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SANITATION MONITORING TOOLKIT - Community-Led Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 1 ... monitoring...

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  • UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 1



    UNICEF, December 2014

    The toolkit provides sanitation and hygiene sector professionals with the current approaches to sanitation monitoring, including guidance on how to use various

    monitoring instruments and the latest tools and resources. The focus is on rural sanitation.

  • UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 2

    How to use this toolkit

    The toolkit has been organized into seven thematic areas.

    1 Monitoring the enabling environment

    2 Monitoring national sanitation access

    3 Monitoring Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS)

    4 Monitoring equity

    5 Monitoring sustainability and sector performance

    6 Monitoring sanitation marketing

    7 Monitoring Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in schools

    The sanitation toolkit is designed to support the strengthening of sanitation programmes and to

    gather further insights into practitioner needs and required support. The toolkit is supported by a

    website: http://www.sanitationmonitoringtoolkit.com/

    Topic descriptions

    The toolkit brings together current thinking and practice in monitoring sanitation across various

    topics. Each of the following topics refers to current reports, protocols and tools that measure and

    analyse progress, outcomes and results of rural sanitation programmes, interventions and


    Topic 1 Monitoring the enabling environment

    This topic defines and explains the components of an enabling environment for sanitation and

    explains how this is monitored including the Country Status Overview (CSO), the WASH

    bottleneck analysis tool (WASH-BAT), the eThekwini commitments, the UN-water Global Analysis

    and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS), the monitoring of high-level meeting

    (HLM) commitments under Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) and the pan-African sector

    monitoring mechanism of the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW).

    Topic 2 Monitoring national sanitation access

    Sanitation access means people using improved toilet facilities. This topic introduces the

    WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) and addresses

    key issues in collecting and reconciling country data. It includes current definitions and gives tips

    for harmonizing national and international data.

    Topic 3 Monitoring Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS)

    This topic introduces different monitoring information and tools needed at the project/community,

    subnational, national, continental/regional and global levels. It raises key monitoring questions to

    be addressed and includes three priorities for monitoring.

    Note: CATS is an umbrella term developed by UNICEF sanitation practitioners in 2008 to

    encompass a wide range of community-based sanitation programming.


  • UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 3

    1 Monitoring the elimination of open defecation (OD)

    This sub-topic covers key information about open defecation, the process towards eliminating it

    and declaring, verifying and certifying open defecation free (ODF) status. It includes sections on

    global and national ODF protocols, indicators and tools as well as a section on sustaining ODF and

    monitoring post-ODF certification.

    2 Monitoring the disposal of childrens faeces

    This sub-topic sets out reasons for the safe disposal of childrens faeces and reviews findings from

    Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)/Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) monitoring data

    across a range of countries. It explains the importance of standardized MICS/DHS responses as

    well as suggested indicators and strategies.

    3 Monitoring handwashing with soap (HWWS)

    This sub-topic explains why handwashing with soap is important, how it can be monitored and

    discusses which key handwashing indicators to monitor.

    Topic 4 Monitoring equity

    This topic defines equity and explains why it is important to monitor equity. It explains how

    Monitoring Results for Equity Systems (MoRES) works and suggests indicators for monitoring

    sanitation and handwashing with soap (HWWS) components of equity, using examples from

    various countries.

    Topic 5 Monitoring sustainability and sector performance

    This topic introduces the role of sector performance reviews, sustainability checks, monitoring ODF

    sustainability, and tools to assess sanitation service levels.

    Topic 6 Monitoring sanitation marketing

    This topic introduces current thinking in monitoring sanitation marketing initiatives as well as

    examples of indicators and results chains.

    Topic 7 Monitoring WASH in Schools

    This topic sets out the key elements and importance of WASH in Schools. With reference to the

    WASH in Schools Monitoring Package, the topic explains the challenges in the use of monitoring

    data and unpacks three modules: a module to be incorporated into national Education Monitoring

    Information Systems (EMISs), a survey module and a childrens monitoring module as well as for

    monitoring WASH in Schools.

  • UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 4

    Why monitor?

    Monitoring is the routine assessment of activities and processes in order to measure whether

    activities are carried out as planned.

    Evaluation is a systematic assessment of whether a programme has made the intended difference.

    The goal of evaluation is to answer the question: has the programme achieved its proposed

    objectives and impacts?

    Done properly, findings from routine monitoring can inform periodic evaluation.

    Monitoring assesses the human and financial inputs, activities and outputs of programmes,

    interventions or services. Evaluation assesses the outcomes and impacts of these programmes,

    interventions or services. Evaluation can be formative taking place during the life of a project

    with the intention of improving the project approach or strategy or it can be summative

    distilling learning from a completed project or programme.

    It is recommended that independent external parties carry out evaluations because they have

    greater objectivity than programme implementers.

    Both monitoring and evaluation are essential components of effective management. Together


    provide evidence about the effectiveness, efficiency, strengths and limitations of programmes,

    interventions and services;

    provide feedback to stakeholders, such as funders, community members, local authorities,

    regulators and other sectors;

    are essential for evidence-based approaches to programming and policy making;

    build sector knowledge and enable systematic learning;

    build an evidence base for research, policy and practice;

    enable diagnostically accurate and targeted corrective action;

    help to show accountability to stakeholders, aid sustainability and contribute to building an

    enabling environment.

    Trends in sanitation monitoring

    Monitoring and evaluation in the sanitation and hygiene sub-sector aims to: measure and ensure

    that inputs and activities lead to their intended results and outcomes; adjust course where

    necessary and establish whether progress is being made towards a given goal.

    In a review of current trends in sanitation and hygiene monitoring from the Water Supply and

    Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), four main trends in sanitation and hygiene monitoring

    are noted (see van der Voorden, 2013), namely:

    a shift from monitoring (infrastructure) outputs to (behavioural/quality) outcomes;

  • UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 5

    a diversification of monitoring aspects and actors, both as subjects and implementers of the


    a growing focus on monitoring sustainability and the equity of outcomes and services;

    a move towards systematization and harmonization, linking local-level monitoring to national-

    level systems.

  • UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 6

    TOPIC 1



    This topic provides an overview of the main tools for monitoring the environment that enables

    large-scale sanitation programmes to be developed and sustained. There is growing attention to

    monitoring the enabling environment.

    What is the enabling environment for sanitation?

    The enabling environment for sanitation is the policy, capacity and institutional and financial

    framework necessary for sustaining and replicating large-scale sanitation programmes. A positive

    enabling environment builds the attitudes, capacity and practices for effective and efficient

    functioning of organizations and individuals.

    UNICEFs WASH strategy emphasizes improving the enabling environment for sanitation. UNICEF

    country offices (see CATS Country Profiles, 2010) have identified the following six institutional

    issues as most challenging:

    1 sanitation policy;

    2 leadership and institutional arrangements;

    3 budgets and financing for sanitation;

    4 human resource capacity for implementation, including the quality of facilitation in CATS;

    5 the development of a sanitation market;

    6 pro-poor financial arrangements.

    Six tools have been developed w