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Respiratory Disease Obstructive & Restrictive Pulmonary Diseases Respiratory Disease Obstructive &...

Date post: 22-Dec-2015
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Respiratory Disease Respiratory Disease Obstructive & Restrictive Obstructive & Restrictive Pulmonary Diseases Pulmonary Diseases
Transcript
  • Slide 1
  • Respiratory Disease Obstructive & Restrictive Pulmonary Diseases Respiratory Disease Obstructive & Restrictive Pulmonary Diseases
  • Slide 2
  • LUNG STRUCTURE
  • Slide 3
  • Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Indicate obstruction to flow of air through the airways. As asthma, COPD ( chronic bronchitis & emphysema ), Bronchiactasis, cystic fibrosis TLC ( total lung capacity ) increase RV ( residual volume ) increase FEV1 / VC less than 70%
  • Slide 4
  • Restrictive Pulmonary Disease Indicate limitation to full expantion of the lungs because of diseases in the lung paranchyma, chest wall or diaphragm. ( Lung volumes are decrease but flow rates are normal ). As Interstitial lung disease( cryptogenic fibsosing alveolitis, sarcoidosis, asbestosis, silicosis, coal worker pneumoconiosis) TLC ( total lung capacity ) decrease RV ( residual volume ) decrease FEV1 / VC = or more than 70%
  • Slide 5
  • Pulmonary function test Lung volumes TLC ( total lung capacity ): is the volume of gas contained in the lungs after a maximal inspiration. TLC ( total lung capacity ): is the volume of gas contained in the lungs after a maximal inspiration. RV ( residual volume ): is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration. RV ( residual volume ): is the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of a maximal expiration. VC ( vital capacity ): is the volume of gas that exhaled from the lungs during expiration. TLC = VC + RV TLC = VC + RV Lung volumes are increase in obstructive lung diseases. Lung volumes are decrease in restrictive lung diseases.
  • Slide 6
  • Gas flow rate FEV1 ( forced expiratory volume in the first second ): FEV1 ( forced expiratory volume in the first second ): is the volume of gas exhaled during the first second of expiration. is the volume of gas exhaled during the first second of expiration. FVC ( forced vital capacity ): FVC ( forced vital capacity ): is the total volume of gas that exhaled from the lungs during expiration. is the total volume of gas that exhaled from the lungs during expiration. Flow rate decrease in obstruction to air flow( obstructive lung disease ) FEV1 / VC less than 70% ( in Obstructive lung diseases ). FEV1 / VC = or more than 70%(in Restrictive lung diseases).
  • Slide 7
  • Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ASTHMA ASTHMA
  • Slide 8
  • What is Asthma? Chronic disease of the airways that may cause Chronic disease of the airways that may cause Wheezing Breathlessness Chest tightness Nighttime or early morning coughing Episodes are usually associated with widespread, but variable, airflow obstruction within the lung that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment. Episodes are usually associated with widespread, but variable, airflow obstruction within the lung that is often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment.
  • Slide 9
  • Bronchial asthma Definition It's paroxysmal reversible airway obstruction It's paroxysmal reversible airway obstruction characterized by airway inflammation & increased airway responsiveness to stimuli resulting in symptoms of wheeze,cough,dyspnoea & chest tightness. characterized by airway inflammation & increased airway responsiveness to stimuli resulting in symptoms of wheeze,cough,dyspnoea & chest tightness. Functionally characterized by airway obstruction which is variable over short periods of time or is reversible with treatment ( the airway obstruction may be relieved spontaneously or with therapy ). Functionally characterized by airway obstruction which is variable over short periods of time or is reversible with treatment ( the airway obstruction may be relieved spontaneously or with therapy ).
  • Slide 10
  • Increased responsiveness of the airways & reversable airflow obstruction are not unique to asthma. Many patients with COPD exhibit nonspecific hyperresponsiveness, although obstruction is not completely reversible( partially reversible ). Asthmatic Bronchitis : some current or past cigarette smokers with chronic bronchitis & airflow obstruction exhibit episodic wheezing & SOB that closely mimic asthma.( a subcategory of chronic bronchitis that has features in common with asthma ).
  • Slide 11
  • In persons older than 40 years who were newly diagnosed as having asthma, approximately one half had a history of cigarette smoking & had been previously diagnosed as having chronic bronchitis & emphysema,these patients would have been more accurately diagnosed as having Asthmatic Bronchitis. In persons older than 40 years with features of asthma who have never smoked cigarettes called adult onset asthma. In persons older than 40 years with features of asthma who have never smoked cigarettes called adult onset asthma.
  • Slide 12
  • Prevalence of asthma sssss: Asthma is very commen,about 4-5%of population have bronchial asthma. Asthma is very commen,about 4-5%of population have bronchial asthma. The prevalence of asthma increased in the last century. The prevalence of asthma increased in the last century. About 300 million people world-wide suffer from asthma, About 300 million people world-wide suffer from asthma, and an additional 100 million may be diagnosed with asthma by 2025. and an additional 100 million may be diagnosed with asthma by 2025. Asthma occur in all ages but predominantly in early life Asthma occur in all ages but predominantly in early life ( more common in children ). ( more common in children ). In childhood, asthma is more common in boys (male :female 2:1), but following puberty females are more frequently affected (sex ratio equilized by the age of 30). In childhood, asthma is more common in boys (male :female 2:1), but following puberty females are more frequently affected (sex ratio equilized by the age of 30).
  • Slide 13
  • Asthma prevalence is higher among Asthma prevalence is higher among children than adults boys than girls women than men
  • Slide 14
  • are likely to have asthma. * On average, 3 children in a classroom of 30
  • Slide 15
  • Aetiology of asthma : The aetiology of asthma is complex and multiple environmental & genetic factors are implicated. There are genetic markers on multiple chromosomes that relate to bronchial hyperresponsiveness & atopy.
  • Slide 16
  • Risk Factors for Developing Asthma Genetic characteristics Genetic characteristics Occupational exposures Occupational exposures Environmental exposures Environmental exposures
  • Slide 17
  • Factors may predispose to asthma : Factors may predispose to asthma : - Childhood infection eg.: respiratory syncytial virus. - Childhood infection eg.: respiratory syncytial virus. In patients with chronic asthma Mycoplasma & Chlamydia species have been identified in lung specimens, suggesting a possible role of infection in the pathogenesis. In patients with chronic asthma Mycoplasma & Chlamydia species have been identified in lung specimens, suggesting a possible role of infection in the pathogenesis. -Allergen exposure eg.: house dust mite. -Allergen exposure eg.: house dust mite. -Indoor pollution, warm, humid, centrally heated homes. -Indoor pollution, warm, humid, centrally heated homes. -Dietary deficiency of antioxidants. -Dietary deficiency of antioxidants. -Exposure to pets in early life. -Exposure to pets in early life. -Obesity (gastroesophegeal reflux). -Obesity (gastroesophegeal reflux).
  • Slide 18
  • Factors may protect against asthma : Factors may protect against asthma : -Living on farm ( childhood exposure to antigen rich environment is associated with a redused incidence of asthma & allergy by changes in the maturation process of the immune system.). -Living on farm ( childhood exposure to antigen rich environment is associated with a redused incidence of asthma & allergy by changes in the maturation process of the immune system.). -predominance of lactobacilli in gut flora. -predominance of lactobacilli in gut flora. -Milk & antioxidants such as vit. E. -Milk & antioxidants such as vit. E.
  • Slide 19
  • *According to the aetiology, we can divide asthma in to : Allergic asthma : Atopy is the single largest risk factor for the development of asthma,personal or family history of allergy,increase IgE level,positive skin reaction to intradermal injection of extracts antigens. Allergic asthma : Atopy is the single largest risk factor for the development of asthma,personal or family history of allergy,increase IgE level,positive skin reaction to intradermal injection of extracts antigens. Idiosyncratic asthma : Non atopic,no personal or family history of allergy. Idiosyncratic asthma : Non atopic,no personal or family history of allergy. *Onset in early life : Strong allergic components. *Onset in early life : Strong allergic components. * Onset in late life : non allergic or have a mixed aetiology. * Onset in late life : non allergic or have a mixed aetiology.
  • Slide 20
  • Pathophysiology of asthma : Asthma is multifactorial in origin arising from interaction of both genetic & environmental factors. Asthma is multifactorial in origin arising from interaction of both genetic & environmental factors. Airway inflammation occurs when genetically susceptible individuals are exposed to environmental factors. Airway inflammation occurs when genetically susceptible individuals are exposed to environmental factors.
  • Slide 21
  • *Cardinal pathophisiological features of asthma: 1-Airwflow limitation: usually reverse spontaneously or with treatment. usually reverse spontaneously or with treatment. 2-Airway hyper-responsiveness: Exaggerated bronchoconstriction to a wide range of stimuli eg.: exercise, cold air.. Exaggerated bronchoconstriction to a wide range of stimuli eg.: exercise, cold air.. 3-Airway inflammation : Antigen-antibody reaction occur & leads to an inflammatory reaction in which several different cells are involved namely mast cells, macrophages & oesinophils which produce mediators such as histamine, prostaglandin & leukotriens. Antigen-antibody reaction occur & leads to an inflammatory reaction in which several different cells are involved namely mast cells, macrophages & oesinophils which produce mediators such as histamine, prostaglandin & leukotriens.
  • Slide 22
  • These mediators (histamine, prostaglandin & leukotriens ) These mediators (histamine, prostaglandin & leukotriens ) interact in a complex way resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness which cause the following pathological changes in asthma : interact in a complex way resulting in bronchial hyperresponsiveness which cause the following pathological changes in asthma : 1. -Bronchial muscle spasm, smooth muscle hypertrophy & hyperplasia. 2. -Mucosal swelling (oedema ). 3. -Hyperplasia of mucous glands with mucous plugging (viscid secretion ). 4. -Thickened basement membrane. 5. -Epithelial damage. 6. -vasodilatation. All these lead to airway obstruction, that is why asthma is not only bronchconstriction,but also associated with inflammatory reaction. All these lead to airway obstruction, that is why asthma is not only bronchconstriction,but also associated with inflammatory reaction.
  • Slide 23
  • Pathology of Asthma Source: What You and Your Family Can Do About Asthma by the Global Initiative For Asthma Created and funded by NIH/NHLBI, 1995 Normal Asthma Asthma involves inflammation of the airways
  • Slide 24
  • With increasing severity & chronicity of asthma With increasing severity & chronicity of asthma remodelling of the airways occur leading to fibrosis of the airway wall, fixed narrowing of the airways & a reduced response to bronchodilator medications. remodelling of the airways occur leading to fibrosis of the airway wall, fixed narrowing of the airways & a reduced response to bronchodilator medications.
  • Slide 25
  • Pathogenesis of allergic asthma: Pathogenesis of allergic asthma: Inhaled antigen is processed by mucosal dendritic cells & presented to Tho-T cells. This results in the generation of either Th1 or Th2 T cells. With Th2 predominating in asthma. Inhaled antigen is processed by mucosal dendritic cells & presented to Tho-T cells. This results in the generation of either Th1 or Th2 T cells. With Th2 predominating in asthma. Th2-T cells produces Interleukins IL-4, IL-6 & IL-13 which stimulate B- cells to produce IgE, which binds to mast cells.(IgE also bind to basophils & other cells.). Th2-T cells produces Interleukins IL-4, IL-6 & IL-13 which stimulate B- cells to produce IgE, which binds to mast cells.(IgE also bind to basophils & other cells.). Inhaled antigen binds to IgE, stimulating the mast cell to degranulate, which in turn leads to the release of mediators of the immediate response & the late resonse ( mediators like Histamine & Leukotrienes ). Histamine & Leukotrienes produce bronchospasm & airway oedema.
  • Slide 26
  • Released chemotactic factors, along with factors from Th2 T-cells ( IL-3, IL-5 & GM-CSF Granulocyte- Macrophage colony stimulating factor ) facilitate eosinophil traffic from the bone marrow to the airway walls. Released chemotactic factors, along with factors from Th2 T-cells ( IL-3, IL-5 & GM-CSF Granulocyte- Macrophage colony stimulating factor ) facilitate eosinophil traffic from the bone marrow to the airway walls. These late responses lead to : excessive mucous production, airway wall inflammation & hyperresponsiveness. These late responses lead to : excessive mucous production, airway wall inflammation & hyperresponsiveness.

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