UNICEF Sanitation Monitoring Toolkit 1
SANITATION MONITORING TOOLKIT
UNICEF, December 2014
The toolkit provides sanitation and hygiene sector professionals with the current approaches to sanitation monitoring, including guidance on how to use various
monitoring instruments and the latest tools and resources. The focus is on rural sanitation.
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How to use this toolkit
The toolkit has been organized into seven thematic areas.
1 Monitoring the enabling environment
2 Monitoring national sanitation access
3 Monitoring Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS)
4 Monitoring equity
5 Monitoring sustainability and sector performance
6 Monitoring sanitation marketing
7 Monitoring Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) in schools
The sanitation toolkit is designed to support the strengthening of sanitation programmes and to
gather further insights into practitioner needs and required support. The toolkit is supported by a
The toolkit brings together current thinking and practice in monitoring sanitation across various
topics. Each of the following topics refers to current reports, protocols and tools that measure and
analyse progress, outcomes and results of rural sanitation programmes, interventions and
Topic 1 Monitoring the enabling environment
This topic defines and explains the components of an enabling environment for sanitation and
explains how this is monitored including the Country Status Overview (CSO), the WASH
bottleneck analysis tool (WASH-BAT), the eThekwini commitments, the UN-water Global Analysis
and Assessment of Sanitation and Drinking Water (GLAAS), the monitoring of high-level meeting
(HLM) commitments under Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) and the pan-African sector
monitoring mechanism of the African Ministers Council on Water (AMCOW).
Topic 2 Monitoring national sanitation access
Sanitation access means people using improved toilet facilities. This topic introduces the
WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation (JMP) and addresses
key issues in collecting and reconciling country data. It includes current definitions and gives tips
for harmonizing national and international data.
Topic 3 Monitoring Community Approaches to Total Sanitation (CATS)
This topic introduces different monitoring information and tools needed at the project/community,
subnational, national, continental/regional and global levels. It raises key monitoring questions to
be addressed and includes three priorities for monitoring.
Note: CATS is an umbrella term developed by UNICEF sanitation practitioners in 2008 to
encompass a wide range of community-based sanitation programming.
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1 Monitoring the elimination of open defecation (OD)
This sub-topic covers key information about open defecation, the process towards eliminating it
and declaring, verifying and certifying open defecation free (ODF) status. It includes sections on
global and national ODF protocols, indicators and tools as well as a section on sustaining ODF and
monitoring post-ODF certification.
2 Monitoring the disposal of childrens faeces
This sub-topic sets out reasons for the safe disposal of childrens faeces and reviews findings from
Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS)/Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) monitoring data
across a range of countries. It explains the importance of standardized MICS/DHS responses as
well as suggested indicators and strategies.
3 Monitoring handwashing with soap (HWWS)
This sub-topic explains why handwashing with soap is important, how it can be monitored and
discusses which key handwashing indicators to monitor.
Topic 4 Monitoring equity
This topic defines equity and explains why it is important to monitor equity. It explains how
Monitoring Results for Equity Systems (MoRES) works and suggests indicators for monitoring
sanitation and handwashing with soap (HWWS) components of equity, using examples from
Topic 5 Monitoring sustainability and sector performance
This topic introduces the role of sector performance reviews, sustainability checks, monitoring ODF
sustainability, and tools to assess sanitation service levels.
Topic 6 Monitoring sanitation marketing
This topic introduces current thinking in monitoring sanitation marketing initiatives as well as
examples of indicators and results chains.
Topic 7 Monitoring WASH in Schools
This topic sets out the key elements and importance of WASH in Schools. With reference to the
WASH in Schools Monitoring Package, the topic explains the challenges in the use of monitoring
data and unpacks three modules: a module to be incorporated into national Education Monitoring
Information Systems (EMISs), a survey module and a childrens monitoring module as well as for
monitoring WASH in Schools.
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Monitoring is the routine assessment of activities and processes in order to measure whether
activities are carried out as planned.
Evaluation is a systematic assessment of whether a programme has made the intended difference.
The goal of evaluation is to answer the question: has the programme achieved its proposed
objectives and impacts?
Done properly, findings from routine monitoring can inform periodic evaluation.
Monitoring assesses the human and financial inputs, activities and outputs of programmes,
interventions or services. Evaluation assesses the outcomes and impacts of these programmes,
interventions or services. Evaluation can be formative taking place during the life of a project
with the intention of improving the project approach or strategy or it can be summative
distilling learning from a completed project or programme.
It is recommended that independent external parties carry out evaluations because they have
greater objectivity than programme implementers.
Both monitoring and evaluation are essential components of effective management. Together
provide evidence about the effectiveness, efficiency, strengths and limitations of programmes,
interventions and services;
provide feedback to stakeholders, such as funders, community members, local authorities,
regulators and other sectors;
are essential for evidence-based approaches to programming and policy making;
build sector knowledge and enable systematic learning;
build an evidence base for research, policy and practice;
enable diagnostically accurate and targeted corrective action;
help to show accountability to stakeholders, aid sustainability and contribute to building an
Trends in sanitation monitoring
Monitoring and evaluation in the sanitation and hygiene sub-sector aims to: measure and ensure
that inputs and activities lead to their intended results and outcomes; adjust course where
necessary and establish whether progress is being made towards a given goal.
In a review of current trends in sanitation and hygiene monitoring from the Water Supply and
Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC), four main trends in sanitation and hygiene monitoring
are noted (see van der Voorden, 2013), namely:
a shift from monitoring (infrastructure) outputs to (behavioural/quality) outcomes;
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a diversification of monitoring aspects and actors, both as subjects and implementers of the
a growing focus on monitoring sustainability and the equity of outcomes and services;
a move towards systematization and harmonization, linking local-level monitoring to national-
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MONITORING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENT
This topic provides an overview of the main tools for monitoring the environment that enables
large-scale sanitation programmes to be developed and sustained. There is growing attention to
monitoring the enabling environment.
What is the enabling environment for sanitation?
The enabling environment for sanitation is the policy, capacity and institutional and financial
framework necessary for sustaining and replicating large-scale sanitation programmes. A positive
enabling environment builds the attitudes, capacity and practices for effective and efficient
functioning of organizations and individuals.
UNICEFs WASH strategy emphasizes improving the enabling environment for sanitation. UNICEF
country offices (see CATS Country Profiles, 2010) have identified the following six institutional
issues as most challenging:
1 sanitation policy;
2 leadership and institutional arrangements;
3 budgets and financing for sanitation;
4 human resource capacity for implementation, including the quality of facilitation in CATS;
5 the development of a sanitation market;
6 pro-poor financial arrangements.
Six tools have been developed w