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Technical Aspects of Oil Shale Production and Lift Kerogen Oil Hydrocarbon Gases Spent Shale Thermal...

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  • Technical Aspects of Oil Technical Aspects of Oil

    Shale Production and Shale Production and


    Milind D. DeoMilind D. Deo

    Professor, Chemical EngineeringProfessor, Chemical Engineering

    Institute for Clean and Secure EnergyInstitute for Clean and Secure Energy

  • Shale CompositionShale Composition

    Composition varies from deposit to deposit and even within deposit

  • Energy ValuesEnergy Values

    Crude Oil Crude Oil 45 MJ/kg45 MJ/kg Price $10/MMBTU (at $60/barrel)Price $10/MMBTU (at $60/barrel)

    Coal Coal 2727--31 MJ/kg31 MJ/kg Price $1.5/MMBTUPrice $1.5/MMBTU

    Natural Gas ~55 MJ/kgNatural Gas ~55 MJ/kg Price $6Price $6--10/MMBTU10/MMBTU

    Shale oil ~ 42 MJ/kgShale oil ~ 42 MJ/kg

    Shale ~ 4.3 Shale ~ 4.3 8 MJ/kg8 MJ/kg

    Value is added by making liquid hydrocarbonsValue is added by making liquid hydrocarbons

  • EnergyEnergy

    Without any heat losses the ratio of energy out/energy in = 13 This is the absolute maximum that one can hope to achieve Energy-in values for conventional oil/gas type operations have to be

    added along with heat losses to compute more practical ratios which will be in the 3-6 range

  • Production potentialProduction potential


    One ton of sandstone

    Porosity 20%

    Grain density = 2.65 g/cc

    Oil saturation 80%

    Oil quantity = 25 gallons/ton


    One ton of oil sand

    Bitumen wt fraction (10%)

    Bulk density = 2.2 g/cc

    Oil quantity = 28 gallons/ton


    One ton of oil shale

    Organic content (9.5%)

    Shale density = 2.67 g/cc

    Complete conversion

    25 gallons/ton shale oil

  • Shale Production PotentialShale Production PotentialAverage thickness = 550 feetAverage thickness = 550 feet

    Density = 2.67 g/ccDensity = 2.67 g/cc

    Average oil content = 30 gallons/tonAverage oil content = 30 gallons/ton

    Barrel of Oil Equivalent/Acre = 1.3 millionBarrel of Oil Equivalent/Acre = 1.3 million


    From T. Dammer

  • Oil ShaleOil Shale

    To produce 100,000 barrels of oil/dayTo produce 100,000 barrels of oil/day 140,000 tons of oil shale/day will have to be 140,000 tons of oil shale/day will have to be

    processed, if surface production facilities are usedprocessed, if surface production facilities are used

    Kennecott processes 500,000 tons of material/dayKennecott processes 500,000 tons of material/day

    For a 1000 MW power plant, about 10,000 tons of For a 1000 MW power plant, about 10,000 tons of coal is required/daycoal is required/day

    LargeLarge--scale operation scale operation operations at such operations at such scales existscales exist

  • Processing OptionsProcessing Options

    Mining Crushing Retorting

    Fracturing RetortingProduct



    Liquid Fuels


    ATPGas combustion (Bureau, Petrosix)UnionToscoHydrogen AtmosphereKiviter Galoter

    NaturalHydraulicExplosiveElectocarbonizationDrilling &Dewatering

    CombustionHot gasesSteamGradual HeatingPyrolysis


    Gas DriveArtificial Lift

    Kerogen OilHydrocarbon Gases

    Spent Shale

    Thermal & Chemical TreatingHydrogenation

    Mild-cat crackingHydrocracking


    Mine FillRevegetateDump

    Underground Room & Pillar

    Cut and FillBlock Carving


    Source: Strategic Significance of Americas Oil Shale resources, Vol II, 2004

    Control on Operational Parameter



    Not necessary?

  • Ex-Situ Process Diagram


    K + S

    KU + S + CS + coke + char



    S + others

    CS: Combusted Shale

    Direct or Indirect

    KU: kerogen Unreacted

    S: Feed Shale

    P: Product


    Depending on the kerogen conversion

  • Direct and Indirect ProcessesDirect and Indirect Processes

    From the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment Reports

  • The Petrosix RetortThe Petrosix Retort

    From the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment Reports

  • Sample Products (based on 100% conversion)

    Products Weight Percent

    Naphtha 28.5 %

    Distillate 15.9 %

    Gas oil 1.8 %

    Char 18.8 %

    Coke 8.9 %

    Other 26.1 %

  • Surface Processing IssuesSurface Processing Issues

    KnowledgeKnowledge--experience in the 70sexperience in the 70s--80s80s

    Scattered, not integratedScattered, not integrated

    Solids handlingSolids handling

    Oil mistsOil mists

    Problem of fines in the oilProblem of fines in the oil

    Scale of operation Scale of operation

    Must be large to overcome the oilMust be large to overcome the oil--price price


  • Oil Shale Oil Shale Insitu ProcessesInsitu Processes

    Rubble inRubble in--situ extractionsitu extraction

    Create a rubbleCreate a rubble

    Air and steam injection at the topAir and steam injection at the top

    Large scale experiments runLarge scale experiments run

    Yields of about 7 gpt Yields of about 7 gpt 40% of the oil in place40% of the oil in place

    Modern inModern in--situ processessitu processes

    Electric heating Electric heating -- ShellShell

    Other forms of heatingOther forms of heating

    Porosity creation, inPorosity creation, in--situsitu

    Hybrid processes (Redleaf Hybrid processes (Redleaf Ecoshale)Ecoshale)

  • Shell ICP (Insitu Conversion Process)Shell ICP (Insitu Conversion Process)

    From www.shell.com

  • InIn--situ Issuessitu Issues

    Porosity, permeability creationPorosity, permeability creation

    Conversion and recoveryConversion and recovery

    Question of residual oilQuestion of residual oil

    Heat losses and energy efficiencyHeat losses and energy efficiency

    Impact on waterImpact on water

    Carbon footprintCarbon footprint

  • Upgrading Shale OilUpgrading Shale Oil

    ObjectivesObjectives Nitrogen removal Nitrogen removal

    Molecular weight reductionMolecular weight reduction


    Some modifications to the existing hydroSome modifications to the existing hydro--processing technologies may be requiredprocessing technologies may be required

    Similar costsSimilar costs

  • ResourcesResources


    No direct water input requiredNo direct water input required

    Surface processingSurface processing

    Water for mining operations Water for mining operations

    Same order as a refinery or chemical process plantSame order as a refinery or chemical process plant

    InIn--situ processingsitu processing

    Water required for drilling/associated activitiesWater required for drilling/associated activities

    Carbon footprintCarbon footprint

    Process and fuel dependentProcess and fuel dependent

  • Carbon Footprint Kilograms of Carbon Footprint Kilograms of

    COCO22 Per BarrelPer BarrelOil Oil Sands



    Oil Sands


    Oil Shale



    Oil Shale


    Production 25 45 95 85 66 (NG)261 (Coal)

    Upgrading 28 37 37 37 35

    Transportation(gasoline,Diesel, jet fuel)

    450 450 450 450 450

    Preliminary Estimates Only

    Oil sands numbers from Professor Murray Gray, University of Alberta

  • Process PossibilitiesProcess Possibilities

    InIn--situ situ Surface ProductionSurface Production

    Energy selfEnergy self--sufficientsufficient

    Sequester CO2

    Shale Deposit

    Heat Gas


    Sequester CO2Re-use, recycle all water

  • Ongoing Research at U of UOngoing Research at U of U

    Depositional heterogeneity and inDepositional heterogeneity and in--situ modelingsitu modeling

    Fundamental transformation kinetics and compositions Fundamental transformation kinetics and compositions

    of oilsof oils

    KerogenKerogen--asphaltene atomistic modelingasphaltene atomistic modeling

    Impact on water qualityImpact on water quality

    OxyOxy--fuel combustion for providing the energyfuel combustion for providing the energy

    PorePore--scale analysisscale analysis

    Climate change legislationClimate change legislation

    Market analysisMarket analysis

    Data repositoryData repository


  • Fundamental kinetics and compositional understanding


    Temperature Controller

    Gas Cylinder

    Back Pressure


    Vent line-1

    Pressure Gauge


    Check valve

    Relief valve

    Waste Container

    PPressure GaugeSeparation unit



    Product 1



    Gas Sampler

    Product 2Product 3

    Product 4

    Vent line-2

    Vent line-3

    Flow meter


  • SummarySummaryPossible to institute environmentally Possible to institute environmentally

    responsible, energyresponsible, energy--efficient processesefficient processes

    Key issues need to be resolved with Key issues need to be resolved with

    respect to both surface extraction and inrespect to both surface extraction and in--

    situ technologiessitu technologies

    A lot to be learnt from previous research A lot to be learnt from previous research

    particularly on exparticularly on ex--situ processessitu processes

    Fundamental and applied research on Fundamental and applied research on

    resource characterization pyrolysis, resource characterization pyrolysis,

    environmental and policy aspects environmental and policy aspe

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