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The French Revolution 1789-1799. Causes of the French Revolution Resentment of royal absolutism ...

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  • Slide 1
  • The French Revolution 1789-1799
  • Slide 2
  • Causes of the French Revolution Resentment of royal absolutism Commoners resentment of land grants given to nobles & clergy Rise of Enlightenment ideals Large national debt Unequal system of tax collection Resentment of noble privileges
  • Slide 3
  • French Revolution 1789 France was the largest & most powerful European nation King Louis XIV died in 1643 New French rulers were elected They wrote a constitution & reformed laws Period before 1789 = Old Regime
  • Slide 4
  • Causes of the French Revolution: The Old Regime France was an absolute monarchy Its society was organized into THREE ESTATES (classes) unequal 1 st Estate Clergy = less than 1% of the population 2 nd Estate Nobles = less than 2% of the population 3 rd Estate Commoners = 97% of the population
  • Slide 5
  • 1 st Estate - Clergy Did not pay taxes Tried only in church courts Owned 1/10 of French land & collected large amounts of taxes, rent & fees Most of the money was in the hands of the higher clergy archbishops, bishops Became lazy, worldly, & neglected spiritual duties
  • Slide 6
  • 1 st Estate Lower Clergy Made up of parish priests Poorly paid & overworked Provided religious guidance, money & food to the poor and all education
  • Slide 7
  • 2 nd Estate - Nobles Did not pay the heaviest taxes Collected feudal dues from peasants Held highest positions in army & government As a class, the nobility were thoughtless, irresponsible & extravagant
  • Slide 8
  • 3 rd Estate Commoners Divided into three sub-groups Bourgeoisie = city dwelling middle class (merchants, manufacturers, doctors, lawyers) wealth & education Laborers & Artisans = middle group Peasants = bottom of the scale, poorest Peasants owed feudal dues/services paid rent of land they worked, heaviest taxes & church tithes
  • Slide 9
  • Discontentment = Revolution Discontentment grows in France during 1700s Factors affecting 3 rd Estate Growing population, rising prices, higher rent/taxes A & M wages dont change B More influence in the government Factors affecting 1 st and 2 nd Estate resented growing power of kings because nobles lost their influence over government
  • Slide 10
  • Unifying Ideas The two main ideas that united all three estates against the power of the king were expressed with the words: Liberty & Equality These were considered natural rights & came from Enlightenment thinkers Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu
  • Slide 11
  • France in Financial Crisis Louis XIVs war left France in huge debt Debt increased when France aided U.S. in the American Revolution & expensive lifestyle at Versailles High taxes could no longer cover the expenses peasants had highest taxes (can only tax them so much) & the wealthy NOT taxed at ALL!! Louis XV borrowed $$ from bankers Didnt care what Frances financial situation would be for the next king
  • Slide 12
  • France in Financial Crisis Louis XVI takes power in 1774 Cared more about leisure than running France Tried to fix the tax problem by proposing taxes on Estates 1 & 2 nobles rebelled By 1787 France is financially finished! Louis XVI called for a meeting of the Estates General to meet at Versailles in May 1789 Hoped to get his tax plan passed
  • Slide 13
  • Causes of the French Revolution Resentment of royal absolutism Commoners resentment of land grants given to nobles & clergy Rise of Enlightenment ideals Large national debt Unequal system of tax collection Resentment of noble privileges
  • Slide 14
  • King Louis XVI B. 1754, D. 1793 Married Marie Antoinette (Austria) in 1770 Became absolute monarch in 1774 until his death in 1793 Found guilty of treason, and executed marking the end of absolutism in France
  • Slide 15
  • Marie Antoinette (Austria) Born 1755, D. 1793 Archduchess of Austria Queen of France when she married Louis XVI at age 14 Known for being extravagant in her luxuries Found guilty of treason & abusing her son, executed
  • Slide 16
  • Meeting of EstatesGeneral May 1789 Meeting called by Louis XVI is first meeting in 200 years In past, each Estate met separately & cast one vote each so clergy & nobles usually outvoted commoners 2-1 this was the 1 st meeting where all estates were together What were the rules?? No one was sure! 3 rd Estate wanted to reform voting each representative member present from each Estate should vote this way 3 rd Estate could not be outvoted
  • Slide 17
  • Meeting of Estates-General Louis XVI wanted old way of voting 3 rd Estate claimed itself a National Assembly on June 17, 1789 1 st act of the French Revolution! Louis XVI locked 3 rd Estate out of meeting place, so they met at a nearby tennis court Tennis-Court Oath - June 20, 1789 Representatives pledged they would not adjourn until they wrote a constitution for France & it was adopted Louis XVI gave in & all three Estates met together
  • Slide 18
  • Storming of the Bastille Prison Louis XVI brought troops to Paris & Versailles people feared he was trying to drive out Estates- General by force July 14, 1789 the people of Paris stormed the Bastille Prison in search of weapons Angry because of food shortages, unemployment, and high prices Bastille Day is still celebrated in France as its Independence Day
  • Slide 19
  • The Great Fear The Great Fear Attacks on towns and villages by the peasants Attacked homes of nobles Burned, pillaged Paris becomes the revolutionary center National Guard moderate group led by Marquis de Lafayette Paris Commune radical group, wanted to end the monarchy
  • Slide 20
  • Moderate Reforms End of Privilege: August 4, 1789 Nobles in the National Assembly voted to end special privileges and abolish feudalism Set up the Enlightenment notion of equality under the law Declaration of the Rights of Man: Late August 1789 All men are are born free and remain equal in rights Governments exist to protect the natural rights of citizens Freedom of Religion Equality in taxation
  • Slide 21
  • Moderate Reforms French Catholic Church put under state control Ended papal control and disbanded monasteries This split the revolutionaries in Paris and those in the countryside Those in the country were devout Catholics Constitution of 1791 Limited the monarchy Set up a legislative Assembly, elected Protected private property Supported free trade
  • Slide 22
  • Radical Stage of the Revolution Constitution of 1791 End of the first stage In the Second Stage: Flight of the monarchs (June 21, 1791) Death of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette (1793) War with Prussia, Austria, Great Britain, Spain Jacobins vs. Girondists Reign of Terror 1792 Abolition of monarchy, 1 st Republic New republic, The Directory (1795-1799)
  • Slide 23
  • Death of Louis XVI
  • Slide 24
  • Death of Marie Antoinette
  • Slide 25
  • After the Revolution A rise in NATIONALISM French people are tired of war leads to the rise of Napoleon France moves from a dictatorship to an empire
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