixtures of Matter• almost all matter consists of mixtures of substances

• ______________________ – a combination of two or

more pure substances in which each pure substance

retains its individual chemical properties

– example: air, soda, tap water

16

Mixtures of Matter• two different types of mixtures

• ______________________ mixtures – mixtures

where the composition is constant throughout– always have a single phase

– also called ______________________

• ______________________ mixtures – mixtures

where the individual substances remain distinct– different regions with different properties

17

Mixtures of Matter• think of different levels of gold– they are mixtures of gold and other metals

– when metals are mixtures they are called alloys

18

Mixtures of Matter

Table 3.3 – Pg. 81

Separating Mixtures• can separate mixtures into their component

substances

• based on differences in the physical properties of the substances– ex. iron can be separated from sand with a magnet

• types of separation techniques– filtration

– distillation

– crystallization

– sublimation

– chromatography

20

Separating Mixtures

• filtration – ___________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________

_____________________________• use filter paper to ‘catch’ the solids

Separating Mixtures

• distillation – ________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

• ex. salt water

22

Separating Mixtures• distillation of salt water

23

Separating Mixtures• combination of methods

24

Separating Mixtures

• crystallization – _____________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

(making rock candy)

25

Separating Mixtures• ____________________________ – process of a

solid changing directly to a gas, which can be used to separate mixtures of solids when one sublimates and the other does not

• ____________________________ – a technique that separates the components of a mixtures (the mobile phase) based on the ability of each component to travel across the surface of another material (the stationary phase)

26

Elements & Compounds• all matter can be broken down into small building

blocks called elements

• element – __________________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________– 92 naturally occurring elements on Earth

– ex: copper, oxygen, gold

27

Elements & Compounds• every element has its own unique name & symbol

– symbols consist of 1, 2, or 3 letters (first letter always Capitalized, others not)

– universe made up of mostly (75%) hydrogen

– humans made up of mostly (90%) oxygen, carbon, & hydrogen

– Earth’s crust made up of (75%) oxygen & silicon

28

Elements & Compounds

• to organize the elements Russian chemist

__________________________________________

in 1869 developed a chart

• eventually called the Periodic Table – organizes the

elements into a grid of horizontal rows (__________)

& vertical columns (__________________________)

– elements in the same group have similar properties

29

Elements & Compounds

• compounds – _______________________________

___________________________________________

___________________________________________

• most matter in the universe exists as compounds

– over 10 million known compounds

– ex. table salt (NaCl), water (H2O)

30

Elements & Compounds• elements can not be separated

• compounds can be broken into components by chemical processes

– example: separating water into hydrogen & oxygen

Figure 3.17 – Pg. 86

31

Elements & Compounds

Figure 3.19 – Pg. 87

32

Elements & Compounds• all compounds combine in specific ways

• __________________________________________ – a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportions by mass

• water is always 2 hydrogens & 1 oxygen (H2O)

33

Recommended