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SPSS for Beginners

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Description:
Introduction to SPSS tutorial for those with no (or very little) previous experience.
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  • Entering data, calculating descriptive

    statistics and exploring your data using SPSS

    Dr. Christine Gregory

    November 2010

  • Open SPSS

    Open, import and save data files

    Defining variables

    Summarising data

    Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics

    Chart builder

    What else can SPSS do?

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Opening SPSS 15.0Always open SPSS first, then open or type in data.

    Choose ONE

    Open a data file from

    SPSS OR Excel

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Open existing data

    Opening data in SPSS 15.0

    Open existing data

    from the File menu.

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Output File Shows output for ALL analysis run in SPSS

    Keeps a log of all activity of open data files

    Saved with the extension .spo

    Everything done in SPSS is

    shown here, in outline form.

    A data file was saved as test.sav.

    This was recorded in the log here.

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Saving your SPSS files Save in one of YOUR folders

    Name file appropriately

    Choose correct file extension

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    Save as type:.sav for data files

    .spo for output files

  • Importing data from Excel

    The file MUST BE .xls NOT .xlsx

    Variable names CAN be imported too

    Must be in row 1 of the worksheet

    Must begin with a letter

    No spaces and no special characters (except _ )

    Data will appear in SPSS data editor

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • For Example. Importing data from Excel.

    Variable names(Row 1)

    Filename (.xls)

    Sheet1 contains the dataset

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • For Example. Importing data from Excel.Filename (.xls)

    Select All Files

    to see your .xls

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • For Example. Importing data from Excel.

    Tick here if

    variable names

    are in row 1.

    Is this range correct?

    If NOT

    Enter correct range here

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Variable names(from Row 1)

    View all data

    For Example. Importing data from Excel.

    View and define

    variables

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    Variable name

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    If numeric...

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    Describe the

    variable

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    Width of column

    in data view

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    Alignment of

    data entries in

    data view

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Variable ViewView and define variables

    Classify

    variable type

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • SPSS Data Editor: Data ViewView, enter or change data entries

    Menu Bar

    Tool Bar

    Choose your view:Choose your view:Numerical values

    OR

    Value labels

  • SUMMARISING DATASUMMARISING DATARepresenting data Diagrammatically & Numerically

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Levels of MeasurementData

    CategoricalQualitative

    ScaleQuantitative

    Nominal(Unranked categories)

    Ordinal(Ranked categories)

    Discrete(Not possible to take

    Continuous(Possible to take

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    (Unranked categories)

    Marital Status

    Political Party

    Eye Color

    (Ranked categories)

    Satisfaction level

    Level of agreement

    (Not possible to take

    fractional values)

    No. of cars

    No. of students

    (Possible to take

    fractional values)

    Height

    Weight

    In SPSS, data is either Nominal, Ordinal or Scale.

    It is essential to classify data correctly in SPSS.- Incorrect classification will result in incorrect analyses.

  • Summarising Variables Graphically

    Categorical

    1 Variablee.g., Gender

    2 Variablese.g., Satisfaction rating

    Categorical Nominal or Ordinal

    e.g., Gender e.g., Satisfaction rating

    by Gender

    Simple Bar Chart

    OR

    Pie Chart

    Clustered Bar Chart

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Summarising Variables Graphically

    Quantitative

    1 Variablee.g., Gross Annual Income

    Quantitative

    by

    Categorical

    Quantitative Scale

    2 or more related

    Variablese.g., Holding breath, Categorical

    e.g., Gross Annual Income by

    Gender

    Histogram

    1-D Boxplot

    Stem & Leaf Plot

    Simple Boxplot

    Population Pyramid

    Bar Chart of Means

    Clustered Boxplot

    e.g., Holding breath,

    drinking water, gargling,

    spoon of sugar.Related: the same group of

    participants tried all 4 methods to

    get rid of hiccups.

    Bar Chart

    of Means

  • Summarising Variables Numerically

    Categorical

    1 Variablee.g., Gender

    2 Variablese.g., Satisfaction rating

    Categorical Nominal or Ordinal

    e.g., Gender e.g., Satisfaction rating

    by Gender

    Frequency table

    Mode and/or Medianuse Frequencies in SPSS

    Contingency tableuse Crosstabs in SPSS

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Summarising Variables Numerically

    Quantitative

    1 Variablee.g., Gross Annual Income

    Quantitative

    by

    Categorical

    Quantitative Scale

    Categoricale.g., Gross Annual Income by

    Gender

    Descriptive Statsuse Frequencies or

    Descriptive Statistics in SPSS

    Descriptive Statsuse Explore in SPSS

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICSDESCRIPTIVE STATISTICSDescribing and presenting data using SPSS

    Download employ.sav from the ASK section on U-Link to carry out several of the

    analysis shown in the remainder o the presentation.

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Descriptive Statistics Menu

    Statistics

    Charts Bar

    Pie

    Histogram

    Frequency tablesFrequency tables

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Descriptive Statistics Menu

    Limited statistics Mean, SE of Mean

    Stdev, Variance

    Range, Min, Max

    Skewness, Kurtosis

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Descriptive Statistics Menu

    Statistics

    Plots Boxplots

    Stem-and-leaf

    Histogram

    Normality plots Normality plots

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Descriptive Statistics Menu

    Contingency table(Counts or %s)

    Observed tallies

    Expected tallies

    Crosstab statistics Chi-square Chi-square

    Correlations

    Clustered bar charts

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Frequencies. Multiple scale and/or categorical variables.

    ONLY

    appropriate for

    categorical variables

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Frequencies Output. Ethnic group and Job Satisfaction Scale 1

    ONLY a frequency table was outputted.

    Did not request statistics for these categorical variablesEthnic Group

    36 51.4 51.4 51.418 25.7 25.7 77.114 20.0 20.0 97.1

    2 2.9 2.9 100.070 100.0 100.0

    White/EuropeanAsianWest IndianAfricanTotal

    ValidFrequency Percent Valid Percent

    CumulativePercent

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    70 100.0 100.0

    Job Satisfaction Scale - Item 1

    7 10.0 10.3 10.322 31.4 32.4 42.624 34.3 35.3 77.913 18.6 19.1 97.1

    2 2.9 2.9 100.068 97.1 100.0

    2 2.970 100.0

    Strongly DisagreeDisagreeUndecidedAgreeStrongly AgreeTotal

    Valid

    0MissingTotal

    Frequency Percent Valid PercentCumulative

    Percent

    Total A

    Total B

    Percent = (Frequency)/(Total B)Valid Percent = (Frequency)/(Total A)

  • Descriptive statistics

    Histogram with normal curve overlay.

    Frequencies Output. Gross Annual Income

    Statistics

    Gross Annual Income682

    7819.127800.00

    6800a

    997.947995897.7

    .370

    ValidMissing

    N

    MeanMedianModeStd. DeviationVarianceSkewness

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    .291-.294.57446005900

    105006925.007800.008675.00

    Std. Error of SkewnessKurtosisStd. Error of KurtosisRangeMinimumMaximum

    255075

    Percentiles

    Multiple modes exist. The smallest value is showna.

    Messages appear at the bottom

    Q1Q2

    Q3

    (Quartiles)

  • Descriptives. Analyse scale variables. Appropriate for scale variables ONLY.

    Offers fewer statistics than Frequencies.

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    Calculates the z-values for each

    variable and saves as a new variable.

  • Descriptives Output. Gross annual income and Age last birthday

    Standardised values

    saved as variables:

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    saved as variables:

    Z-values for Gross

    Annual Income and age

  • Explore. Examine each scale variable by each categorical variable.Add 1 or more

    scale variables here

    Add 1 or more

    categorical

    variables here

    Output

    Statistics ONLY

    Plots ONLY

    or Both

    Outputs most

    descriptives

    offered under

    Frequencies

    ASK Week Fall 2010

    variables here

    K-S test for normality for

    each group within each

    Factor variable for each

    Dependent variable

  • Explore Output. Exam Performance by Gender

    ASK Week Fall 2010

  • Explore Output. Exa

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